著者
小塩 真司
出版者
名古屋大学
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.103-116, 2000-12

国立情報学研究所で電子化したコンテンツを使用している。
著者
四辻 伸吾 YOTSUTSUJI Shingo
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, pp.99-109, 2017-12-28

News of bullying-related suicides being reported almost on a daily basis and it is a major problem in the field of education. Different bullying prevention programs have been developed and conducted in educational settings for preventing bullying. Programs including Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP; Olweus, 2007) and KiVa program, among others have been used internationally and have reported good results. These programs are currently being comprehensively utilized. On the other hand, development and conduct of bullying prevention programs in Japan are often left to individual schools, and nationwide systematic programs have not been developed to date. Moreover, in many cases, effects of bullying prevention programs have not been empirically verified. This study analyzed Japanese bullying prevention programs used in educational settings, from the following perspectives: (1) statistical verification of program efficacy, and (2) confirmation of consistency with curriculum guidelines. “confirmation of consistency with curriculum guidelines” means that the practice contents of the practiced bullying prevention program accorded with an aim and the contents such as each subject shown in curriculum guidelines. First, we searched the Internet for the keywords “bullying,” and “programs” in the Japanese literature, and identified 33 articles, which were reviewed. Among the 33 papers, statistical verification of program efficacy was conducted in 15 studies, all of which indicated that the programs were effective. Moreover, 19 papers described subjects and fields in which the programs were practiced. Among the 19 papers, only four described the consistency between practice and contents of subjects and fields. Previous studies might be insufficient in both statistical verification of program efficacy and examining the consistency between programs and learning contents. Therefore, further studies on this topic are required. Future perspectives of Japanese bullying prevention programs are discussed based on these results from following perspective. (1) Developing a program of annual curriculums composed of small plural learning units having statistically established efficacy for bullying prevention. (2) Developing a program that is specifically placed in curriculum guidelines, especially in “moral education,” “integrated studies,” and “special activities,” lessons, which are often used in bullying prevention programs. It is expected that programs for bullying prevention for wide use in Japanese educational settings could be developed based on these perspectives.
著者
速水 敏彦 Hayamizu Toshihiko 木野 和代 Kino Kazuyo 高木 邦子 Takagi Kuniko
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.1-8, 2004-12-27

A new construct "Assumed-Competence based on undervaluing others (AC is short for the construct)" was proposed to explain adolescents' behaviors in these days. AC was defined as the habitual feeling of competence that would be followed by one's criticizing or undervaluing others regardless of how much he/she had directly positive or negative experiences. To measure the individual differences of AC, the assumed-competence scale (ACS is short for the scale) consisting of 11 items was constructed. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of ACS by showing the relations with several psychological constructs which have logical associations with AC. In the meanwhile, self-esteem (SE is short for it) mean true competence based on really positive and negative experiences. That is, SE could be clearly discriminated from AC. Thus, to make clear discriminating validity of ACS, SE was measured as well as AC when the relations with other psychologicl constructs were investigated. Seven psychological constructs we used here as criteria of validity were (1)locus of control, (2)public and private self-awareness, (3)loneliness, (4)sympathy, (5)emotion of anger. (6)pleasure and displeasure experiences (during lately three months) and (7)life satisfaction. Participants were 124 junior college students, 258 university students and 11 graduate students. Correlation coefficients between AC,SE and seven psychological constructs were calculated. The results were interpreted by focusing only significant correlations. Concerning self, although SE was related positively to internal control, AC was not, whereas positive relation between ACS and private self-awareness was shown. Next, regarding with interpersonal relationship, AS had positive relations to loneliness, that is, the persons whose AS are high thought that human could not understand each other and they were strongly aware of individuality. Also negative correlation was presented between AC and sympathy. In the meantime, SE had no relation to the variables of interpersonal relationships. In tern, emotion as a criterion of validity was examined. AC was related positively with trait-anger, expression of anger and displeasure experiences in academic and friendship situations. Furthermore, AC had negative relation to life satisfaction. On the contrary, SE was correlated positively with pleasure experiences and life satisfaction. Based on the results mentioned above, we judged ACS to have construct validity to some extent. Finally we suggested the possibility of classification of AC in the relation with SE.
著者
天谷 祐子
出版者
名古屋大学
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.9-19, 2005
被引用文献数
1

