著者
丸茂 喜高 清水 勇介 竹内 亮佑 綱島 均 小島 崇
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.817, pp.TL0280-TL0280, 2014 (Released:2014-09-25)
参考文献数
9

This study proposes a driving assistance system to inform the notch operation timing for train drivers. The assistance system indicates visually the notch-off position where the driver releases the accelerator. The notch-off position is calculated by the present vehicle acceleration, velocity and position by assuming the constant acceleration. The assistance system also indicates the brake onset and the predicted stopping positions. Two experiments are conducted by using the train-driving simulator. One experiment examines the effects of the notch-off and brake onset timing on the vehicle velocity and the running time. The assistance system makes it possible to adjust the vehicle velocity and the running time. The other experiment examines the three running patterns by combination of the notch-off and the brake onset positions. With the time recovering pattern, which is combination of the higher notch-off velocity and the later brake onset timing, the assistance system realizes the shorter running time in comparison with the standard running pattern. With the energy saving pattern, which is combination of the lower notch-off velocity and the later brake onset timing, the assistance system prevents the time delay by the later brake timing even if the velocity is lower than the standard running pattern.
著者
奥野 航平 松尾 亜紀子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.856, pp.17-00369-17-00369, 2017 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
20

The numerical analysis on the flight stability of the underwater projectiles are performed using computational fluid dynamics code which consists of gas/liquid phases analysis, 2D calculation method. The nose shape effect on the underwater flight stability is conducted. The ogival nose, the flat nose and the spike nose are used for the nose shapes. The static stability is determined by the direction of pressure on the projectile. The pressure on the flat nose makes projectile stable, although pressure on the ogival nose and the horizontal area of flat nose makes projectile unstable. The spike nose is statically unstable, however it is possible to increase the flight stability by changing the spike radius and the spike length. When the part of projectile gets out of the bubble and contacts with water, the water pressure acts as restoring force, which lead to improve the flight stability. This phenomenon is called ‘Tail slapping effect’. Tail slapping effect works most effectively when only backward of the center of gravity of the projectile contacts with water. The Effects is canceled as the angle of attack increases and the front of the projectile contacts with water. As a result, the improvement of stability due to the tail slapping effect is limited.
著者
岸 祐希 金崎 雅博 牧野 好和 松島 紀佐
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.849, pp.16-00454-16-00454, 2017 (Released:2017-05-25)
参考文献数
20

When a wing of airplane is designed, it is necessary to have knowledge regarding planforms considered their optimum airfoils in order to design efficiently, because each wing planform has both of advantage and disadvantage. In this study, the wing design problem for supersonic transport is carried out for different planforms for two different planforms. Multi-objective problem, which is minimization drags for two supersonic cruise conditions (transonic and supersonic flight) is solved to obtain knowledge of the supersonic airfoil from the viewpoint of the multi-point design. Two types of planforms are considered—a cranked arrow wing with a high sweep-back angle and a single tapered wing with a low sweep-back angle. Optimization problems are carried out by efficient global optimization, which is evolutionary algorithm based on the Kriging surrogate model. To acquire design knowledge, a parallel coordinate plot and functional analysis of variance (functional ANOVA) are applied. The design results showed the difference airfoil between two planforms. The optimum airfoil for the single tapered wing has a small or negative camber at the leading edge to minimize the supersonic cruising. On the other hand, the optimum airfoil for the cranked arrow wing has an airfoil with a lower thickness and larger camber at the leading edge.
著者
川那辺 洋 石山 拓二 塩路 昌宏
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.856, pp.17-00294-17-00294, 2017 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
5

Entrainment process of surrounding fluid for a diesel spray is investigated based on the momentum theory and 1-D simple spray model developed by Musculus et. al. Entrained fluid distribution along the spray axis is theoretically estimated. The results show that the absolute value of entrainment velocity depends on axis location and is inversely proportional to the distance from the nozzle. Therefore, the large amount of entrained fluid comes from the upstream region near field of nozzle. 1-D simple spray model is performed for the same target and the effect of the injection rate on entraining process is clarified.
著者
山本 勝太 牧野 一成 石塚 弘道
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.856, pp.17-00337-17-00337, 2017 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
10

