著者
福田 実奈 畑 敏道 小松 さくら 青山 謙二郎
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.28-34, 2014-09-30 (Released:2014-11-26)
参考文献数
14

We investigated effects of coffee cue presentation on desire for coffee and cognitive performance. The 2 (cue and no-cue)×2 (instruction: reward and no-reward) between-subjects design was used. The smell and sight of coffee were presented in the cue condition, but not in the no-cue condition. The participants in the reward condition were instructed that they would obtain coffee after the behavioral task and the amount of coffee depended on their performance of the task. The participants in the no-reward condition were instructed to perform as many tasks as possible. The dependent variable was performance of the behavioral task and subjective desire for coffee. In the task, the participants were asked to find vowels among letters printed on task sheets. As a result, the participants in the cue condition found more vowels than those in the no-cue condition, in both instruction conditions. There was no difference in subjective rating between any conditions. These results suggest that the coffee cue may enhance cognitive performance rather than desire for coffee.
著者
山崎 真理子 水野 邦夫 青山 謙二郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.173-180, 2007

The modeling effect on eating means that the more models eat the more participants eat. Herman, Polivy, & Roth (2003) proposed that participants make the amount of food they consume conform to the consumption of others in order to avoid being seen by others as eating excessively. In this study, in order to create a situation in which participants believe no one can know how much they eat, we did not use the usual model. Instead, feigned leftover food was shown to participants before the tasting test. This leftover food (in amounts large or small) was expected to give participants information on how much other participants had eaten. In one condition, participants were misled to believe that the experimenter could not find out how much food the participants had consumed; in another condition, they were not misled. In the former condition, regardless of how much others eat, participants should eat as much as they like, believing that no one can learn of the amount, they consume. Contrary to the prediction, the modeling effect arose in both conditions. These results indicate that the modeling effect cannot be explained entirely by self-presentational concern regarding others.
著者
青山 謙二郎
出版者
同志社大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2009

本プロジェクトでは、人間と動物の両方を対象として、「食べ止む」要因について検討した。人間では、食べ物のカロリー量を知らせない場合には、食物のカロリー量は食べ止むことに影響しなかった。ラットでは、食物の現在のカロリー量ではなく、過去のカロリー量に関する経験が食べ止むことに影響した。これらの結果は、「食べ止む」ことの直接の要因は、食物のカロリー量に関する過去の経験であることを示唆している。
著者
磯村 美恵子 青山 謙二郎
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.2, pp.172-178, 2008 (Released:2011-04-20)
参考文献数
8

Previous research suggested that larger probabilistic rewards were discounted more steeply than smaller probabilistic rewards (the magnitude effect). This research tests the hypothesis that the magnitude effect reflects the extent to which individuals distrust the stated probability of receiving different amounts of rewards. The participants were 105 college students. Probability discounting of two different amounts of rewards (5 000 yen and 100 000 yen) and the subjective probability of reward receipt of the different amounts (5 000 yen, 100 000 yen and 1 000 000 yen) were measured. The probabilistic 100 000 yen was discounted more steeply than the probabilistic 5 000 yen. The subjective probability of reward receipt was higher in the 5 000 yen than in the 100 000 yen condition. The proportion of subjective probability of receiving 5 000 yen to that of receiving 100 000 yen was significantly correlated with the proportion of degree of probability discounting for 5 000 yen to that for 100 000 yen. These results were consistent with the hypothesis stated above.
著者
小松 さくら 友野 隆成 青山 謙二郎
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
感情心理学研究 (ISSN:18828817)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.129-133, 2009-11-25 (Released:2010-05-08)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1 1

The aims of this study were to see whether the most frequently experienced food craving of Japanese males was for rice, and to investigate the relationship between mood and food cravings, especially for rice. Undergraduate students completed a questionnaire of several measures, including gauging food craving frequency, the Japanese version of DEBQ, and the Japanese version of POMS. The highest item on the mean scores of craving frequency was rice, for both males and females. For both males and females, correlation analysis showed no significant correlation between mood and craving frequency for rice. For females, there was significantly positive correlation between negative mood and craving frequency for foods other than rice. However, for males, there was significantly positive correlation between positive mood and craving frequency for foods other than rice. These findings suggested the possibility that rice craving may be characteristic of Japanese people and indicated food cravings are associated with mood, though in different ways for females and males.
著者
青山 謙二郎 岡市 広成
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.4, pp.286-294, 1994-10-20 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1 5

We examined whether distress responses of rats would be a negative reinforcer or not. In Experiment 1, two rats were placed in adjacent compartments. One rat was reinforced by a food pellet for pressing either of two levers. One of the levers produced food while the other produced food plus electric shock (0.5-2.0 mA) to the other rat. All rats preferred the former lever. In addition, this tendency was more prominent in rats that had experienced shock previously than those without experience. In Experiment 2, one lever produced food while the other produced food plus auditory stimuli, a recorded distress scream (65 dB) or a pure tone (3 kHz, 65 dB). Rats that chose between food and food plus another rat's scream avoided being exposed to the scream. Rats that chose between food and food plus the pure tone chose the two levers equally. These results suggest that negative emotional responses of the conspecifics could be a negative reinforcer.
著者
永野 茜 奥村 紗音美 青山 謙二郎 上北 朋子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.6, pp.603-609, 2016

Previous studies have reported that lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in rats induce impulsive choices in delayed reinforcement tasks.<b> </b>However, some studies have suggested that the OFC is not related to impulsivity but instead to compulsivity.<b> </b>In this study, we investigated the effects of OFC lesions on choice in a T-maze.<b> </b>First, 14 rats were trained to discriminate spatially between a high-reward arm with a delay of 15 seconds and a low-reward arm without a delay.<b> </b>The high-reward arm contained 10 food pellets, whereas the low-reward arm contained only one pellet.<b> </b>In the presurgery test, all rats chose the high-reward arm in most trials.<b> </b>In the postsurgery test, both OFC lesioned (<i>n</i> = 7) and control (sham-lesioned and intact; <i>n</i> = 7) rats continued to choose the high-reward arm in most trials.<b> </b>Following the postsurgery test, the high- and low-reward arms were reversed.<b> </b>In the reversal test, OFC lesioned rats made significantly fewer high-reward choices than did control rats.<b> </b>These results indicate that OFC lesions induced compulsive choices rather than impulsive choices.
著者
青山 謙二郎
出版者
同志社大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2012-04-01

砂糖に対しても薬物と類似した強い渇望を伴う“中毒”症状が生じ、健康な食生活の妨げとなると言われている。本研究では、砂糖に対する渇望が増強されるプロセスを、条件づけの観点から検討し、渇望を制御するための手法の開発を目指した。主として以下の3つの成果が得られた。第1に、カロリーの無い人工甘味料についても渇望の増強が生じることが見いだされ、渇望の増強においてカロリーは不要であることが示された。第2に、砂糖の間欠的な剥奪によっても渇望の増強が生じることが見いだされた。第3に、飼育環境の豊富化により、砂糖と結びついた刺激への反応性の増強は抑制されるが、砂糖の摂取量の増強は抑制されなかった。