国立情報学研究所で電子化したコンテンツを使用している。
著者
岩井 志保 IWAI Shiho
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, pp.135-142, 2007-12-28

The purpose of this article was to overview researches of therapists in Japan. In this study, researches of therapists was surveyed from 3 points of view — (1) characteristics of therapists and therapists’ factors of treatment effects, (2) education and training for therapists, (3) professional growth of therapists. As a result, it was showed that there were not a lot of researches of therapists in Japan. In (1) field, the researches mostly reexamined ones in other countries. In (2) field, master therapists or educators discussed education and training for therapists, but there were a few researches to show training effects. In (3) field, therapists’ developing models in the USA were introduced, but the developing model of Japanese therapists was not proposed as yet. Finally, this study mentioned the tasks to overcome the existing problems and to development researches of clinical psychologists in Japan.
著者
二村 郁美 FUTAMURA Ikumi
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, pp.165-172, 2014

This study examined about the consequences and expectation of consequences in several kinds of everyday prosocial behavior. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 graduate students (6 men, 11 women). The interviews were about emotion, cognition, and behavior experienced in the following three real life scenes: giving a seat to elderly people on a train (train scene), reporting a lost belongings (lost belonging scene), and making a donation for charity (donation scene). The main findings were as follows: (1) prosocial behavior was more likely to be performed in lost belonging scene, train scene, and donation scene respectively. (2) In train scene, it was ambiguous whether performing prosocial behavior was helpful for the recipient, and negative emotion was experienced in both situations: the behavior had not been performed and when it had been performed but it had not been accepted. (3) In lost belonging scene, negative emotion was not likely to occur, and it was expected that performing the behavior would be helpful basically. (4) In donation scene, negative emotion was likely to occur, donors were not likely to be evaluated as positive, and non-donors were not likely to be evaluated as negative. From these findings, when performing prosocial behavior, there are several ambiguities about the consequences: ambiguity of recipient's need, ambiguity of the recipient's utilization of help, and ambiguity of evaluation to benefactor. It was suggested that those ambiguities were significant inhibition factor of prosocial behavior.
著者
佐藤 暁子 金井 篤子 SATO Akiko KANAI Atsuko
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
no.64, pp.111-117, 2017-12-28

In recent years, studies on resilience have been increasing at home and abroad. One of the reasons of this increase is that resilience has attracted a lot of expectations because it is believed to enhance social adaptation. However, in the studies on resiliency so far, we have had no sole fixed definition for this concept of. In these studies, the term "resilience" was used in different ways, and the methods and the objects of these studies were different as well. Therefore, we have had a lot of confusion over this concept. In addition, the differences between the concept of resilience and the psychological stress model are not clear, either. In this paper, we will review how the resilience concept developed in studies of abroad. Also, we will cover the existing issues while providing the overview of the current status of resiliency studies in Japan.
著者
青木 直子
出版者
名古屋大学
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.123-133, 2005
被引用文献数
2 2

国立情報学研究所で電子化したコンテンツを使用している。
著者
小川 一美 Ogawa Kazumi
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.173-183, 2000-12

In the development of any interpersonal relationship, impression formation in the early stages is crucial. The current research focused on the initial encounter will examine the variables of the dyadic balance in the amount of speech exchanged, and the impression of the partner, as well as the conversation. The major findings were as follows : (1) better impressions of both the partner and the conversation were seen in dyads which were characterized by a good balance in disclosure; (2) better impressions of the partner were seen in dyads in which equal time at questioning each other were made, and in dyads in which the subject made more verbal reinforcement than the partner; (3) a positive correlation between the perception that the partner disclosed more than the self, and the desirability of the impression of the partner were seen; (4) a positive correlation between the impressions formed during the conversation and the anticipation of future exchanges were seen.
著者
千賀 則史 SENGA Norifumi
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, pp.57-68, 2014-12-26

