著者
赤沢 学
出版者
一般社団法人 日本臨床薬理学会
雑誌
臨床薬理 (ISSN:03881601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.5, pp.245-252, 2010 (Released:2010-11-25)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
1 1

A number of new vaccines for preventable diseases such as meningitis and cervical cancer are getting available for Japanese children. However, those vaccines are categorized as voluntary vaccination and their costs should be paid by recipients. Therefore, high cost is a barrier for access to the preventive care. In addition, subsidiary by local governments causes their regional disparities. On the other hand, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) in the United States recognizes importance of economic analyses in establishing policy for addition of new vaccines to routine immunization schedules. The ACIP publishes guidance for health economic studies to ensure that high quality economic data are presented in a standard format. In this study, a critical review of economic analyses for childhood vaccine programs in Japan was conducted. Six original studies that included varicella, mumps, Hib (haemophilus influenza type B), pneumococcal disease and human papillomavirus vaccines were identified by a systematic literature review. The results of all studies suggested that these new vaccines should be included to routine immunization schedules because expected benefits would outweigh additional costs of vaccines. However, according to the check lists recommended by ACIP guideline, these studies utilized various sources of cost information and calculated opportunity costs differently. Some studies did not consider discounting of future costs. Therefore, direct comparisons between studies were very difficult. Economic analyses to evaluate the priority of vaccine programs should follow a standard method to increase comparability and quality of studies.

24 0 0 0 OA 4.JIKEI HEART研究

著者
三輪 宜一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本臨床薬理学会
雑誌
臨床薬理 (ISSN:03881601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.5, pp.157-161, 2008 (Released:2009-02-05)
参考文献数
18
著者
矢船 明史 竹内 正弘 成川 衛
出版者
日本臨床薬理学会
雑誌
臨床薬理 (ISSN:03881601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.6, pp.705-713, 2000-11-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1

Since nonlinear mixed effects model is statistically quite complicated, it is not possible to obtain the analytical forms of the marginal mean and its corresponding covariance matrix for observations. To circumvent this issue, a first-order Taylor series expansion is generally employed to approximate a nonlinear model with a linear form additive in inter-subject random effects. This linear approximation is based on the assumption that the parameter variation among subjects is negligible, which is quite hard to satisfy in actual clinical data analyses. Consequently, the linear approximation probably leads to inconsistent estimators. This paper describes the statistical issues regarding the first-order linear approximation in nonlinear mixed effects models.
著者
永井 恒司
出版者
一般社団法人 日本臨床薬理学会
雑誌
臨床薬理 (ISSN:03881601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.2, pp.189-195, 1971-04-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
22
著者
矢船 明史 津谷 喜一郎
出版者
日本臨床薬理学会
雑誌
臨床薬理 (ISSN:03881601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.635-645, 1996-09-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
55
被引用文献数
4 3 2

There has been an increasing number of clinical reports in the West to suggest that hepatotoxic reactions can be induced by herbal preparations including skullcap of Scutellaria species. In Japan, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis (Scutellariae Radix) is used under the name of Ogon, which is included in many kinds of Kampo formulations, such as Sho-saiko-to widely used for treating hepatic disorders. Reviewing the Information on Adverse Reactions to Drugs published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan, we found 22 cases of liver and biliary system reactions caused by Kampo formulations from 1989 through 1993, and in 20 of the cases, six types of Kampo formulations including Ogon were suspected as the cause of the reactions. In two clinical reports of pulmonary damage due to Sho-saiko-to, Lymphocyte Stimulation Test indicated that Ogon was the causative factor for the damage. Although there have been no reports to indicate that Ogon can actually cause liver damage, the results of our review strongly suggest the necessity for surveillance of the possibility of hepatotoxic reactions caused by Ogon.
著者
後藤 伸之 月岡 理絵 八田 壽夫 政田 幹夫 北澤 式文
出版者
日本臨床薬理学会
雑誌
臨床薬理 (ISSN:03881601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.465-468, 1996-06-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
9

We performed a pharmacoepidemiological study on triazolam dependence with typical doses in out-patients of Fukui Medical School Hospital. We investigated the prescriptions (duration of treatment and total dose prescribed) for patients administered triazolam.The patients were classified according to the prescription pattern of this drug, Group 1: patients who had been prescribed triazolam daily, Group 2: those who had been allowed to take triazolam when they cannot sleep.Approximately 40% of all the patients had been prescribed triazolam for 8 months or longer, and were judged to be normal dose dependence. The prevalence of this dependence was apparently higher in group 1 than in group 2.

2 2 2 0 OA 3. 片頭痛

著者
中島 健二 竹島 多賀夫
出版者
一般社団法人 日本臨床薬理学会
雑誌
臨床薬理 (ISSN:03881601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.6, pp.277-283, 2005-11-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
24