著者
Sean M. Rider Shuichi Mizuno James D. Kang
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.1-11, 2019-01-25 (Released:2019-01-27)
参考文献数
179
被引用文献数
22

Intervertebral disc degeneration is a well-known cause of disability, the result of which includes neck and back pain with associated mobility limitations. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the known molecular mechanisms through which intervertebral disc degeneration occurs as a result of complex interactions of exogenous and endogenous stressors. This review will focus on some of the identified molecular changes leading to the deterioration of the extracellular matrix of both the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus. In addition, we will provide a summation of our current knowledge supporting the role of associated DNA and intracellular damage, cellular senescence's catabolic effects, oxidative stress, and the cell's inappropriate response to damage in contributing to intervertebral disc degeneration. Our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which intervertebral disc degeneration occurs provides us with abundant insight into how physical and chemical changes exacerbate the degenerative process of the entire spine. Furthermore, we will describe some of the related molecular targets and therapies that may contribute to intervertebral repair and regeneration.
著者
Yoshiharu Kawaguchi
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2017-0007, (Released:2018-02-28)
被引用文献数
9

This is a review paper on the topic of genetic background of degenerative disc diseases in the lumbar spine. Lumbar disc diseases (LDDs), such as lumbar disc degeneration and lumbar disc herniation, are the main cause of low back pain. There are a lot of studies that tried to identify the causes of LDDs. The causes have been categorized into environmental factors and genetic factors. Recent studies revealed that LDDs are mainly caused by genetic factors. Numerous studies have been carried out using the genetic approach for LDDs. The history of these studies is divided into three periods: (1) era of epidemiological research using familial background and twins, (2) era of genomic research using DNA polymorphisms to identify susceptible genes for LDDs, and (3) era of functional research to determine how the genes cause LDDs. This review article was undertaken to present the history of genetic approach to LDDs and to discuss the current issues and future perspectives.
著者
Masashi Uehara Shota Ikegami Takashi Takizawa Hiroki Oba Noriaki Yokogawa Takeshi Sasagawa Kei Ando Hiroaki Nakashima Naoki Segi Toru Funayama Fumihiko Eto Akihiro Yamaji Kota Watanabe Satoshi Nori Kazuki Takeda Takeo Furuya Sumihisa Orita Hideaki Nakajima Tomohiro Yamada Tomohiko Hasegawa Yoshinori Terashima Ryosuke Hirota Hidenori Suzuki Yasuaki Imajo Hitoshi Tonomura Munehiro Sakata Ko Hashimoto Yoshito Onoda Kenichi Kawaguchi Yohei Haruta Nobuyuki Suzuki Kenji Kato Hiroshi Uei Hirokatsu Sawada Kazuo Nakanishi Kosuke Misaki Hidetomi Terai Koji Tamai Eiki Shirasawa Gen Inoue Kenichiro Kakutani Yuji Kakiuchi Katsuhito Kiyasu Hiroyuki Tominaga Hiroto Tokumoto Yoichi Iizuka Eiji Takasawa Koji Akeda Norihiko Takegami Haruki Funao Yasushi Oshima Takashi Kaito Daisuke Sakai Toshitaka Yoshii Tetsuro Ohba Bungo Otsuki Shoji Seki Masashi Miyazaki Masayuki Ishihara Seiji Okada Yasuchika Aoki Katsumi Harimaya Hideki Murakami Ken Ishii Seiji Ohtori Shiro Imagama Satoshi Kato
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-0183, (Released:2021-12-27)