The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation and tasks regarding psychological supports for family reunification at child guidance centers. Recently, child maltreatment has become a serious social problem and the number of the cases of child maltreatment accepted and dealt in child guidance centers has rapidly increased since 1990’s. Since the Child Abuse Prevention Law was enforced in 2000, child guidance centers have been reinforced to intervene in the families suspected of child maltreatment. However, the role conflict occurs because child guidance centers have both roles of compulsory intervention and family reunification. It is a difficult and complex work for child guidance centers to build constructive relationship with the parents who are compulsorily intervened. At the field of child protection, community approaches such as outreach and network supports based on multi-institutional collaboration are essential in order to provide necessary services for the involuntary cases of child maltreatment. While there are various factors causing child maltreatment, it is significant for the workers to evaluate not only risk factors but also protective factors. Even if there are many risk factors, protective factors may act as buffers to prevent child maltreatment. Among the cases which achieved family reunification, 50 percent of children returned home within a year and a half, and 70 percent within three years. Meanwhile, 50 to 60 percent of the reunified families got back together with some problems to be solved in a long term; 11 to 14 percent of the cases were re-intervened as child maltreatment case within a year. In practice, it is impossible to solve all of the problems within such a short term. It is necessary to build social support network so that the children can live in the community despite some problems left unsolved. In Japan, 44 percent of child guidance centers use Common Sense Parenting (CSP), and 26 percent of them apply Signs of Safety Approach (SoSA) as family reunification programs. While CSP is a parenting program to give parents effective discipline skills, family reunification is developed by the approach not only to parents but also to children, family and extended family members. Therefore, it is essential for the workers to have not only the perspective on an individual but also the perspective of community psychology, or an ecological perspective on the person-environment fit. SoSA is a safety oriented child protection framework which focuses on the interaction between a person and society. One of the features of SoSA is that it integrates the role of crisis intervention with that of family reunification, so it can be extended to the general social work process. Partnering for Safety (PFS) is a family and safety-centered approach which integrates various theories including SoSA. PFS has useful tools such as ‘The Safety House’ which help the children and their parents participate in the casework process. Through the process of psychological supports for family reunification above, the core role of child psychologists at child guidance centers is to make psychological assessments, which help to share the understanding of the cases and to facilitate collaboration with the workers. As child psychologists are now expected to work in a team, it is required to construct a new psychological support model which takes account of team approach.
著者
青木 直子 AOKI Naoko
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.123-133, 2005-12-27

This article reviews studies on the concept ”praise”. Many studies have been conducted on praise in the field of psychology. These studies addressed the function of praise, its effect on motivation and emotion, its use in counseling and in the local community, guides to better praise, and the caution that must be exercised with regard to praise. Most of these studies have focused on the effect of praise and have been conducted from the perspective of the teachers and parents who praise children. However, there are few studies on children’s cognition of praise. Praise is communication; therefore, it needs to be researched from the viewpoint of both adults who praise children and children who are praised. This article highlights the need fro research from the viewpoint of children, particularly young, who are praised.
著者
玉井 颯一 五十嵐 祐 TAMAI Ryuichi IGARASHI Tasuku
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, pp.77-84, 2014

Ostracism, the act of ignoring, exclusion and rejection, occurs across the life span and has been documented as harmful and powerful not only for the ostracized member, but also for the ostracizing member and the observers. To ostracize others, individuals vary in the extent to which they evaluate ostracism as an effective and just method to promote group solidarity and efficiency. In this study, we developed and validated the Legitimacy of Ostracism Scale (LOS) that measures one's tendency to accept ostracizing someone from a group as a legitimate action to increase group benefits. Japanese undergraduates (n = 513) completed a questionnaire including LOS (10 items), Machiavellianism, vigilance, relational models, and prevention focus. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a single-factor structure with seven items (α = .832). Confirmatory factor analysis on 7-item LOS also indicated that the data best fit a single-factor model. As theoretically predicted, LOS was positively correlated with Machiavellianism, vigilance, orientations for authority ranking and equality matching, and prevention focus. These results demonstrate the high reliability and validity of the 7-item LOS. Further studies need to show that LOS indicates one's actual propensity to ostracize others.
著者
ISHAKU Utek Grace MATSUMOTO Mariko
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
no.65, pp.1-20, 2018-12-28

