著者
三浦 麻子
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.39.4, (Released:2020-10-12)
参考文献数
19

This article explains the basic features of survey, which is one of the major research methods in psychology, its pros and cons, and the points to be considered when conducting it. In particular, it focuses on Web surveys, which are becoming more common nowadays. It explains how the data obtained by Web surveys from broader generals are likely to be different from those obtained by conventional and convenient method, which inviting people close to the researcher, such as university students, to participate. The author hopes that this paper will provide the readers with a basic knowledge of web research and help them to select appropriate situations for survey data collection from among the various phases of psychological research.
著者
黒木 大一朗
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.38.37, (Released:2020-04-21)
参考文献数
26

Recently Web-based/online psychological studies have been reported, in which web browsers familiarized by participants such as Microsoft Edge, Apple Safari, and Google Chrome are used for presenting stimuli and recording responses. The present article summarizes advantages and disadvantages of conducting Web-based experiments, and provide brief explanations of the knowledge required to create the programs. Technically speaking, it is better to know HTML, CSS, JavaScript (frameworks), and web servers. Web-based studies will be conducted more broadly in psychology because researchers can recruit more efficiently large and diverse samples from crowdsourcing marketplaces than from traditional participant pools.
著者
中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.27-30, 1992-08-31 (Released:2016-11-12)

The "intelligence" of sixty kinds of animals was rated by university students (N=117) using a 100-point scale. Although the results generally corresponded with the so-called "phylogenetic scale" from "amoeba" to "chimpanzee," several interesting points were observed. First, "Japanese monkey" was rated higher than "orangutan" and "gorilla." Second, "dog" and "dolphin" were rated as high as the Primates. Third, mimic birds and social insects were rated higher than other birds and insects, respectively. Finally, a kind of fish ("shark") was rated higher than a mammal ("mole").
著者
中島 定彦 遠座 奈々子
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.163-177, 2017-03-31 (Released:2017-06-07)
参考文献数
193
被引用文献数
1

This article reviews recent literature on basic animal research and theories of reemergence phenomena of formerly established and then extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responses. Four types of response reemergence phenomena are discussed; renewal of responses by changing contexts, spontaneous recovery of responses after the passage of time, reinstatement of responses after re-exposure to the biologically significant stimulus (i.e., unconditioned stimulus, US), and reacquisition of responses by re-pairing of the cue (i.e., conditioned stimulus, CS) and the US. Preventive measures against these reemergence phenomena and their clinical implications for relapse of anxiety symptoms (i.e., return of fear) are also discussed to bridge basic and applied disciplines of psychology.
著者
武藤 拓之
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.39.27, (Released:2021-04-01)
参考文献数
37

Hierarchical Bayesian modeling is a powerful and promising tool that aids experimental psychologists to flexibly build and evaluate interpretable statistical models that consider inter-individual and inter-trial variability. This article offers several examples of hierarchical Bayesian modeling to introduce the idea and to show its implementation with R and Stan. As a tutorial, it uses data from well-known experimental paradigms in perceptual and cognitive psychology. Specifically, I present linear models for correct response time data from a mental rotation task, probit models for binary choice data from two psychophysical tasks, and drift diffusion models for both response time and binary choice data from an Eriksen flanker task. The R and Stan scripts and data are available on the Open Science Framework repository at https://doi.org/10.17605/osf.io/2zxs6. The importance of model selection and the potential functions of open data practices in statistical modeling are also briefly discussed.
著者
十河 宏行
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.1, pp.154-160, 2019-09-30 (Released:2019-12-10)
参考文献数
11

PsychoPy is an open-source software for creating experiments in behavior science. It is written in Python for the most part and has been actively developed for years. Resent releases of PsychoPy add support for Python3, creating browser-based experiments and sharing experiments on the web. In addition, a new online service named Pavlovia was launched to support browser-based experiment and experiment sharing. This article introduces current status of these new features. PsychoPy now works with Python3 though some hardware incompatibility and bugs remain. Experiments composed of basic components of PsychoPy Builder can be performed on web browsers. Users can search and share experiments registered on Pavlovia if allowed by the owner.
著者
村山 航
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.236-242, 2018-03-31 (Released:2018-06-16)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

When researchers analyze data from an experiment with multiple experimental stimuli, they tend to aggregate responses to the experimental stimuli before performing a statistical test (e.g., t-test, analysis of variance). This common practice, however, ignores sampling errors of experimental stimuli, resulting in a substantial increase in Type-1 error rate. This article reviews the relevant literature and provides conceptual explanations about the mechanisms underlying the inflation of Type-1 error rate. The article also illustrates how linear mixed-effects model with random-stimulus effects can address the issue, with the emphasis on the correct model specification when using linear mixed-effects model.
著者
若井 大成 岡田 謙介
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.40.19, (Released:2022-04-12)
参考文献数
41