The integrity of railway axles is a critical aspect for ensuring the safety of a railway system. Therefore, non-destructive inspections such as ultrasonic testing and magnetic particle testing are conducted periodically. Some railway operators conduct ultrasonic tests directly on axles mounted on the train. However, the axles have to be disassembled for conducting magnetic particle testing. In the present study, the effects of variable amplitude stress acting on cracks and axle bending stress during ultrasonic test on ultrasonic response are discussed. An ultrasonic test was conducted using a full-scale axle specimen that had fatigue cracks and no artificial notches. The ultrasonic response was evaluated for the cracks whose lengths were 10 mm, 16 mm, and 19 mm. Under an unloaded condition, the ultrasonic response for the 16-mm-long and 19-mm-long cracks was approximately 4 or 7 times higher than that for the 10-mm-long crack, although the cross-sectional area of each of these cracks was approximately 2.5 or 3.5 times larger than that of the 10-mm-long crack. The obtained results indicate that the contribution of the reflection area to the ultrasonic response under a variable amplitude stress differs from that under a constant stress condition. Moreover, the influence of axle bending stress ranging between -50 MPa to +47 MPa on the ultrasonic response was investigated. A higher bending stress led to a higher ultrasonic response. However, the decreasing rate of ultrasonic response caused under compressive stress was lower than the increasing rate under tensile stress. For example, the ultrasonic response was approximately 2 dB lower than that under the unloaded condition at a compressive stress of -30 MPa; however, the ultrasonic response showed an increment of approximately 4 dB at a tensile stress of 30 MPa. A similar trend was observed in the crack of each length. The results denote that the crack position influences the precision of crack detection in ultrasonic inspection. However, considering that the maximum static bending stress of axles used in Japan is 30 MPa, its effect on inservice axle inspection is negligible.
著者
中川 健一 長谷川 裕晃 村上 正秀 大林 茂
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.856, pp.17-00165-17-00165, 2017 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
13

Badminton is one of the most popular sports in the world and is famous as the sport having the fastest initial velocity of a batted ball among all ball games. Initial velocity immediately after smashing may reach up to 408 km/h (113 m/s) at maximum. A badminton shuttlecock generates significant aerodynamic drag and it was confirmed that the high deceleration characteristics was related to the slots located at the leg portion of a shuttlecock in the previous study. Turnover refers to the flipping experienced by a shuttlecock when undergoing heading change from nose pointing against the flight path at the moment of impact and a shuttlecock indicates the aerodynamically stable feature for the flip movement just after impact. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gaps on the aerodynamic stability (turnover stability) of a badminton shuttlecock during the flip phenomenon. In the present study, the flow field around the shuttlecock during impulsive change of an angle of attack (flip movement) was measured by using the smoke flow visualization and the behavior of the shuttlecock during the flip movement was evaluated in comparison with that of the conic model (with no gaps). The turnover stability of a badminton shuttlecock is affected by gaps of the shuttlecock skirt.
著者
鈴木 明宏 茂庭 優貴 石井 賢治 藤原 誠助 永富 良一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.849, pp.16-00450-16-00450, 2017 (Released:2017-05-25)
参考文献数
10