The problem of untreated mental disorders is serious and appears to be worsening in university student populations, especially in developing countries. Although resources are considerably scarce in low-income societies, there appear to be other challenges to mental health help-seeking on university campuses. The present study employed face-to-face semi-structured interviews to explore the array of factors that impede and promote help-seeking behavior among university students in Nigeria. The participants were 16 mentally distressed students at a public university in the central region of Nigeria. The interview schedule addressed the key study variables as well as the students' perceptions of their current mental state, treatment need, and intentions to seek help. The collated data revealed that all the participants were either moderately or severely mentally distressed. Even though the majority of the students (94%) were willing to seek help for a mental disorder, only 50% indicated that they currently need help for their mental distress. Of the latter, only about 13% had initiated actual attempts to seek professional guidance. Qualitative content analysis of the interview transcripts highlighted three major barriers to help-seeking, namely: individual factors, confidentiality issues, and institutional inadequacies. Similarly, three sets of support were relevant for facilitating help-seeking including intrapersonal support, interpersonal support and institutional support. Interpreting these findings in accordance with the ecological systems theory suggested that the barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking are multifaceted and encompass individual, social and institutional domains. Interventions targeting the micro and macro level barriers in university and support for students' help-seeking needs through a top-down strategy which prioritizes the provision of better mental health infrastructure, adequate number of professionals, effective mental health policies, and gatekeeper training for members of the university community are potentially beneficial for improving treatment rates among students in developing countries.
著者
鈴木 真之 浜本 真規子 久利 恭士 上杉 春香 小倉 正義 能勢 有希
出版者
名古屋大学
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.183-197, 2005

It has been ten years since school counseling was installed into Japanese public schools. Their activities were, however, being restricted because of the several limitations. On this condition, primary protection should be focused on for school counselors to be more effective. For the first, in this article, we reviewed conventional activities that had already been conducted in school setting and that could be seen to have the characteristics of primary protection, respectively each for students, families and teachers. Secondary, we pointed out that these programs were not against the conventional Japanese education system, rather the ones that would help it. Thereafter, some of the primary protection programs that had not been prevailed yet, were introduced. Finally, in discussion, we indicated it important for school counselors to give teachers an idea of primary protection and suggested the way to install those programs into current Japanese educational setting.国立情報学研究所で電子化したコンテンツを使用している。
著者
白木 優馬 五十嵐 祐 SHIRAKI Yuma IGARASHI Tasuku
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, pp.97-106, 2015-12-28

The development of Information Technology has unraveled a new form of employment, crowdsourcing. With the spread of crowdsourcing, psychological researchers began collecting data with crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing enables them to collect data from a wider range of people in a shorter timespan relative to the conventional methods. Although the application of crowdsourcing has gained popularity in foreign psychological research in recent times, Japanese researchers have not yet tapped this resource. Therefore, this paper presents the available framework of crowdsourcing service for Japanese researchers and its usage aiming for the spread of crowdsourcing in Japanese psychological research. Furthermore, we underline the required precautionary measures while collecting data using crowdsourcing.
著者
四辻 伸吾 YOTSUTSUJI Shingo
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, pp.99-109, 2017-12-28

News of bullying-related suicides being reported almost on a daily basis and it is a major problem in the field of education. Different bullying prevention programs have been developed and conducted in educational settings for preventing bullying. Programs including Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP; Olweus, 2007) and KiVa program, among others have been used internationally and have reported good results. These programs are currently being comprehensively utilized. On the other hand, development and conduct of bullying prevention programs in Japan are often left to individual schools, and nationwide systematic programs have not been developed to date. Moreover, in many cases, effects of bullying prevention programs have not been empirically verified. This study analyzed Japanese bullying prevention programs used in educational settings, from the following perspectives: (1) statistical verification of program efficacy, and (2) confirmation of consistency with curriculum guidelines. "confirmation of consistency with curriculum guidelines" means that the practice contents of the practiced bullying prevention program accorded with an aim and the contents such as each subject shown in curriculum guidelines. First, we searched the Internet for the keywords "bullying," and "programs" in the Japanese literature, and identified 33 articles, which were reviewed. Among the 33 papers, statistical verification of program efficacy was conducted in 15 studies, all of which indicated that the programs were effective. Moreover, 19 papers described subjects and fields in which the programs were practiced. Among the 19 papers, only four described the consistency between practice and contents of subjects and fields. Previous studies might be insufficient in both statistical verification of program efficacy and examining the consistency between programs and learning contents. Therefore, further studies on this topic are required. Future perspectives of Japanese bullying prevention programs are discussed based on these results from following perspective. (1) Developing a program of annual curriculums composed of small plural learning units having statistically established efficacy for bullying prevention. (2) Developing a program that is specifically placed in curriculum guidelines, especially in "moral education," "integrated studies," and "special activities," lessons, which are often used in bullying prevention programs. It is expected that programs for bullying prevention for wide use in Japanese educational settings could be developed based on these perspectives.
著者
風間 惇希 KAZAMA Junki
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, pp.127-140, 2017-12-28