Background: In elderly patients with cervical spinal cord injury, comorbidities such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are common, with frequent administration of antiplatelet/anticoagulant (APAC) drugs. Such patients may bleed easily or unexpectedly during surgery despite prior withdrawal of APAC medication. Few reports have examined the precise relationship between intraoperative blood loss and history of APAC use regarding surgery for cervical spine injury in the elderly.The presentmulticenter database survey aimed to answer the question of whether the use of APAC drugs affected the amount of intraoperative blood loss in elderly patients with cervical spinal cord trauma.Methods: The case histories of 1512 patients with cervical spine injury at 33 institutes were retrospectively reviewed. After excluding cases without spinal surgery or known blood loss volume, 797 patients were enrolled. Blood volume loss was the outcome of interest. We calculated propensity scores using the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) method. As an alternative sensitivity analysis, linear mixed model analyses were conducted as well.Results: Of the 776 patients (mean age: 75.1 ± 6.4 years) eligible for IPTW calculation, 157 (20.2%) were taking APAC medications before the injury. After weighting, mean estimated blood loss was 204 mL for non-APAC patients and 215 mL for APAC patients. APAC use in elderly patients was not significantly associated with surgical blood loss according to the IPTW method with propensity scoring or linear mixed model analyses. Thus, it appeared possible to perform surgery expecting comparable blood loss in APAC and non-APAC cases.Conclusions: This multicenter study revealed no significant increase in surgical blood loss in elderly patients with cervical trauma taking APAC drugs. Surgeons may be able to prioritize patient background, complications, and preexisting conditions over APAC use before injury when examining the surgical indications for cervical spine trauma in the elderly.
著者
Kazuhide Inage Takeshi Sainoh Takayuki Fujiyoshi Otagiri Takuma Yasuchika Aoki Masahiro Inoue Yawara Eguchi Sumihisa Orita Yasuhiro Shiga Masao Koda Tsutomu Akazawa Takeo Furuya Junichi Nakamura Hiroshi Takahashi Miyako Suzuki Satoshi Maki Hideyuki Kinoshita Masaki Norimoto Tomotaka Umimura Takashi Sato Masashi Sato Masahiro Suzuki Keigo Enomoto Hiromitsu Takaoka Norichika Mizuki Takashi Hozumi Ryuto Tsuchiya Geundong Kim Tomohito Mukaihata Takahisa Hishiya Seiji Ohtori
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-0042, (Released:2020-07-10)
被引用文献数
2

Introduction: Mirogabalin should be equivalent to pregabalin, but with fewer incidences of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). To verify these benefits in actual clinical trials, our study investigated the frequency of ADRs and mirogabalin' s analgesic effects during treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain.Methods: This study included 74 patients with lower limb pain. We surveyed patient reports of ADRs during the follow-up period as the primary endpoint and examined the visual analog scale (VAS) reported for lower limb pain as the secondary endpoint (before administration, and two and four weeks after administration).Results: The occurrence of ADR was 27.0%, like the frequency of ADRs in the clinical trials for other disorders. However, the discontinuation rate of administration was 10.8%, which was significantly lower than the frequency of ADR occurrences. When the analgesic effect was assessed, a significant decrease in the temporal change of VAS for lower limb pain was observed before administration, and two and four weeks after administration.Conclusions: In this study, the occurrence of ADRs reported by the patients was like the frequency of ADRs reported in the clinical trials for other disorders. When assessing the analgesic effect, the temporal change of VAS for lower limb pain was found to decrease significantly before administration, and two and four weeks after administration.
著者
Tsuyoshi Goto Toshinori Sakai Kosuke Sugiura Hiroaki Manabe Masatoshi Morimoto Fumitake Tezuka Kazuta Yamashita Yoichiro Takata Takashi Chikawa Shinsuke Katoh Koichi Sairyo
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0020, (Released:2018-08-25)
被引用文献数
1

Purpose: In past biomechanical studies, repetitive motion of lumbar extension, rotation, or a combination of both, frequently seen in batting or pitching practice in baseball, shooting practice in soccer, and spiking practice in volleyball, have been considered important risk factors of lumbar spondylolysis. However, clinically, these have been identified in many athletes performing on a running track or on the field, which requires none of the practices described above. The purpose of this study was to verify how much impact running has on the pathologic mechanism of lumbar spondylolysis.Methods: In study 1, 89 consecutive pediatric patients diagnosed with lumbar spondylolysis at a single outpatient clinic between January 2012 and February 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. In study 2, motion analysis was performed on 17 male volunteers who had played on a soccer team without experiencing low back pain or any type of musculoskeletal injury. A Vicon motion capture system was used to evaluate four movements: maximal effort sprint (Dash), comfortable running (Jog), instep kick (Shoot), and inside kick (Pass).Results: In study 1, 13 of the 89 patients with lumbar spondylolysis were track and field athletes. In study 2, motion analysis revealed that the hip extension angle, spine rotation angle, and hip flexion moment were similar in Dash and Shoot during the maximum hip extension phase. The pelvic rotation angle was significantly greater in the kicking conditions than in the running conditions.Conclusions: Kinematically and kinetically, the spinopelvic angles in Dash were considered similar to those in Shoot. Dash could cause mechanical stress at the pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine, similar to that caused by Shoot, thus leading to spondylolysis.
著者
Yusuke Yamamoto Eiichiro Iwata Hideki Shigematsu Hiroshi Nakajima Masato Tanaka Akinori Okuda Yasuhiko Morimoto Keisuke Masuda Munehisa Koizumi Yasuhito Tanaka
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2017-0052, (Released:2018-02-28)
被引用文献数
2