Amount of daily physical activity is strongly associated with the prevalence of lifestyle-associated diseases, and thus maintaining a certain level of physical activity is recommended. Amount of physical activity, namely energy expenditure, is commonly estimated from linear regression analysis of oxygen uptake during steady-state exercise of different intensities. Short-duration exercise, mainly walking lasting less than 3 minutes, has been reported to account for over 90% of the daily energy expenditure of healthy adults. The estimation of energy expenditure by ACSM Metabolic Equations used well, however, is based on steady-state exercise of more than 5 minutes, and energy consumption of shorter duration exercise is not commonly considered. Oxygen consumption remains elevated for some period of time after exercise. Then, the estimation of energy expenditure for short duration exercise must include excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The amount of EPOC change in duration exercise. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the energy expenditure for VO2 kinetics. Ten healthy participants aged 19-54 y walked and ran for 1, 3 and 5 minutes on a treadmill at constant speed. Oxygen consumption during and post-exercise was measured using a portable gas analyzer in breath-by-breath mode. A best-fit exponential equation to estimate oxygen consumption from exercise duration and walking speed was generated. The root mean square (RMS) of estimate equations was calculated using Leave-one-out cross validation. The RMS(1.44~2.14 ml/kg/min) was lower, and the results of the Bland-Altman analysis revealed neither fixed nor proportional bias with the exception of the decent walking and running. An equation for the estimation of oxygen consumption at shorter durations of exercise was successfully generated. Accumulation of additional data may further improve the equation.
著者
近藤 千尋 佐野 広季 山根 浩二 小坂田 潔 河崎 澄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.847, pp.16-00375-16-00375, 2017 (Released:2017-03-25)
参考文献数
11

This paper describes how to produce a biodiesel from the oil in the waste soup of ramen noodles, and especially clarifies an amount of oil in waste soup, the energy profit ratio (EPR) of the production of biodiesel from the oil in waste soup of ramen noodles and the engine performance of the biodiesel from waste soup of ramen noodles. As a result, from the waste pig bone (ton-kotsu) soup the recovered tri-glyceride was about 11g per a soup. The biodiesel produced from the oil in the waste soup of ramen noodles by using ordinary alkyl catalyst method has low cold flow properties, due to the high content of the saturated fatty acid methyl ester such as C16:0, C18:0 and so on. And it is estimated that the amount of BDF from a ramen noodle restaurant is about 2.4L if the customers are around 300 per day, and this means that the 9.9 kW co-generation system is able to be operated for an hour per day. About energy profit ratio analysis, if the oil separation process is improved, EPR from the waste soup to biodiesel will become higher than 5.0. Furthermore, engine test is performed by using BDF from the waste soup of ramen noodles as B5. As a result, it is shown that fuel consumption rate and emissions are almost the same as the case of using gasoil.
著者
橋本 博文 今井 栄一 矢野 創 渡辺 英幸 横堀 伸一 山岸 明彦
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
2016

The mechanical thermometer using a bimetallic strip coil was developed for the Tanpopo mission. The Tanpopo mission is a multi-year passive exposure experiment for astrobiology exposure and micrometeoroid capture onboard the Exposed Experiment Handrail Attachment Mechanism (ExHAM) at the Japanese Experiment Module 'Kibo' (JEM) Exposed Facility (EF) on the International Space Station (ISS). The Tanpopo mission apparatuses were launched by the SpaceX-6 Dragon CRS-6 on April 14 2015, from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in the U.S.A. Since its microbial exposure experiment requires recording the maximum temperature that the Tanpopo exposure panel experiences, we have developed a mechanical thermometer with no electric power supplied from the ExHAM. At a given time and orbital position of the ISS, the thermometer indicator was video-imaged by the extravehicular video camera attached to the Kibo-EF and controlled from the ground. With these images analyzed, we were able to derive the maximum temperature of the Tanpopo exposure panels on the space pointing face of the ExHAM as 23.9±5 °C. Now this passive and mechanical thermometer is available to other space missions with no electric supplies required and thus highly expands the possibility of new extravehicular experiments and explorations for both human and robotic missions.
著者
松本 浩乃 窪田 佳寛 大石 正行 望月 修
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.833, pp.15-00389-15-00389, 2016 (Released:2016-01-25)
参考文献数
13

The typhoon often causes a serious damage of the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples coloring while they are ripening on the tree. We conceive that the wind-force acting on the bagging apple exceeds one without bag. Thus, we investigate the drag coefficient CD of the bagging apple by measuring drag force acting on an apple model experimentally. The shear stress on a stem under the typhoon is estimated for understanding one of mechanism for dropping apple due to the strong wind. The shear stress of a stem whose apple encounters the maximum velocity recorded at the past typhoon is estimated by the obtained CD. The drag force of the bagging apple becomes bigger than that of the apple without the bag. The bagging apple is not a rotational symmetry so that the CD is different with the different wind direction. The angle against the flow of model with the bag is changed from 0 deg. to 90 deg. to understand the influence of shape, since CD depends on the geometry. The shear force acting on the stem depends on the drag. Thus, the shear stress is larger if the drag is larger. The obtained shear stress is compared with allowable shear stress of a real tree. We suggest that there is possibility to decrease damage if we can decrease the drag of the bagging.
著者
円山 重直
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.820, pp.TEP0377-TEP0377, 2014 (Released:2014-12-25)
参考文献数
30