The present study is a review of "over-adaptation" in adolescence. In this study, the author reviewed the definitions and measures of over-adaptation, constructed a comprehensive model of overadaptation and its relevant factors, and clarified the trends and future directions of studies about overadaptation in adolescence. At first, this study clarified that there were many definitions and measures of over-adaptation by reviewing previous studies. Then, the author suggested two ways of understanding over-adaptation for the purpose of integrating knowledge of previous studies and making future studies accumulated more systematically. That is, one is (a) over-adaptation with internal maladjustment, and the other is (b) over-adaptation as a risk factor for internal maladjustment. Secondly, this study classified relevant factors of over-adaptation into two categories, (a) the factors explaining over-adaptation and (b) the ones affected by over-adaptation. In addition, explanatory factors of over-adaptation were classified into intrapersonal factors and interpersonal (environmental) ones. From this perspective, this study suggested that intrapersonal and interpersonal factors influenced over-adaptation and it was important to consider both factors to understand over-adaptation. Kazama & Hiraishi (submitted) considered that interaction of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors formed over-adaptation in relationships with parents, peers, and teachers, and developed Over-Adaptation Scale - Relationships Specified (OAS-RS) measuring the extent to which an individual engages to over-adaptive behavior in relationships with parents, peers, teachers, respectively. Like that, future studies may need to consider the diversity of over-adaptation in adolescence. Finally, this study showed that most previous studies were based on cross-sectional data. Then, longitudinal studies will be needed to investigate occurrence and developmental processes of overadaptation.
著者
速水 敏彦 木野 和代 高木 邦子
出版者
名古屋大学
雑誌
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 (ISSN:13461729)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.1-8, 2004-12-27
被引用文献数
1

A new construct "Assumed-Competence based on undervaluing others (AC is short for the construct)" was proposed to explain adolescents' behaviors in these days. AC was defined as the habitual feeling of competence that would be followed by one's criticizing or undervaluing others regardless of how much he/she had directly positive or negative experiences. To measure the individual differences of AC, the assumed-competence scale (ACS is short for the scale) consisting of 11 items was constructed. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of ACS by showing the relations with several psychological constructs which have logical associations with AC. In the meanwhile, self-esteem (SE is short for it) mean true competence based on really positive and negative experiences. That is, SE could be clearly discriminated from AC. Thus, to make clear discriminating validity of ACS, SE was measured as well as AC when the relations with other psychologicl constructs were investigated. Seven psychological constructs we used here as criteria of validity were (1)locus of control, (2)public and private self-awareness, (3)loneliness, (4)sympathy, (5)emotion of anger. (6)pleasure and displeasure experiences (during lately three months) and (7)life satisfaction. Participants were 124 junior college students, 258 university students and 11 graduate students. Correlation coefficients between AC,SE and seven psychological constructs were calculated. The results were interpreted by focusing only significant correlations. Concerning self, although SE was related positively to internal control, AC was not, whereas positive relation between ACS and private self-awareness was shown. Next, regarding with interpersonal relationship, AS had positive relations to loneliness, that is, the persons whose AS are high thought that human could not understand each other and they were strongly aware of individuality. Also negative correlation was presented between AC and sympathy. In the meantime, SE had no relation to the variables of interpersonal relationships. In tern, emotion as a criterion of validity was examined. AC was related positively with trait-anger, expression of anger and displeasure experiences in academic and friendship situations. Furthermore, AC had negative relation to life satisfaction. On the contrary, SE was correlated positively with pleasure experiences and life satisfaction. Based on the results mentioned above, we judged ACS to have construct validity to some extent. Finally we suggested the possibility of classification of AC in the relation with SE.国立情報学研究所で電子化したコンテンツを使用している。