Introduction To identify the temporal comparison of biochemical markers for early detection of surgical site infection (SSI) following instrumented spinal fusion that are not affected by operative factors.Materials and methods We reviewed data on C-reactive protein level and total white blood cell count and differential count before instrumented spinal fusion and at 1, 4, and 7 days postoperatively. The 141 patients in our sample were divided into an SSI group (patients who developed deep SSI) and a non-SSI group. We investigated the peak or nadir value day and identified those not affected by operative circumstances (operating time, intraoperative blood loss, and number of fusion segments) in the non-SSI group. If there was a significant difference between the peak or nadir value day and the next survey day, we considered the temporal comparison between these unaffected markers as an indicator of SSI and examined the usefulness of these indicators by calculating sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, we investigated the usefulness of the combination of these markers (if even each one marker was recognized, we considered it positive).Results Four biochemical markers of SSI were selected: neutrophil percentage at postoperative day 4 more than day 1 (sensitivity 36%, specificity 95%), neutrophil count at postoperative day 4 more than day 1 (sensitivity 46%, specificity 93%), lymphocyte percentage at postoperative day 4 less than day 1 (sensitivity 36%, specificity 90%), and lymphocyte count at postoperative day 4 less than day 1 (sensitivity 36%, specificity 90%). The combination of these markers showed sensitivity 100%, specificity 80%, respectively.Conclusions Four markers are reliable indicators for early detection of SSI following spinal instrumented fusion because they are not affected by operative factor. The combination of each indicator had both high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, it is reliable and much useful for early detection of SSI.
著者
Tetsuya Tamaki Muneharu Ando Yukihiro Nakagawa Hiroshi Iwasaki Shunji Tsutsui Masanari Takami Hiroshi Yamada
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.3, pp.120-132, 2021-05-27 (Released:2021-05-27)
参考文献数
61
被引用文献数
1

An intraoperative functional spinal cord monitoring system is a technology used by spine and spinal cord surgeons to perform a safe surgery and to gain further surgical proficiency. However, no existing clinical neurophysiological method used in the operating room can monitor all complex spinal cord functions. Therefore, by observing the activities of certain neural action potentials transferred via limited neural tissues, surgeons need to deductively estimate the function of the whole spinal cord. Thus, as the number of spinal cord functions that need to be observed increases, spinal cord monitoring can be more reliable. However, in some situations, critical decision-making is affected by the limited capability of these methods. Nevertheless, good teamwork enables sharing of seamless information within the team composed of a surgeon, anesthesiologist, monitoring technician and nurses greatly contributes to making quick and accurate decisions. The surgeon, who is the person in charge of the team, should communicate with multidisciplinary team members using common technical terms. For this reason, spine and spinal cord surgeons must have appropriate knowledge of the methods currently used, especially of their utility and limitations. To date, at least six electrophysiological methods are available for clinical utilization: three are used to monitor sensory-related tracts, and three are used to monitor motor-related spinal cord functions. If surgeons perform electrode setting, utilizing their expertise, then the range of available methods is broadened, and more meticulous intraoperative functional spinal cord monitoring can be carried out. Furthermore, if the team members share information effectively by utilizing a clinically feasible judicious checklist or tools, then spinal cord monitoring will be more reliable.
著者
Gen Inoue Takashi Kaito Yukihiro Matsuyama Toshihiko Yamashita Mamoru Kawakami Kazuhisa Takahashi Munehito Yoshida Shiro Imagama Seiji Ohtori Toshihiko Taguchi Hirotaka Haro Hiroshi Taneichi Masashi Yamazaki Kotaro Nishida Hiroshi Yamada Daijiro Kabata Ayumi Shintani Motoki Iwasaki Manabu Ito Naohisa Miyakoshi Hideki Murakami Kazuo Yonenobu Tomoyuki Takura Joji Mochida
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-0083, (Released:2020-11-20)

Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a leading cause of disability, yet there is limited high-quality evidence to identify the most suitable pharmacological therapy. The purpose of this Japanese nationwide, multicenter, prospective study was to compare the effectiveness of four representative drug therapies—acetaminophen, celecoxib, loxoprofen, and a tramadol and acetaminophen (T+A) combination drug—to establish evidence for a drug of choice for CLBP.Methods: Patients with CLBP (N = 471) received one of the four treatments and were evaluated, prospectively and comprehensively, once every month for six months using a visual analog scale (VAS) for LBP, the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, the JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ), the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), the EuroQol five-dimensions three-levels (EQ-5D-3L), and the Short Form-8 item health survey (SF-8). We conducted multivariable linear regression analyses of the four drugs at 1 and 6 months after drug allocation. Differences with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Patients who received acetaminophen showed a significant improvement from baseline in the mental health subscale of the JOABPEQ at one month (P = 0.02) and the JOA score at six months (P < 0.01). None of the other outcome measures among the four drugs differed significantly. Across groups, all outcome measures, except the mental component summary (MCS) score of the SF-8, improved equivalently, although most measurements showed no obvious cumulative effect over six months. The MCS score of the SF-8 decreased gradually over six months in all groups.Conclusions: Most of the outcome measures among the treated groups were not significantly different, indicating similar treatment effects of the four drugs for CLBP. Our study indicated the limit of each outcome measure for evaluating the patient status, suggesting that a single outcome measure is insufficient to reflect treatment effectiveness.
著者
Hiroto Takenaka Tatsunori Ikemoto Junya Suzuki Masayuki Inoue Young-Chang Arai Takahiro Ushida Masataka Deie Mitsuhiro Kamiya
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-0083, (Released:2019-12-03)
被引用文献数
1

BackgroundThe present study aimed to investigate the association between trunk muscle strength, lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar scoliosis angle (LSA), and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) and the severity locomotive syndrome (LS) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology in elderly individuals.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 168 individuals aged >60 years. We measured their trunk muscle strength (flexion and extension) and BMD, LSA, and ASMI using DXA. We defined degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) as LSA ≥ 10° by the Cobb method using the DXA image. The locomotor function was evaluated using the timed up-and-go (TUG) test and the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25) score. Normal locomotor function, LS-1, and LS-2 were defined as a GLFS-25 score of <7, ≥7 and <16, and ≥16, respectively. We compared the three groups, analyzing the associations between all variables and the locomotor function using univariate and multivariate analyses.ResultsAlthough there was no significant difference in sex ratio, BMD, ASMI, and trunk-flexor strength, significant differences were observed in age (p < 0.01), the prevalence of DLS (p = 0.02), trunk-extensor strength (p < 0.01), and trunk-extensor/flexor strength ratio (p < 0.01) among the three groups. In multiple regression analyses, the significant risk factors of the TUG test were age (β = 0.26), body mass index (β = 0.36), LSA (β = 0.15), ASMI (β = −0.30), and trunk-extensor strength (β = −0.19), whereas the significant factor of the GLFS-25 score was trunk-extensor strength (β = −0.31).ConclusionsThe results indicate that it is clinically important for LS to pay careful attention not only to BMD but also to lumbar scoliosis when DXA examination of the lumbar spine is routinely conducted. Moreover, it is essential to note that trunk-extensor strength is more important than trunk-flexor strength in maintaining locomotor function in elderly individuals.
著者
Nozomu Inoue Alejandro A. Espinoza Orías Kazuyuki Segami
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-0017, (Released:2019-04-26)
被引用文献数
3