Among the models of the metacomprehension judgment process, the anchoring and adjustment model by Zhao and Linderholm (2008) is superior considering its generality and explanatory capacity. However, this model is theoretical rather than empirical. Therefore, the following two major problems need to be solved: (1) quantifying the anchoring and adjustment effect and (2) quantifying the influence of the factors that affect the adjustment process. To tackle these problems, we proposed a novel mathematical formulation of the anchoring and adjustment model by considering metacomprehension as a probabilistic distribution. Moreover, using data collected from an online experiment, we estimated the parameters of the proposed model. As a result, it is indicated that (a) the effect of anchoring by self-perception of ability is larger than that of adjustment by experience in reading metacomprehension, and (b) five factors such as familiarity of the contents can explain the adjustment process. Finally, based on the results, we discussed the explanatory capacity of the model, as well as the quantitative effect and influence of the above two points.
著者
遠座 奈々子 中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.243-252, 2018-03-31 (Released:2018-06-16)
参考文献数
77
被引用文献数
2

Exposure is a well-known efficient therapeutic technique for anxiety disorders or irrational fear. The present article reviews the behavioral mechanisms of fear reduction in exposure-based therapies including simple exposure and systematic desensitization. The traditional and current theories of associative learning of Pavlovian conditioning, extinction, and response reemergence are applicable to acquisition, treatment, and relapse of fear. Despite recent transactions between basic animal research and human clinical studies on simple exposure therapy, little attention is paid to the counterconditioning process in systematic desensitization. By focusing on theoretical and experimental studies with animals and their implications for clinical settings, we propose further collaboration between basic and clinical studies.
著者
福田 実奈 畑 敏道 小松 さくら 青山 謙二郎
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.28-34, 2014-09-30 (Released:2014-11-26)
参考文献数
14

We investigated effects of coffee cue presentation on desire for coffee and cognitive performance. The 2 (cue and no-cue)×2 (instruction: reward and no-reward) between-subjects design was used. The smell and sight of coffee were presented in the cue condition, but not in the no-cue condition. The participants in the reward condition were instructed that they would obtain coffee after the behavioral task and the amount of coffee depended on their performance of the task. The participants in the no-reward condition were instructed to perform as many tasks as possible. The dependent variable was performance of the behavioral task and subjective desire for coffee. In the task, the participants were asked to find vowels among letters printed on task sheets. As a result, the participants in the cue condition found more vowels than those in the no-cue condition, in both instruction conditions. There was no difference in subjective rating between any conditions. These results suggest that the coffee cue may enhance cognitive performance rather than desire for coffee.
著者
松井 大
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.43-49, 2021-09-30 (Released:2021-12-14)
参考文献数
22

Streams of operant behaviors emit not in a temporally homogeneous manner, but are arranged in bouts separated by pauses of responses between them. The temporal organization of these patterns, however, had been not successfully described. The present article introduces time-series modeling attempt for bout-pause pattern, which was presented in Matsui, Yamada, Sakagami, & Tanno (2018). Furthermore, the author argued that unsolved problems concerning bout-pause literatures, concerning quantification and modeling of bout-pause patterns. As remedies for these issues, the author discusses the utilities of reinforcement learning model and computational ethology for operant studies.
著者
前川 和純
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.23-26, 2021-09-30 (Released:2021-12-14)
参考文献数
3

Since ancient times, humans have used technology to extend their abilities. The author has been conducting research to establish design guidelines of technology that allows users to feel it as an extension of their own abilities while appropriately extending their motor actions. In this paper, we present a prototype system developed focusing on three abilities: throwing, balancing and power.
著者
佐々木 智也
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.18-22, 2021-09-30 (Released:2021-12-14)
参考文献数
6

A being with multiple arms has been a fascinating motif that stimulates people’s imagination and has been expressed in myths, fiction, and creations from all over the world for a long time. On the other hand, it has only been in the last decade that attempts to engineer multiple arms attaching to the human bodies have been made in earnest in academics. In this paper, three studies are introduced that we have conducted so far on human augmentation using robotic arms, aiming to freely control the third and fourth arms. Based on the findings obtained through each research, we discuss the possible approaches to increase the number of arms by engineering and the issues involved.
著者
福岡 正彬
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.27-31, 2021-09-30 (Released:2021-12-14)
参考文献数
16

In robotics, developments are in progress to enhance the physical and cognitive capabilities of humans by technologically extending the human body. The method of mapping the degrees of freedom of the operator’s arms and legs to the operating commands has been developed to control an extended body such as a wearable robot arm. On the other hand, the method has the limitation that the freedom of the operator’s limbs is constricted. Because the movements of the limbs are mapped to the actions of the wearable robot arm. In this article, a research project is introduced that uses virtual reality, wearable sensing technology, and machine learning to map human head movements and facial expressions to control an extended body that can be independent of the actions of human limbs.
著者
山崎 晃男
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.25-28, 2016-09-30 (Released:2016-10-25)
参考文献数
11

Music often moves us and provides great pleasure. The origins of this ability of music remain a mystery. Recently, an increasing number of studies have proposed evolutionary theories of human musicality, although several researchers deny the adaptive value of music. In this paper, the origins of the pleasure that music provides were discussed in terms of human evolution and cultural adaptation. A possibility in which both evolutionary and cultural adaptation resulted in the pleasure of music was shown. Next, the relationship between music and visual stimuli was focused on. Owing to the development of music devices and the Internet, music is heard increasingly with visual stimuli, like background music in everyday life, films, drama, dance, computer games, music videos, etc. Based on the author's findings on the cross-modal effects between music and visual stimuli, the pleasure of listening to music with visual stimuli was discussed. It was emphasized that the meaning of music is strengthened, changed, and multi-layered by visual stimuli when it is enjoyed with the visual stimuli.