著者
栗田 季佳 楠見 孝
出版者
一般社団法人 日本教育心理学会
雑誌
教育心理学研究 (ISSN:00215015)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.129-139, 2010 (Released:2012-03-27)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
3 1

本研究では, 近年用いられるようになった「障がい者」表記に注目し, ひらがな及び漢字の表記形態が身体障害者に対する態度に及ぼす影響について, 接触経験との関連から検討することを目的とした。身体障害者に対する態度については, イメージと交流態度の2つの態度次元に着目した。SD法及び交流態度尺度を用いて, 大学生・大学院生348名を対象に調査を行った。その結果, 身体障害者イメージは身体障害学生との交流に対する当惑感を媒介として身体障害学生と交友関係を持つことや自己主張することに対する抵抗感に影響を与えることが示された。そして, ひらがな表記は接触経験者が持つ身体障害者に対する「尊敬」に関わるポジティブなイメージを促進させるが, 接触経験の無い者が持つ尊敬イメージや, 身体障害学生との交流に対する態度の改善には直接影響を及ぼすほどの効果を持たないことがわかった。身体障害学生との交流の改善には「社会的不利」「尊敬」「同情」を検討することが重要であることが本研究から示唆された。特に, 身体障害者に対する「尊敬」のイメージの上昇は, 接触経験の有無にかかわらず, 交流態度の改善に影響を与えることが考えられる。
著者
楠見 孝
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.29-36, 2013 (Released:2013-07-04)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
2

This paper discusses a general framework for examining the structure and the function of scientific literacy, which is an important element of risk literacy. There are five layers of literacy: (1) basic literacy for communication in documents; (2) functional literacy in everyday life and the workplace; (3) scientific and mathematical literacy, and media and Internet literacy for students and citizens; (4) civil literacy for citizenship; and (5) academic and research literacies for professionals and researchers. This paper focuses on the concept of scientific literacy as informed by Baltes’s five criteria of wisdom (Baltes & Smith, 2008): factual knowledge, procedural knowledge, contextualization, value-goal relativism, and recognition and management of uncertainty. In addition, scientific, media, and mathematical literacies are basic elements of risk literacy, as civil literacy is for citizenship. Risk-literate citizens can understand risk information and manage their risk. Four methods for improving the scientific and risk literacies of the public are discussed: science education, science communication by mass media, and practices of local and Internet communities.
著者
平山 るみ 楠見 孝
出版者
一般社団法人 日本教育心理学会
雑誌
教育心理学研究 (ISSN:00215015)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.186-198, 2004-06-30 (Released:2013-02-19)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
50 38 11

本研究の目的は, 批判的思考の態度構造を明らかにし, それが, 結論導出過程に及ぼす効果を検討することである。第1に, 426名の大学生を対象に調査を行い, 批判的思考態度は, 「論理的思考への自覚」, 「探究心」, 「客観性」, 「証拠の重視」の4因子からなることを明らかにし, 態度尺度の信頼性・妥当性を検討した。第2に, 批判的思考態度が, 対立する議論を含むテキストからの結論導出プロセスにどのように関与しているのかについて, 大学生85名を用いて検討した。その結果, 証拠の評価段階に対する信念バイアスの存在が確認された。また, 適切な結論の導出には, 証拠評価段階が影響することが分かった。さらに, 信念バイアスは, 批判的思考態度の1つである「探究心」という態度によって回避することが可能になることが明らかにされ, この態度が信念にとらわれず適切な結論を導出するための重要な鍵となることが分かった。
著者
渡邊 智也 楠見 孝
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.045, (Released:2020-12-15)
参考文献数
52

In this study, the effects of a theatrical activity on social abilities were examined. The participants (N = 40) were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. While the experimental group read a playscript, planned a performance, and performed, the control group read a playscript and summarized the content of the story. All the participants completed three social ability measures, namely, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Yoni Test, and Situational Test of Emotional Understanding as well as a questionnaire, namely, Interpersonal Reactivity Index on three occasions: pre, post, and followup measurement. Moreover, they completed the Narrative Transportation Scale immediately after the intervention, which assessed the psychological state of immersion into the narrative world. It was predicted that the extent of narrative transportation the participants experience would moderate the effect of theatrical activity. The results revealed that highly transported participants in the experimental group scored significantly higher than those in the control group on various scales including Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Yoni Test, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Empathic Concern scale. Furthermore, after the intervention, the extent of transportation predicted these social abilities in the experimental group.
著者
後藤 崇志 石橋 優也 梶村 昇吾 岡 隆之介 楠見 孝
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
2015
被引用文献数
7

We developed a free will and determinism scale in Japanese (FAD-J) to assess lay beliefs in free will, scientific determinism, fatalistic determinism, and unpredictability. In Study 1, we translated a free will and determinism scale (FAD-Plus) into Japanese and verified its reliability and validity. In Study 2, we examined the relationship between the FAD-J and eight other scales. Results suggested that lay beliefs in free will and determinism were related to self-regulation, critical thinking, other-oriented empathy, self-esteem, and regret and maximization in decision makings. We discuss the usefulness of the FAD-J for studying the psychological functions of lay beliefs in free will and determinism.
著者
西川 一二 雨宮 俊彦 楠見 孝
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.93.21208, (Released:2022-08-30)
参考文献数
34

This study aimed to develop an Interpersonal Curiosity Scale. In Study 1, a questionnaire with a preliminary pool of 56 items was administered to undergraduates, and from these, 11items were selected. The main survey was administered to college students (n = 839) and as a web-based survey (n = 1,500). Factor analysis revealed three factors: curiosity about personal emotions, curiosity about privacy, and curiosity about personal attributes. Cronbachʼs alpha showed that these subscales had sufficient reliability. In Study 2, the validity of the Interpersonal Curiosity Scale was examined using the Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Multidimensional Empathy Scale, and the Psychological Well-being Scale. The results of correlation analysis confirmed the validity of the three subscales. Implications about using the Interpersonal Curiosity Scale are further discussed.
著者
森本 裕子 渡部 幹 楠見 孝
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.108-119, 2008

We investigated how differently people punish a free-rider in three experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to examine how individual levels of trust and self-fairness influence their punishing behavior in a 5-person social dilemma. The results showed that trustful and unfair people, as well as distrustful and fair people, punish a free-rider more. To account for these results, we carried out a vignette-type study in Experiment 2, in which participants rated how likely they were to engage in a variety of punishing behaviors that typically happen in the real world. A factor analysis indicated that people usually assign two different types of meanings to punishing behaviors. One is "Vengeance," which unfair people, regardless of their levels of trust, tend to inflict; the other is "Warning," which tends to be favored by fair people. The results of Experiment 3, another vignette study, showed that observers also consider Vengeance as unfair and Warning fair. These findings imply that participants assigned one of the two meanings to their punishments in Experiment 1 depending on their levels of trust.
著者
三浦 麻子 楠見 孝 小倉 加奈代
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.10-21, 2016-08-25 (Released:2016-08-25)
参考文献数
23

This study examined chronological changes in attitudes towards foodstuffs from the areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, using citizens’ data (n=1,752) from the panel surveys conducted in 4 waves between September 2011 and March 2014. Using the dual process theory of decision-making, the study attempts an empirical examination that includes the interaction of two factors: (1) anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident, which is hypothesized to lead to negative emotional decision-making following the formation of relevant attitudes, and (2) knowledge, higher-order literacy, and critical thinking, which are hypothesized to promote logical decision-making. Until three years after the nuclear accident, there was no large chronological variation in either anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident or attitudes toward foodstuffs from affected areas. The tendency regarding the latter was particularly strong in areas far from the location of the disaster. Negative attitudes regarding foodstuffs from affected areas were reduced through the possession of appropriate knowledge regarding the effects of radiation on the human body. However, the belief of possessing such knowledge may, conversely, hinder careful consideration with appropriate understanding.
著者
楠見 孝
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 組織学会
雑誌
組織科学 (ISSN:02869713)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.2, pp.6-15, 2014 (Released:2015-04-25)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
5

ホワイトカラーの熟達化と,それを支える実践知(暗黙知)の構造,その獲得について認知心理学の知見に基づいて論じた.そして,ホワイトカラーに質問紙調査を実施し,マネジメントの暗黙知の獲得は,管理職経験年数,経験学習態度,批判的思考態度,類推,省察,職場内の暗黙知と形式知の知識変換が関与していることを示した.最後に,個人学習と組織学習の相互作用が実践知の獲得を促進し,管理職への熟達を導くことを議論した.
著者
小山内 秀和 楠見 孝
出版者
日本パーソナリティ心理学会
雑誌
パーソナリティ研究 (ISSN:13488406)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.50-61, 2016-07-01 (Released:2016-06-04)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
4

物語を読むときに読者が体験する「物語に入り込む」現象を示す概念として,近年「物語への移入」が注目されている。本研究では,Green & Brock(2000)が作成した物語への移入尺度と,さらにそれを元にAppel, Gnambs, Richter, & Green(2015)の提案した短縮版の日本語版をそれぞれ作成し,信頼性と妥当性の検討を行った。調査1(920名)および調査2(275名)の結果,日本語版移入尺度は高い信頼性を持つことが示され,並行して測定したイメージへの没頭尺度や文学反応質問紙(LRQ)との間に正の相関を示し,基準関連妥当性を有することが示唆された。しかしながら,予測された1因子モデルによって確証的因子分析を行った結果,オリジナルの移入尺度の適合度は低いものとなる一方,短縮版尺度の適合度は許容できる結果となった。二つの日本語版尺度は,因子構造についてさらに検討する余地があるものの,今後の心理学,文学研究への応用が期待できるツールと考えられる。
著者
田岡 大樹 楠見 孝
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.461-480, 2022-09-01 (Released:2022-09-15)
参考文献数
36

Reckless betting is placing a larger bet on a gamble where losing is more likely than winning. It can be considered as an irrational behavior that violates normative rationality. In the present study, we focused on an information processing style derived from the dual process theory and examined the hypothesis that a rational information processing style would inhibit reckless betting. In Study 1 (N = 41), we conducted an exploratory study on the relationship between trait variables including information processing style, and reckless betting. An online experiment of between-subjects comparison design was conducted, where the number of wins and losses in the 1st session of a gambling task was manipulated to induce reckless betting. Participants’ traits, affective states, and recklessness during the gambling task were measured. The results indicated that a rational information processing style inhibited reckless betting by moderating the effect of positive affect on reckless betting. In Study 2 (N = 77), we determined the sample size based on the effect size observed in Study 1 and attempted to replicate Study 1 with a simplified experimental procedure. In addition, Study 3 (N = 75) and Study 4 (N = 76) attempted to replicate Study 1 with variations on the time pressure placed on the task. The results, however, were not consistent with those of Study 1. We discuss the inconsistencies between these results in terms of situational factors specific to online experiments and goal-oriented changes in behavioral norms.
著者
渡邊 智也 楠見 孝
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.122-138, 2020 (Released:2021-03-15)
参考文献数
52

In this study, the effects of a theatrical activity on social abilities were examined. The participants (N = 40) were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. While the experimental group read a playscript, planned a performance, and performed, the control group read a playscript and summarized the content of the story. All the participants completed three social ability measures, namely, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Yoni Test, and Situational Test of Emotional Understanding as well as a questionnaire, namely, Interpersonal Reactivity Index on three occasions: pre, post, and followup measurement. Moreover, they completed the Narrative Transportation Scale immediately after the intervention, which assessed the psychological state of immersion into the narrative world. It was predicted that the extent of narrative transportation the participants experience would moderate the effect of theatrical activity. The results revealed that highly transported participants in the experimental group scored significantly higher than those in the control group on various scales including Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Yoni Test, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Empathic Concern scale. Furthermore, after the intervention, the extent of transportation predicted these social abilities in the experimental group.
著者
楠見 孝 子安 増生 道田 泰司 MANALO Emmanuel 林 創 平山 るみ 信原 幸弘 坂上 雅道 原 塑 三浦 麻子 小倉 加奈代 乾 健太郎 田中 優子 沖林 洋平 小口 峰樹
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
基盤研究(A)
巻号頁・発行日
2011-04-01

本研究は,課題1-1「市民リテラシーと批判的思考のアセスメント」では市民リテラシーを支える批判的思考態度を検討し,評価ツールを開発した。課題1-2「批判的思考育成のための教育プログラム作成と授業実践」では,学習者間相互作用を重視した教育実践を高校・大学において行い,効果を分析した。課題2「神経科学リテラシーと科学コミュニケーション」では,哲学と神経生理学に基づいて推論と情動を検討した。さらに市民主体の科学コミュニケーション活動を検討した。課題3「ネットリテラシーと情報信頼性評価」では,放射能リスクに関する情報源信頼性評価とリテラシーの関連を調査によって解明し,情報信頼性判断支援技術を開発した。
著者
後藤 崇志 楠見 孝
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.125-136, 2013