Zygapophyseal, or facet, joints are complicated biomechanical structures in the spine, with a complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, variable mechanical functions in different spinal movements, and effects on the overall spine mechanical behavior. The 3D morphology of the facet joint is linked to its biomechanical function. Failure of the biomechanical function of the facet joint leads to osteoarthritic changes in it and is implicated in other spinal disorders such as degenerative spondylolisthesis. Facet joints and intervertebral discs are part of an entity called the spinal motion segment, the three-joint complex, or the articular triad. Functioning together, the structures in the spinal motion segments provide physiological spinal motion, while protecting the spine by preventing activities that can be injurious. Loss of intervertebral disk height associated with disk degeneration affects the mechanical behavior of facet joints. Axial compressive load transmission through the tip of the inferior articular process can occur in the extended position, especially with reduced disk height, which may cause capsular impingement and low back pain. The 3D curvature of the articular surfaces and capsular ligaments play important roles in different spinal positions. In this review article, we will summarize the anatomy of the lumbar facet joint relevant to its biomechanical function and biomechanical behavior under different loading conditions.
著者
Hiroto Takenaka Tatsunori Ikemoto Junya Suzuki Masayuki Inoue Young-Chang Arai Takahiro Ushida Masataka Deie Mitsuhiro Kamiya
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.164-170, 2020-04-27 (Released:2020-04-27)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
1

Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the association between trunk muscle strength, lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar scoliosis angle (LSA), and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) and the severity locomotive syndrome (LS) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology in elderly individuals.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 168 individuals aged >60 years. We measured their trunk muscle strength (flexion and extension) and BMD, LSA, and ASMI using DXA. We defined degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) as LSA ≥ 10° by the Cobb method using the DXA image. The locomotor function was evaluated using the timed up-and-go (TUG) test and the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25) score. Normal locomotor function, LS-1, and LS-2 were defined as a GLFS-25 score of <7, ≥7 and <16, and ≥16, respectively. We compared the three groups, analyzing the associations between all variables and the locomotor function using univariate and multivariate analyses.Results: Although there was no significant difference in sex ratio, BMD, ASMI, and trunk-flexor strength, significant differences were observed in age (p < 0.01), the prevalence of DLS (p = 0.02), trunk-extensor strength (p < 0.01), and trunk-extensor/flexor strength ratio (p < 0.01) among the three groups. In multiple regression analyses, the significant risk factors of the TUG test were age (β = 0.26), body mass index (β = 0.36), LSA (β = 0.15), ASMI (β = −0.30), and trunk-extensor strength (β = −0.19), whereas the significant factor of the GLFS-25 score was trunk-extensor strength (β = −0.31).Conclusions: The results indicate that it is clinically important for LS to pay careful attention not only to BMD but also to lumbar scoliosis when DXA examination of the lumbar spine is routinely conducted. Moreover, it is essential to note that trunk-extensor strength is more important than trunk-flexor strength in maintaining locomotor function in elderly individuals.
著者
Seiji Ohtori Masayuki Miyagi Gen Inoue
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.1, pp.11-17, 2018-01-20 (Released:2018-01-27)
参考文献数
91
被引用文献数
17

Introduction: Many patients suffer from discogenic low back pain. However, the mechanisms, diagnosistic strategy, and treatment of discogenic low back pain all remain controversial. The purpose of this paper was to review the pathological mechanisms of discogenic low back pain.Methods: Many authors have investigated the pathological mechanisms of discogenic low back pain using animal models and examining human patients. Central to most investigations is understanding the innervation and instabilities of diseased intervertebral discs and the role of inflammatory mediators. We discuss three pathological mechanisms of discogenic low back pain: innervation, inflammation, and mechanical hypermobility of the intervertebral disc.Results: Sensory nerve fibers include C-fibers and A delta-fibers, which relay pain signals from the innervated outer layers of the intervertebral disc under normal conditions. However, ingrowth of these sensory nerve fibers into the inner layers of intervertebral disc occurs under disease conditions. Levels of neurotrophic factors and some cytokines are significantly higher in diseased discs than in normal discs. Stablization of the segmental hypermobility, which can be induced by intervertebral disc degeneration, suppresses inflammation and prevents sensitization of sensory nerve fibers innervating the disc.Conclusions: Pathological mechanisms of discogenic low back pain include sensory nerve ingrowth into inner layers of the intervertebral disc, upregulation of neurotrophic factors and cytokines, and instability. Inhibition of these mechanisms is important in the treatment of discogenic low back pain.
著者
Ahmed Bakhsh Ali Hassan Aljuzair Hany Eldawoody
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-0118, (Released:2020-03-19)
被引用文献数
2

