著者
赤沢 学
出版者
一般社団法人 日本臨床薬理学会
雑誌
臨床薬理 (ISSN:03881601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.5, pp.245-252, 2010 (Released:2010-11-25)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
1 1

A number of new vaccines for preventable diseases such as meningitis and cervical cancer are getting available for Japanese children. However, those vaccines are categorized as voluntary vaccination and their costs should be paid by recipients. Therefore, high cost is a barrier for access to the preventive care. In addition, subsidiary by local governments causes their regional disparities. On the other hand, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) in the United States recognizes importance of economic analyses in establishing policy for addition of new vaccines to routine immunization schedules. The ACIP publishes guidance for health economic studies to ensure that high quality economic data are presented in a standard format. In this study, a critical review of economic analyses for childhood vaccine programs in Japan was conducted. Six original studies that included varicella, mumps, Hib (haemophilus influenza type B), pneumococcal disease and human papillomavirus vaccines were identified by a systematic literature review. The results of all studies suggested that these new vaccines should be included to routine immunization schedules because expected benefits would outweigh additional costs of vaccines. However, according to the check lists recommended by ACIP guideline, these studies utilized various sources of cost information and calculated opportunity costs differently. Some studies did not consider discounting of future costs. Therefore, direct comparisons between studies were very difficult. Economic analyses to evaluate the priority of vaccine programs should follow a standard method to increase comparability and quality of studies.
著者
川村 香織 中野 翔太 庄野 あい子 赤沢 学
出版者
日本社会薬学会
雑誌
社会薬学 (ISSN:09110585)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.128-131, 2015-12-10 (Released:2015-12-25)
参考文献数
8

Introduction: A new role for community pharmacists is to perform educational activities related to tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse. It is important to consider schoolchildren and provide classes targeted to this age group. However, it is difficult for community pharmacists to provide these classes for students because they have few chances to gauge what students understand. Therefore, we explored a better way for community pharmacists to deliver their classes. Methods: We provided a “drug safety” class, which encouraged 9-12-year-old students at primary school to resist tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse. To prepare for the class, we held several discussions with the primary school teachers. We incorporated their advice and comments into our slides and skit for the class. Their points and our process of preparation for the class are shown. Results: Three important points were identified in our discussions with the teachers. I. We should consider delivering an interactive class for the children, so they could participate in a skit and quizzes, instead of a one-sided talk from the teacher. II. We should use pictures and examples that are visually simple for children. III. We should take parents who smoke and drink into consideration. Discussion: There is an increase in opportunities for community pharmacists to contribute to classes about tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse at schools because of the importance of encouraging children to resist tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse. It is important for pharmacists to consult with teachers to recognize the needs of students in their classes. The community pharmacists could then ensure their classes met the school and schoolteachers’ needs by using their experience in educational activities.
著者
下妻 晃二郎 能登 真一 齋藤 信也 五十嵐 中 白岩 健 福田 敬 坂巻 弘之 石田 博 後藤 玲子 児玉 聡 赤沢 学 池田 俊也 國澤 進 田倉 智之 冨田 奈穂子
出版者
立命館大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2011-04-01 (Released:2011-04-06)

経済状況の低迷が続く多くの先進国においては、公的医療資源の適切な配分は、費用対効果などの合理的な社会的価値判断に基づいて行われている。日本では従来そのような仕組みがなかったが、2016年度から、高額な医療用製品を対象に政策への施行的導入が予定されている。本研究では費用対効果分析による効率性の向上にむけて技術的課題の解決を図り、同時に、効率性の追求だけでは疎かになりがちな公平性の確保を図るために考慮すべき、倫理社会的要素の明確化とそれを政策において考慮する仕組み作りを検討した。