著者
中島 定彦 遠座 奈々子
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.163-177, 2017-03-31 (Released:2017-06-07)
参考文献数
193
被引用文献数
1

This article reviews recent literature on basic animal research and theories of reemergence phenomena of formerly established and then extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responses. Four types of response reemergence phenomena are discussed; renewal of responses by changing contexts, spontaneous recovery of responses after the passage of time, reinstatement of responses after re-exposure to the biologically significant stimulus (i.e., unconditioned stimulus, US), and reacquisition of responses by re-pairing of the cue (i.e., conditioned stimulus, CS) and the US. Preventive measures against these reemergence phenomena and their clinical implications for relapse of anxiety symptoms (i.e., return of fear) are also discussed to bridge basic and applied disciplines of psychology.
著者
中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.27-30, 1992-08-31 (Released:2016-11-12)

The "intelligence" of sixty kinds of animals was rated by university students (N=117) using a 100-point scale. Although the results generally corresponded with the so-called "phylogenetic scale" from "amoeba" to "chimpanzee," several interesting points were observed. First, "Japanese monkey" was rated higher than "orangutan" and "gorilla." Second, "dog" and "dolphin" were rated as high as the Primates. Third, mimic birds and social insects were rated higher than other birds and insects, respectively. Finally, a kind of fish ("shark") was rated higher than a mammal ("mole").
著者
福田 実奈 畑 敏道 小松 さくら 青山 謙二郎
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.28-34, 2014-09-30 (Released:2014-11-26)
参考文献数
14

We investigated effects of coffee cue presentation on desire for coffee and cognitive performance. The 2 (cue and no-cue)×2 (instruction: reward and no-reward) between-subjects design was used. The smell and sight of coffee were presented in the cue condition, but not in the no-cue condition. The participants in the reward condition were instructed that they would obtain coffee after the behavioral task and the amount of coffee depended on their performance of the task. The participants in the no-reward condition were instructed to perform as many tasks as possible. The dependent variable was performance of the behavioral task and subjective desire for coffee. In the task, the participants were asked to find vowels among letters printed on task sheets. As a result, the participants in the cue condition found more vowels than those in the no-cue condition, in both instruction conditions. There was no difference in subjective rating between any conditions. These results suggest that the coffee cue may enhance cognitive performance rather than desire for coffee.
著者
遠座 奈々子 中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.243-252, 2018-03-31 (Released:2018-06-16)
参考文献数
77

Exposure is a well-known efficient therapeutic technique for anxiety disorders or irrational fear. The present article reviews the behavioral mechanisms of fear reduction in exposure-based therapies including simple exposure and systematic desensitization. The traditional and current theories of associative learning of Pavlovian conditioning, extinction, and response reemergence are applicable to acquisition, treatment, and relapse of fear. Despite recent transactions between basic animal research and human clinical studies on simple exposure therapy, little attention is paid to the counterconditioning process in systematic desensitization. By focusing on theoretical and experimental studies with animals and their implications for clinical settings, we propose further collaboration between basic and clinical studies.
著者
村山 航
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.236-242, 2018-03-31 (Released:2018-06-16)
参考文献数
17

When researchers analyze data from an experiment with multiple experimental stimuli, they tend to aggregate responses to the experimental stimuli before performing a statistical test (e.g., t-test, analysis of variance). This common practice, however, ignores sampling errors of experimental stimuli, resulting in a substantial increase in Type-1 error rate. This article reviews the relevant literature and provides conceptual explanations about the mechanisms underlying the inflation of Type-1 error rate. The article also illustrates how linear mixed-effects model with random-stimulus effects can address the issue, with the emphasis on the correct model specification when using linear mixed-effects model.
著者
中村 哲之
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.96-101, 2014-09-30 (Released:2014-11-26)
参考文献数
40

Visual illusions in animals are important to study because they magnify how the perceptual system in each animal works. This paper reviews comparative studies on visual illusions in birds (pigeons and bantam chickens) and humans. Not only similarities but also dissimilarities in the perception of illusory figures between these animals have been shown, suggesting that the same physical environments may induce different visual worlds among the species.
著者
中響 子 米満 文哉 山田 祐樹
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.36.5, (Released:2017-09-20)
参考文献数
16

Facial attractiveness is influenced by various personal and environmental factors. The present study investigated whether the gender environment surrounding observers affected facial attractiveness judgments. Students at single-gender (58 females) and mixed-gender (59 males and 46 females) universities participated in the experiment. Each of 15 male or female faces was morphed, respectively, with a female or male averaged face derived from the other 14 female and male faces, resulting in feminized and masculinized faces. Observers were simultaneously presented with one masculinized and one feminized morphed face and asked to judge which was more attractive. The results showed that students at a women's university judged feminized male faces as significantly more attractive than did students in a coeducational university. The present findings suggest that adaptation to female faces in a single-gender environment increases the processing fluency of female faces, therefore inducing higher preference.
著者
平石 界
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.1, pp.113-116, 2017-09-30 (Released:2017-12-07)
参考文献数
23

Looking back at my own staggering research history, I will discuss and reflect on why and how people should forge their own identities as a researcher in psychological science.
著者
佐藤 駿 中沢 仁
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.45-52, 2015-09-30 (Released:2015-12-26)
参考文献数
18

Human time perception is known to be distorted by adaptation to visual motion stimuli. Many studies have investigated time perception distortion and its underlying mechanisms, but their results have been inconsistent. This may be because they have used different adaptation durations, as it is known that time duration can affect visual processing levels. Previous studies have elucidated how time perception is distorted under adaptation conditions of a few seconds or much longer, but have not investigated this distortion under shorter durations. Therefore, we investigated how time is distorted and how time perception mechanisms are affected under short adaptation durations (e.g., <2 s). We found that a short duration produced a characteristic time distortion. In addition to orientation selectivity, we confirmed a transient effect on time perception distortion. These results suggest that visual processing concerning orientation selectivity contributes to time perception, and that transient components of the adaptation effect are useful for investigating the mechanisms of adaptation-based perceived time distortion.
著者
苧阪 直行
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.14-19, 2016-09-30 (Released:2016-10-25)
参考文献数
16

We showed how conscious mind works on the social brain which controls the multiple intentional mind. Our current model assumed the cognitive and social brain network make the social consciousness working together. Specifically, working-memory-based and default-mode-based brain networks make social mind by contrasting self and other's mind under cognitive coordination and competition. We discussed this brain mechanism in terms of recursive function of the self awareness.
著者
澤山 正貴 岡部 誠 西田 眞也 土橋 宜典
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.36.6, (Released:2017-09-20)
参考文献数
44

This research note reviews experimental methods to elucidate the visual processing underlying material perception, and considers how to generate experimental stimuli of three-dimensional shapes for the experiments. For generation of a computer graphics image of a three-dimensional object, it has been widely known that its shape features can affect the material appearance of the object. However, it is not established how to systematically control the shape features to investigate the effect. Here we suggest to utilize texture synthesis algorithms. Specifically, we used a height map of a three-dimensional object as a source image, and synthesized a novel height map by using a texture synthesis algorithm. We tested three algorithms to generate the height maps; i) synthesis based on image statistics, ii) example-based synthesis, and iii) synthesis using a convolutional neural network. We discuss how effective the texture synthesis algorithms are to investigate the effect of the shape features on the material perception.
著者
中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.36-47, 2014-09-30 (Released:2014-11-26)
参考文献数
85

This paper reviews the last 50 years of experimental and theoretical research on Pavlovian conditioning in animals. It is the history of the movement from simple “spit-and-twitch” psychology to information processing views of associative learning. In 1962, Egger and Miller reported a pivotal study suggesting that information value is important in establishing an effective conditioned stimulus. In the late 1960s, Wagner, Rescorla, and Kamin published historic research papers demonstrating the importance of information value (i.e., predictability of the forthcoming significant event) by showing new phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning: relative cue validity, contingency effect, and associative blocking. The Rescorla–Wagner model came on stage in 1972 to explain these phenomena and successfully predicted new phenomena, although this model had some shortcomings. Subsequent theories of Pavlovian conditioning have challenged to deal with these shortcomings, and the recent theoretical development is linked to computational modeling in a variety of ways.
著者
小杉 考司
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.167-173, 2019-03-31 (Released:2019-05-18)
参考文献数
24

In this paper, I clarify the problem of null hypothesis significance testing along with Kruschke (2014) and point out five advantages of Bayesian statistics. First, it is not necessary to convert data for NHST. Second, additional assumptions or corrections are not required. Third, there is no need for any preliminary design of the verification plan. Fourth, the Bayesian approach allows an intuitive interpretation of results. Fifth, the sample size does not cause critical problems. Beyond these advantages, Bayesian statistics can be used alongside frequentism and likelihoodism methods. Finally, I argue it is necessary in science communication to clearly express the researcher’s premise as a prior distribution or likelihood function.
著者
浅川 伸一
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.149-162, 2017-03-31 (Released:2017-06-07)
参考文献数
68

Brief introduction about current trends in deep learning was intended, including such as convolutional neural networks, and regions with convolutional neural networks. They have features as end-to-end, general purposes, and implementable based on recent advances in computer science. Object recognition of convolutional neural networks overwhelmed human performance. This tidal wave might give deep impact on all the areas in psychology.

3 0 0 0 OA 錯視の発達

著者
金沢 創
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.43-46, 2016-09-30 (Released:2016-10-25)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
1

In this short article, we reviewed out studies about development of perception. At first, we explained the findings about material perception in infants. This study showed that the 3- to 4-month-old infants have a striking ability to discriminate slight image changes due to illumination that are not salient for adults. These young infants lose this ability after 5 months of age and then develop an ability to perceive distal surface properties (glossy or matte) at 7–8 months of age. Second, we discussed the relationship between visual illusion and perceptual development. We defined the concept of “pre-constancy” based on the statements of William James. Finally, we defined the characteristic of visual illusion.
著者
四本 裕子
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.176-179, 2015-09-30 (Released:2015-12-26)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
1

The Young Researchers Committee of the Japanese Psychonomic Society conducted a survey of postdoctorates in the field of psychonomic science. Results showed some discrepancy from national surveys: postdoctorates in the field of psychonomic science tend to have higher rates in research positions, especially in academia.