著者
Mariko Harada-Shiba Takao Ohta Akira Ohtake Masatsune Ogura Kazushige Dobashi Atsushi Nohara Shizuya Yamashita Koutaro Yokote Joint Working Group by Japan Pediatric Society and Japan Atherosclerosis Society for Making Guidance of Pediatric Familial Hypercholesterolemia
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.CR002, (Released:2018-02-06)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
9

This paper describes consensus statement by Joint Working Group by Japan Pediatric Society and Japan Atherosclerosis Society for Making Guidance of Pediatric Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) in order to improve prognosis of FH.FH is a common genetic disease caused by mutations in genes related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway. Because patients with FH have high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels from the birth, atherosclerosis begins and develops during childhood which determines the prognosis. Therefore, in order to reduce their lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease, patients with FH need to be diagnosed as early as possible and appropriate treatment should be started.Diagnosis of pediatric heterozygous FH patients is made by LDL-C ≥140 mg/dL, and family history of FH or premature CAD. When the diagnosis is made, they need to improve their lifestyle including diet and exercise which sometimes are not enough to reduce LDL-C levels. For pediatric FH aged ≥10 years, pharmacotherapy needs to be considered if the LDL-C level is persistently above 180 mg/dL. Statins are the first line drugs starting from the lowest dose and are increased if necessary. The target LDL-C level should ideally be <140 mg/dL. Assessment of atherosclerosis is mainly performed by noninvasive methods such as ultrasound.For homozygous FH patients, the diagnosis is made by existence of skin xanthomas or tendon xanthomas from infancy, and untreated LDL-C levels are approximately twice those of heterozygous FH parents. The responsiveness to pharmacotherapy should be ascertained promptly and if the effect of treatment is not enough, LDL apheresis needs to be immediately initiated.
著者
Mariko Harada-Shiba Hidenori Arai Yasushi Ishigaki Shun Ishibashi Tomonori Okamura Masatsune Ogura Kazushige Dobashi Atsushi Nohara Hideaki Bujo Katsumi Miyauchi Shizuya Yamashita Koutaro Yokote Working Group by Japan Atherosclerosis Society for Making Guidance of Familial Hypercholesterolemia
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.CR003, (Released:2018-06-07)
参考文献数
74
被引用文献数
14

Statement1. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal hereditary disease with the 3 major clinical features of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, premature coronary artery disease and tendon and skin xanthomas. As there is a considerably high risk of coronary artery disease, in addition to early diagnosis and intensive treatment, family screening (cascade screening) is required (Recommendation level A)2.For a diagnosis of FH, at least 2 of the following criteria should be satisfied:① LDL-C ≥180 mg/dL, ② Tendon/skin xanthomas, ③ History of FH or premature coronary artery disease (CAD) within 2nd degree blood relatives (Recommendation level A)3. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy is necessary for the treatment of FH. First-line drug should be statin. (Recommendation level A, evidence level 3)4.Screening for coronary artery disease as well as asymptomatic atherosclerosis should be conducted periodically in FH patients. (Recommendation level A)5. For homozygous FH, consider LDL apheresis and treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors or MTP inhibitors. (Recommendation level A)6.For severe forms of heterozygous FH who have resistant to drug therapy, consider PCSK9 inhibitors and LDL apheresis. (Recommendation level A)7.Refer FH homozygotes as well as heterozygotes who are resistant to drug therapy, who are children or are pregnant or have the desire to bear children to a specialist. (Recommendation level A)
著者
Koutaro Yokote Junya Ako Kazuo Kitagawa Hyoe Inomata Toshihiko Sugioka Keiko Asao Yasuhiko Shinmura Junichiro Shimauchi Tamio Teramoto
出版者
The Japanese Circulation Society
雑誌
Circulation Reports (ISSN:24340790)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.5, pp.219-227, 2019-05-10 (Released:2019-05-10)
参考文献数
15

Background:Evolocumab is the first monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) approved in Japan for the treatment of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and hypercholesterolemia (HC). This study assessed the 12-week effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapy by PCSK9 inhibition in patients with FH (homozygous [HoFH] or heterozygous [HeFH]) and HC by analyzing evolocumab data collected in the real-world setting in Japan.Methods and Results:Overall, 427 patients (mean±SD age, 61.6±13.8 years; female, 38.4%; 28 HoFH, 320 HeFH, 79 HC), enrolled from 299 clinical sites, were included in the safety analysis set. The major cardiovascular risk factors were coronary artery disease (77.3%), diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance (38.6%), and hypertension (65.1%). Median follow-up duration was 85.0 days. After 12 weeks of evolocumab treatment, the mean±SD percent change from baseline in LDL-C was −45.5%±27.0% (n=23) in HoFH (P<0.001 vs. baseline; t-test), −54.2%±29.0% (n=280) in HeFH (P<0.001), and −64.6%±22.4% (n=72) in HC (P<0.001) patients. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 5.4% (23/427).Conclusions:Results suggest that patients receiving evolocumab treatment in the real-world setting were predominantly those with FH and HC in the secondary prevention group. LDL-C-lowering effectiveness with evolocumab was observed in FH (both HoFH and HeFH) and HC patients.