In order to investigate the process of accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants, an accident scenario of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 is analyzed from the data open to the public. Phase equilibrium process model and adiabatic expansion model were introduced. Original data reported in the first stage of the accident were examined to clarify the behavior of the isolation condensers (ICs) which are generally believed unfunctional after the arrival of Tsunami and station blackout. The original data and observation reports verified that the so called “fail safe” system to close the valves in IC did not work properly due to the shutdown of AC power. The reports also showed the evidence that the operators injected water to the storage tank of IC. We proposed a scenario that IC was operational until approximately at 3/12 3:00, small leakage occurred at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) at the initial stage of the accident, the RPV ruptured at 3/12 6:20, and it ruptured again in approximately at 3/12 16:00. We assumed that PCV ruptured at 3/12 3:00, and the area of rupture did not change after the hydrogen explosion occurred at 3/12 15:36. The present analysis model describes the data measured at the accident, and many evidences and witnesses reported at the early stage of the accident. We also simulated according to the scenario of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) that the ICs did not work after the Tsunami arrival. The estimation by the present analysis agrees with the TEPCO's one, however, there are many discrepancies that cannot explain the behavior of the reactor accident.
著者
品川 晃徳 野澤 久幸 内山 裕太郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.854, pp.17-00086-17-00086, 2017 (Released:2017-10-25)
参考文献数
4

It is thought that the first step to understanding vehicle movement is to measure and analyze that movement in order to confirm that it falls within the range of the laws of physics. In the case of a four-wheeled vehicle, in general, the friction limit is defined within the circle of longitudinal acceleration and lateral acceleration through the use of a G-G diagram. Then measurements are taken to confirm that the driving state is within that range. Two-wheeled off-road vehicles are mainly ridden on slippery dirt roads that include steep slopes and rough, uneven surfaces. An analysis method for the driving state and the vehicle movement limits that would be suitable for analyzing the movement of such two-wheeled off-road vehicles under these conditions was examined. These movement limits were then formulated by taking into consideration the coefficient of friction and the road surface gradient in accordance with the basic laws of physics and also by focusing on the vehicle movement in the longitudinal direction. Measurements were also taken during actual off-road riding by top-class Japanese off-road motorcycle riders. It was confirmed that this measurement data was distributed within the range of the assumed vehicle movement limits. Consequently, it was confirmed that it is possible to use such measurements to accurately grasp the vehicle movement limits and the associated driving state for two-wheeled off-road vehicles.
著者
釜谷 昌幸
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.856, pp.17-00316-17-00316, 2017 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
20

This study is aimed at applying the performance-based maintenance (PBM) concept to determine inspection schedule. Previously, the time-based maintenance concept has been applied to determine the inspection schedule for nuclear plant components. In the PBM concept, frequency of inspection is determined by operation time before the inspection. Duration before the next inspection is extended if the component indicates no cracking for a long time. In this study, the change in structural reliability due to applying the PBM concept was investigated by probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses. In order to calculate the probability of leakage or fracture (failure probability), growth of fatigue cracks initiated at the primary coolant pipe of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants was simulated considering variations in yield and tensile strengths, fatigue crack growth rate, initial crack shape and so on. It was demonstrated that the failure probability was reduced by performing inspections according to the time-based maintenance concept. Frequency rather than detectability of inspection had a larger impact on reducing the failure probability. It was shown that, by applying the PBM concept, the number of inspections could be reduced significantly without increasing the failure probability. It was concluded that the PBM concept could optimize the inspection schedule.
著者
伊丹 琢 藪名香 俊人 家喜 湧大 矢野 賢一 山本 亮 小林 安之 篠田 信之 青木 隆明 西本 裕
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.856, pp.17-00291-17-00291, 2017 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
15