Introduction:The World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention indicates that by 2020, road traffic injuries will be a major killer, accounting for half a million deaths and 15 million disability-adjusted life years. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has one of the highest rates of spinal cord injuries in the world, with 62 people injured per 1 million, and the injuries are mostly due to traffic accidents.Materials and Methods: All polytrauma patients associated with spinal injuries admitted to Prince Mohammed bin Abdul Aziz Hospital (PMAH), Riyadh, from January 2017 to June 2018, were included in this study. Patients with old spinal injuries, any previous spinal surgery, spine infection, or concomitant diagnosed malignancies or osteoporotic collapse with or without falls were excluded. All patients underwent whole-spine computed tomography scan and, in selective cases, magnetic resonance imaging of the spine.Results: Of the 230 patients, 90.0% were male, and 60% were in the second and third decades. Motor vehicle accidents were responsible for 83% of the cases, of which 50% of the victims were the drivers, and 80% were passengers with no seatbelt on. Nearly 50% of the spinal injuries were associated with injuries in the other body parts. Cervical spine injury accounted for 44% of the cases, followed by the lumbar spine injury. Twenty five percent of the patients presented with fixed neurologic deficit in the form of quadriplegia or paraplegia (ASIA-A). The mortality rate was 1.3%.Conclusion: This study revealed that motor vehicle accidents are a major cause of spinal injuries in the KSA. One-fourth of the spinal Injuries are associated with complete spinal cord injuries. Therefore, in order to prevent lifelong disability in the young population, a nationwide program should be initiated to prevent road traffic accidents.
著者
Aakash Agarwal Amey Kelkar Ashish Garg Agarwal Daksh Jayaswal Arvind Jayaswal Vithal Shendge
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-0041, (Released:2019-10-20)
被引用文献数
5

Introduction: Recent literature identifies similar failure rates such as anchor pull-out and rod breakage, but a higher unplanned revision surgery with MAGEC rods than with traditional growth rods. Besides known failure modes such as rod fracture, infection, etc., failure to noninvasively distract the rods was cited as the main cause of such unplanned surgeries. The source of these data ranges from multicenter cohort studies to singular case series. These studies included explanted implants that had undergone failure in distraction mechanism, rod fracture, or infection, or had reached their maximum length. Nevertheless, in addition to identifying the overall mode of failure, it is equally important to identify the large-scale incidence of exclusive failures in comparison with standard instrumentation failure modes in spine surgery.Method: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) databases were searched for reports on MAGEC rods, and on standard instrumentation used for spinal fusion. The adverse events were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed.Results: A search of the US FDA MAUDE database yielded reports of 163 device-related adverse events. These included distraction mechanism failure (n=129), rod fracture (n=24), and minor voluntary reports of infection and tissue discoloration (n=10). For standard instrumentation usage in spine surgery, pedicle screw breakage post surgery (n=336), set screw damage during surgery (n=257), rod breakage post surgery (n=175), interbody cage breakage during surgery (n=118), and pedicle screw breakage during surgery (n=75) were identified as the top 5 failure modes.Conclusion: The study identified the distraction mechanism failure as the most common and growing complication associated with MAGEC rod usage in children with scoliosis, leading to unplanned invasive revision surgeries.
著者
Keiji Nagata Yuyu Ishimoto Shinichi Nakao Shoko Fujiwara Toshiko Matsuoka Tomoko Kitagawa Masafumi Nakagawa Masakazu Minetama Mamoru Kawakami
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.3, pp.177-185, 2018-07-25 (Released:2018-07-27)
参考文献数
32

Introduction: The aims of the present study were 1) to examine the association between neck and shoulder pain (NSP) and lifestyle in the general population and 2) to examine if sagittal spino-pelvic malalignment is more prevalent in NSP.Methods: A total of 107 volunteers (mean age, 64.5 years) were recruited in this study from listings of resident registrations in Kihoku region, Wakayama, Japan. Feeling pain or stiffness in the neck or shoulders was defined as an NSP. The items studied were: 1) the existence or lack of NSP and their severity (using VAS scale), 2) Short Form-36 (SF-36), 3) Self-Rating Questionnaire for Depression (SRQ-D), 4) Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), 5) a detailed history consisting of 5 domains as being relevant to the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic pain, 6) A VAS of pain and numbness to the arm, and from thoracic region to legs. The radiographic parameters evaluated were also measured. Participants with a VAS score of 40 mm or higher and less were divided into 2 groups. Association of SF-36, SRQ-D, and PCS with NSP were assessed using multiple regression analysis.Results: In terms of QoL, psychological assessment and a detailed history, bodily pain in SF-36, SRQ-D, and family stress were significantly associated with NSP. A VAS of pain and numbness to the arm, and from thoracic region to legs, was significantly associated with NSP. There were no statistical correlations between the VAS and radiographic parameters of the cervical spine. Among the whole spine sagittal measurements, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that sacral slope (SS) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were significantly associated with NSP.Conclusion: In this study, we showed the factors associated with NSP. Large SS and reduced SVA were significantly associated with NSP, while cervical spine measurements were not.
著者
Shoichiro Takei Masayuki Miyagi Wataru Saito Takayuki Imura Gen Inoue Toshiyuki Nakazawa Eiki Shirasawa Kentaro Uchida Tsutomu Akazawa Naonobu Takahira Masashi Takaso
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.4, pp.294-298, 2018-10-26 (Released:2018-10-27)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
2 4