The purpose of this research was to investigate whether a decrement in self-control resources caused burnout among employees with different degrees of autonomy. We conducted a panel survey among 424 employees. The results revealed that 1) autonomy affected the relationship between controlling emotional sensations and burnout. Controlling emotional sensations increased burnout among employees with low autonomy, but not among those with high autonomy. Moreover, the results revealed that 2) autonomy did not affect the relationship between other self-control behaviors and burnout. We discussed why a decrement in self-control resources caused burnout and how autonomy affected it, by referring to the process of self-control based on the Limited Resource Model, cognitive control, and physiological underpinnings.
著者
猪原 敬介 楠見 孝
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.100-121, 2012 (Released:2013-12-27)
参考文献数
45
被引用文献数
3

In the area of educational psychology, much research has suggested that habitual reading of texts improves people’s vocabulary (e.g., Stanovich, Cunningham, & West, 1998). However, there are few cognitive approaches addressing why reading texts changes readers’ vocabulary. Our study examined this issue by word association task and simulations through Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA; Landauer & Dumais, 1997). One thousand, one hundred and eighty-nine Japanese adults participated in our research through an internet website. Participants answered two questions about their reading habits of newspapers and novels, and then performed the word association task. We constructed three LSA semantic spaces drawn from corpora of newspapers, novels, and a corpus that includes both newspapers and novels. Participants were divided into four groups according to their reading habits-newspaper and novel readers, newspaper and novelonly readers, and non-readers. In each group, from each stimulus and associated word pair that participants generated, an association strength value, a newspaper-based LSA similarity value, a novel-based LSA similarity value, and newspaper/novel-based LSA similarity value were derived. We conducted two analyses: one between stimulus words and all associated words, and another between stimulus words and most frequently associated words. In both analyses, association strength value in the novelonly reading group was predicted best by the novel-corpora-constructed LSA. In addition, especially in the latter analysis, association strength value in the group who often read both newspapers and novels was predicted best by the LSA constructed from the newspaper/novel corpora. This data suggests that one reason why reading text affects readers’ vocabulary is that readers acquire knowledge by usage-based learning processes, such as LSA.
著者
米田 英嗣 仁平 義明 楠見 孝
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.6, pp.479-486, 2005-02-25 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
10 6

This study examined the cross-domain, anticipatory, and self-referential roles of affect (Miall, 1989) in reading short mystery novels. In Experiment 1, undergraduate students either read an entire story once or read the same story twice. During the first reading, these participants read only the first part of the story, and during the second reading, they read the entire story. They rated the importance of each sentence. Then they either described a prediction or their impression of the story. Finally, they created a title. In Experiment 2, the first group rated the importance of each sentence. The second group rated the feelings of understanding: forefeel, empathy, and a sense of strangeness. The results of both experiments showed that the relative importance of sentences shifted between first reading and second reading. As they read the end of the story, empathy increased but a sense of strangeness decreased. The results of description showed that the readers updated their interpretations in order to understand the story correctly.
著者
楠見 孝
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.3, pp.251-271, 2018 (Released:2020-01-18)
参考文献数
44

This study investigated the concept of wisdom as expertise in solving life problems based on an accumulation of life experience. We reviewed and defined the notion of wisdom as practical knowledge and skills, which have developed in the work place. We developed the Wisdom Knowledge Scale (WKS) based on the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes & Smith, 2008), and checked the reliability and validity using four measures of wisdom: the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (SAWS; Webster, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS; Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (ASTI; Levenson et al., 2005), and Brief Wisdom Screening Scale (BWSS; Glück, et al., 2013). Based on three survey data (Ns=1074, 997, 1000), participants’ scores on the Wisdom Knowledge Scale increased with age. Structural equation modeling showed that (a) years of education and work experience affected critical thinking attitude and practical knowledge, (b) critical thinking attitude and practical knowledge affected the Wisdom Knowledge score, (c) curiosity and grit affected the Wisdom Knowledge score, and (d) the Wisdom Knowledge score affected happiness. We discuss possibilities for future research on wisdom as expert knowledge using cross cultural, developmental, and interventional approaches.