We previously proposeda power assist robot and conductedexperiments for cervical cord injury(CCI) patients. This paper proposed a new type of robot orthosis by making of their residual function around their shoulder in order to operate the wheelchair. A lock/unlock mechanism on the elbow joint is effectively used to transmit the residual function around the shoulder to the hand. We confirmedthat three patients with CCI could use their residual functionaround their shoulderand operate a wheelchair effectively in outdoor environment like high resistance roads and roads with a slope by measuring velocity of the wheelchair and electromyography of his shoulder muscle.
著者
湯淺 朋久 阿部 豊 平野 覚
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.856, pp.17-00309-17-00309, 2017 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
17

Toward the improvement of performance of the electric vehicle (EV), the design of the motor shape appropriate to heat removal is important. A typical EV motor is composed of a pair of coaxial cylinders with a fixed outer cylinder (stator) and a rotating inner cylinder (rotor). Some EV motors have axial slits on the stator wall. The present study numerically clarifies the physical mechanism of difference of Nusselt number between the case with slit and without slit. The heat transfer of the gap between the rotor and stator was obtained by the numerical calculation. A vortex structure observed by flow visualization experiment was reproduced in the numerical simulation, and velocity profiles showed good agreement with experimental data. The heat transfer rate for the case with slit in the high rotational speed was increased compared with that for the case without slit. Nusselt number was decomposed into the three terms which were the advection, turbulent transport and diffusion terms; the advection term of heat flux for the case with slit was increased compared with that for the case without slit because of the vortex structure. The Nusselt number on the slit surface was increased compared with that on the gap surface for the case with slit. It was implied that the difference of Nusselt number between the case with slit and without slit was caused by the presence of the vortex structure in the slit and the increase of heat flux for the case with slit.
著者
吉川 穣 西尾 悠 伊澤 精一郎 福西 祐
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2017-12-20)
参考文献数
15

Numerical simulations are carried out aimed at finding a key flow structure which leads to a laminar-turbulent transition of a boundary layer with streaky structures. In the preliminary computation, an array of cuboids is used to form streaky structures inside a boundary layer. Then, a disturbance is introduced into the boundary layer by ejecting a short-duration jet from a hole in the wall into a low-speed region in the streaky structures. Although the boundary layer returns to a laminar state when the jet velocity is set to 18% of the uniform flow velocity, it eventually turns into a turbulent state downstream in the 20% case. The differences are investigated in detail in terms of the vortical structures. As a result, only in the stronger jet case, a flat spanwise vortex is generated beside one leg of a hairpin vortex and it merges with the streamwise vortex nearby forming an inclined streamwise vortex. On the other hand, the flat spanwise vortex disappears without being connected to the streamwise vortex in the weaker jet case. The inclined streamwise vortex is stretched by the mean velocity gradient of the boundary layer growing into a strong vortex, and new vortex structures are generated around the inclined one, which leads to turbulence. Therefore, the results suggest that formation of the inclined vortex is the key to transition of the boundary layer.
著者
山内 仁史 山﨑 慎太郎 矢地 謙太郎 藤田 喜久雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.855, pp.17-00320-17-00320, 2017 (Released:2017-11-25)
参考文献数
23

Multi-fidelity analysis has been used for reducing the calculation cost of evaluating the design solution, which is the most costly process in design optimization. In general, multi-fidelity analysis is applied to problems with continuous design variables, which are suitable to construct an approximate model of design space such as the response surface. On the other hand, combinatorial optimization problems, e.g., layout design, are difficult to apply the conventional multi-fidelity analysis, since the response surface cannot be constructed due to the property of the design variables. In this paper, we propose a multi-fidelity optimization method independent of the response surface and a simple analysis model for the method, and apply them to multi-disciplinary optimal layout design problem which is a complicated combinatorial optimization problem. The proposed analytical model, which adopts the concept of the explicit method, realizes for reducing the calculation time by simplifying the physical phenomenon. Then, the multi-fidelity optimization method is constructed by combining the proposed analysis model with the thermal network method which is a well-known thermal analysis method. We confirm that there is a strong correlation between the calculation result of the proposed analysis model and of a CAE software, and show that the proposed analysis model is suitable as a low fidelity model. The effectiveness of the proposed optimization method is demonstrated through numerical experiments.
著者
片峯 英次 岡田 直也
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.855, pp.17-00407-17-00407, 2017 (Released:2017-11-25)
参考文献数
19

This paper presents numerical solution to two shape design problems of unsteady forced heat-convection fields to control temperature to a prescribed distribution. In the first problem, the square error integral between the actual temperature distributions and the prescribed temperature distributions on the prescribed sub-domains during the specified period of time is used as the objective functional. In the second problem, a multi-objective shape optimization problem using normalized objective functional is formulated for the temperature distribution prescribed problem and the total dissipated energy minimization problem in the unsteady forced heat-convection fields. Shape gradient of these shape design problems is derived theoretically using the Lagrange multiplier method, adjoint variable method, and the formulae of the material derivative. Reshaping is carried out by the traction method proposed as an approach to solving shape optimization problems. Numerical analyses program for the shape design is developed based on FreeFem++, and the validity of proposed method is confirmed by results of 2D numerical analyses.
著者
野間口 大 董 春祉 堀之内 貴大 藤田 喜久雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.854, pp.17-00167-17-00167, 2017 (Released:2017-10-25)
参考文献数
18

The product design project includes many uncertainties. It causes risk that a project target cannot be accompolished within lead time. In order to flexibly handle the uncertainty and avoid the risk, adaptive planning that can switch easily to another plan by preparing options for a task is needed. When a challenging design alternative is difficult to be accompolished, a project manager should decide either to continue the design taking a risk or to switch to a conservative alternative disliking a risk. This paper proposes a new optimization-based project planning method that aims at a Pareto-optimal of the potential technical performane of designed product and a project failure risk. A task option model is employed for risk assesment of option-based project management. As its planning includes a number of various design variables and various evaluation indices, in order to solve such a complicated problem with a reasonable computation cost, this research separates the optimization problem into two phases, i.e., (i) defining of process architecture and organization structure and (ii) scheduling of resource allocation into activities. This paper demonstrates its application to a student formula design project. A proposed optimization method facilitates a project manager to explore various process plans with assessing their risks.
著者
遠藤 広晴 菊地 史倫 斎藤 綾乃 辻村 壮平 林 伸明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.854, pp.17-00089-17-00089, 2017 (Released:2017-10-25)
参考文献数
21

In this study, the relation between the thermal environment and the thermal comfort of occupants in a main line vehicle in the summer was investigated. At first, to understand the characteristics of the thermal environment in a main line vehicle, a field survey was conducted by measuring the temperature and humidity in regular passenger services from the morning to the night. The observation range of the temperature was from 23°C to 28°C, and that of the humidity was from 38%rh to 68%rh. Then, to obtain the fundamental data about the occupants’ thermal comfort, a subjective experiment in which 44 subjects in total participated was carried out. The subjects rode a main line vehicle stationed at a rolling stock center, and they experienced the temperature changing approximately in the range observed in the field survey and answered the questionnaires about their thermal comfort. Furthermore, the relationships between the thermal indices called PMV/PPD and the subjective evaluation values were analyzed. As a result, it was indicated that the error of the PPD in predicting the percentage of dissatisfied subjects became large in the range PMV>0, where the effect of the sweat sensation became significant. However, the PPD agreed well with the actual percentage of people who reported to have the feeling of ‘slightly cold’, ‘cold’ or ‘slightly hot’, ‘hot’. Our results suggest that the PPD can be used as an index of the variability of thermal sensation, but not as an index of thermal comfort in a main line vehicle in the summer; in order to use the PPD as an index of thermal comfort all the year around, it should be corrected taking into account the seasonal characteristics of the relation between the PMV and the actual percentage of dissatisfied occupants.