Introduction: Patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) usually have progressive scoliosis. Although fusion of the sacrum or pelvis has been recommended for correcting pelvic obliquity (PO), the procedure is invasive. This study determined as to whether performing instrumentation to the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) is safe and effective for scoliosis in patients with SMA.Methods: Twelve patients with SMA underwent posterior spinal fusion and stopping instrumentation at the L5 level. We evaluated age at surgery, the duration of surgery, blood loss, complications, preoperative and postoperative Cobb angles, and PO.Results: The mean age at surgery was 11.4 years; the mean duration of surgery was 319 minutes, and the mean blood loss was 1170 mL. The Cobb angle improved from 97.3° to 39.1° at 1 month postoperatively (correction rate, 60.9%) and to 42.3° at the final follow-up. PO was corrected from 27.8° to 13.1° at 1 month postoperatively (correction rate, 51.7%) and to 19.8° at the final follow-up. No complications were reported. All patients showed improvement in low back pain, with reduced difficulty while sitting. However, >10% correction loss of PO was observed in 6 patients with high preoperative PO.Conclusions: The correction rate of scoliosis in SMA patients with posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation to the L5 level was acceptable, and no complications occurred. Scoliosis associated with SMA was more rigid and severer than scoliosis associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Correction rates of the Cobb angle and PO in SMA patients with instrumentation to L5 were similar to those in SMA patients with instrumentation to the sacrum or pelvis. Correction loss of PO was greater in patients with high preoperative PO than in those with low preoperative PO. Instrumentation and fusion to L5 for scoliosis in patients with SMA seems safe and effective, except in cases of high preoperative PO.
著者
Costansia Bureta Hiroyuki Tominaga Takuya Yamamoto Ichiro Kawamura Masahiko Abematsu Kazunori Yone Setsuro Komiya
出版者
The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research
雑誌
Spine Surgery and Related Research (ISSN:2432261X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.3, pp.226-229, 2018-07-25 (Released:2018-07-27)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
3

Introduction: One complication after scoliosis surgery is ileus; however, few reports have described the frequency of and risk factors for this complication. We conducted a retrospective clinical study with logistic regression analysis to confirm the frequency of and risk factors for ileus after scoliosis surgery.Methods: After a retrospective review of data from patients who underwent surgical correction of spinal deformity from 2009 to 2014, 110 cases (age range, 4-73 yr; median, 14 yr) were included in the study. We defined postoperative ileus (POI) as a surgical complication characterized by decreased intestinal peristalsis and the absence of stool for more than 3 days postoperatively. Various parameters were compared between patients with POI and those without POI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors associated with ileus; a P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Fifteen of 110 (13.6%) cases developed POI. The median height, weight, operation time, and blood loss volume of the patients with versus without POI were 146 versus 152 cm, 39.0 versus 44.0 kg, 387 versus 359 min, and 1590 versus 1170 g, respectively. There were no significant differences between patients with versus without POI in the measured parameters, with the exception of patient height, bed rest period, and presence of neuromuscular scoliosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed neuromuscular scoliosis as a significant risk factor for POI (odds ratio, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.23-14.40).Conclusions: Our findings indicate a high probability of POI after scoliosis surgery, with an incidence of 13.6%. Neurogenic scoliosis, but not lowest instrumented vertebra or correction rate, was a risk factor for POI after scoliosis surgery. Digestive symptoms should be carefully monitored after surgery, particularly in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis.