著者
今野 修平
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.3, pp.95-100, 1966 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
1

This is a report on the changes of the characteristics of the Muroran Port on the southern coast of Hokkaido.The history of the development of this port can be divided into the following four periods. The first period is the age of this port as an entry of immigrants (1872-1898). The second period is the age as a shipping port of coal (1899-.). The third period is as the domestic liner port (1907-), and the fourth period is as an international port as an iron industrial port (1950-).The total cargo of the port is 1881 million tons in 1964 ranking eleventh in Japan. The raw materials and products of the iron work (The Fuji Iron Manufacturing Co.) and some other plants associated with the iron work occupy 45% of the total cargo, and the coal for shipping is 30%.The wharfs of the port consist of the private wharfs and the public wharfs, and 91% of the total cargo is handled at the private wharfs of the Fuji Iron Manufacturing Co. Compared with the development of the other industrial ports of Japan, the rapid modernization of Muroran Port is noticeable.
著者
松原 健之助
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.3, pp.190-191, 1988-08-01 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
3
著者
千田 昇 松本 秀明 小原 真一
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.4, pp.232-239, 1984-11-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
5 7 4

Sanriku Coast located northeastern part of Honshu-island is one of the typical “rias coast” in Japan. In this area, a small delta plains develop at each enbayment. The Rikuzentakata coastal plain, about 2km from north to south and about 2.5km from east to west, is larger one of these plains. The most part of the plain is lower than 5 meters above the sea-level. A beach ridge is recognized along the present shoreline, and a lagoonal area locates behind it. The Kesen river and the Hamada river flow on the western and eastern part of the plain, respectively (Fig. 1).The sequence of Alluvium along the shoreline is shown in Fig. 4. There are two buried valleys corresponding to each river. Excepting the Basal Gravel, which recognized on the buried valley floor about 10m in thickness, the thickness of Alluvium is about 28m. From their textural characteristics, Alluvium is devided into four layers as follows.(i) Lower Sand layer includes marine shells and shell-fragments, is considered as foreset bed sediments. Shellfragments collected at the upper part of the layer, were dated 7, 660±170 yr B. P. by radiometric method.(ii) Middle Mud layer, including a lot of marine shells, consists of silt or sandy silt. This layer is considered as bottomset bed sediments. At the period of Middle Mud sedimentation, the rate of sea-level rise had been superior to the rate of sediment supply. This period was estimated between 7, 500 and 5, 000 yr B. P.(iii) Upper Sand layer also includes shell-fragments. Sedimentary environment of this layer is considered as delta front (foreset bed). The relative rate of sediment supply during this period, exceeded the rise of sea-level gradually. In other wards, the sea-level rise became slower or nearly stable.(iv) Uppermost layer consists of fluvial deposits. At the primary time of this sedimentary period, the sea-level was slightly dropped (2m-4m) than the final sea-level which recorded at the top of Upper Sand layer (-2.7m a. s. l.). Several shallow valleys, dissected the Upper Sand layer, indicate above.From these, the Holocene sea level change curve was restored as the solid line in Fig. 7. On the other hand, annual subsidence about 0.8mm was calculated from the remeasurement of bench marks (Fig. 6) in and around the plain. If this subsidence have been assumed during Holocene, the sea-level curve would be expressed as the broken line in Fig. 7. The highest sea-level during Holocene is estimated at +1.3m a. s. l. and the age is considered about 5, 000 yr B. P.
著者
東村 康文
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.95-106, 1988-05-16 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
24

宝暦飢饉 (1755年) とその前後における夏期の気候の復元を行なった。古日記中の天候記録の広域的な分布を使って天候の推移を調べるとともに, 現在の観測資料を用いて導き出した天気分布型の出現数と気温および気圧配置型との関係を宝暦期に適用して気温および気圧配置型の推定を行なった。その結果, 以下の諸点が明らかとなった。1) 解析を行なった1751-60年は, 1755年に代表されるような冷夏・長雨という特定の気候状態だけが卓越していたわけではない。2) 1755年7月は関東以南が降雨域におおわれ, 東北地方東岸は「やませ」が吹き, 第1種型の冷夏と考えられる。3) 1755年7月の盛岡, 石巻における平均気温は1951-80年の平均気温よりも約3℃低温であった。4) 気圧配置出現率を算定したところ, 1755年7月は夏型が少なく停滞性の前線が日本列島の南岸にかかる型が多く, また, 同年8月は停滞性の前線が東北地方を横断する型が多かった。
著者
能 登志雄
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.4, pp.153-156, 1967 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
12

Recent development in various fields of science made it ineviatable to rewrite the history of Polynesian migrations. Among the recently developed methods, perhaps the most important is the dating of absolute chronology by radiocarbon activity. By this means the origin of Polynesian settlement in this part of the world was pushed backwards to several centuries before Christian era. This is a short review of the recent contributions made by scholars in various fields interested in the Pacific realm.
著者
木村 圭一
出版者
東北地理学会
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.3, pp.78-85, 1954 (Released:2010-10-29)
参考文献数
10
著者
宮川 善造
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.1-6, 1964 (Released:2010-10-29)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
2

The archaeological sites of the cult of the jaguar God are found in the tropical jungles of Central America, mainly along the Atlantic coasts of Mexico and Costa Rica.Of all the sites, La Venta in Mexico is known as one of the most important ceremonial centers ; and next comes Las Mercedes in Costa Rica.In this cult, the object of worship enshrined is the figure of a jaguar or that of Warrawana, called “Warru-tiger” by the English speaking Carib tribes.In my view, the inhabitants of the jungles came to enshrine a jaguar because they wished to suppress the evil spirit of jaguar, who attacked the people and gave much damage to them. That was not because the farmers prayed to the jaguar god to decrease an extraordinarily rapid growth of vegetal life in the forests such as trees and weeds. The jaguar masks, with some 500 tons' clay over it, were excavated, giving an account of these circumstances.At the latter Formative period, the priests devised the formalities of cult, by the request of the farmers who had been cultivating in the jungles ; and thus the cult of this kind at its beginning had the closest connection with the farmers' life in jungle.La Venta, which is famous for its oldest relics (B. C. 800-400), was the cradle-land of the cult of the jaguar god, with its influence extending to the surrounding districts.Later, when the Olmec people, who inhabited in La Venta district, were obliged to leave their native land by the invasion of a highland people, some of them seemed to move to Las Mercedes, and they made this place the second largest center of the cult of the jaguar god by giving a stimulus and a modification to its aboriginal culture.
著者
井田 仁康
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.4, pp.276-286, 1991-11-15 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
2 2 3

新潟県を出発地・到着地とする航空旅客の多くが利用するのは新潟空港である。新潟空港の乗降客数は, 上越新幹線が開業する前の1981年までは増加傾向にあったが, それが開業した1982年から1983年にかけて乗降客数は激減した。1983年の航空旅客動態調査に基づき, 新潟県における航空旅客の分布をみると, 新潟市と長岡市において航空旅客数が著しく多いが, 市部においてはその数が多くなる傾向がある。さらに, 航空旅客数と地域属性との関係を明らかにするために, 各市町村の社会経済的特徴を表すと考えられる13の変数に因子分析を施し, そこで得られた3因子の因子得点と空港からの距離を独立変数とし, 航空旅客数を従属変数として重回帰分析を行った結果, 航空旅客数はその地区の都市性と深く関係していることが明らかになった。また, 社会経済的特徴からみると, 多くの市および新潟市周辺の町村ではより多くの航空旅客が期待できるのである。新潟県を出発地・到着地とする航空旅客の流動に注目すると, 多くの都道府県との間に航空旅客流動を生じているが, 特に, 北海道, 宮城県および京都府, 奈良県以西の府県との流動が多い。その中の北海道, 南九州, 沖縄県などの比較的長距離の流動において, 新潟県の居住者および観光客の割合が高くなる。他方, 新潟県と中京, 関西, 四国, 九州北部の県間とに生じる流動では, 新潟県に居住しない者の割合およびビジネス客の割合が高くなる傾向にある。
著者
籠瀬 良明
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.24-33, 1978 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
1

There are several irrigation channel patterns peculiar to Tsugaru Plain, which are classified as follows.1) Parallel channel group: Several channels run in parallel and each one flows into a group of fields.This pattern was perhaps established against heavy droughts in Edo era, whose origin is not yet certain and it has not been reported elsewhere in Japan. The peculiarity of this pattern is not recognized by local farmers.2) Passing through channel group: Several channels run long way through paddy fields of other village directly downstream.3) Channel group without distinct draining end4) Channel group without distinct nourishing origin.5) Crossing-over channel group
著者
藤田 佳久 二宮 巌
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.4, pp.231-241, 1979 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
1

The extent of land use in the upper basin of River Totsukawa, Nara prefecture, has been considerably conditioned by the great flood in 1889. So, this paper tries to trace the damage of land use in 1889 and to discuss the factors of it by the analysis of this disaster's reports published in 1891, some topography maps and land registered maps of each hamlet.The results obtained are as follows:1) The damage of land use was concentrated to the areas along the river, especially northern part of this basin.2) The damage of it was mainly by the great flood caused by many large dams which were arised from many landslides occured around these areas, under a sudden copious rainfall.3) The distribution of landslide shows that it was mainly depended upon the geological conditions. But, behind it, excessive use of production of forest land which were used for the fertilizer of increased paddy fields to pay new land taxation had advanced all over this area, where many paddy fields had been exploiting.4) The height of the flood got to 55 meters in this area. So many paddy and ordinary fields, houses, roads and forest which were located on the river terrace and slopes along river were carried away. Thus, the level of river bed was raised near the height of flood. The type of damage of land use in each hamlet was due to the degree of influence of this flood.5) A rise of river bed and landslide reduced the extent of the former land use. Thereafter reclamation had developed, but it was impossible to restore the former extent of land use.
著者
池谷 和信
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.4, pp.287-289, 1988-12-20 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
2 1
著者
角田 清美
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.15-23, 1978 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
28

In this paper, the writer attempts to make clear both the history of the formation and the morphological features of the Byóbusan sand dune region in the northernmost part of the Honshu Island.The following results are obtained.The Byobusan region consists of two terraces, about 10 meters and 20 meters higher than the present sea level. The latter is called the Yamadano terrace, which was formed during the stage of the higher sea level in the Shimosueyoshi transgression (in the Monanstrian age), and the former is called the Dekishima terrace (in Holocene age). On certain parts of the Yamadano terrace, the Old dune was formed in Pleistocene, and covered by the Iwaki volcanic ash layer. At that time, the prevailing winds were blowing from the west, just as at the present time.The Younger dune in Holocene, covers about two-thirds the area of the Byobusan region. Most of it was formed since the Yayoi period. Some parts of it were formed since 1948, when strong prevailing winds blew sand grains to creep up the cliffs or gullies, and formed transverse dune, on both Yamadano and Dekishima terraces.To the lee of transverse dunes, U-shaped dune and parabolic blowout dunes were developed and migrated downwind. Longitudial dune ridgs were developed finally by the erosion of parabolic blowout dunes. Sand dunes are commonly arranged in chains extending downwind from the source drifts. Thus the developement of sand dunes is related to the shifting speeds of sand dunes and the supply of sand grains.
著者
今野 修平
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.1, pp.19-23, 1965 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
4

There are various districts in Tokyo which heavily depend on barge transportation, as are shown in the table.1) The main areas of barge transportation (District No. 1·2·3) are located near the water-front.2) These areas have developed in accordance with the growth of Tokyo port.3) The use of inland canals is declining gradually while the Sumida River is still in use.4) The cargo in districts formed in old days are more general, but in the new districts steel and petroleum are mainly handled.5) The tendency is a part of the general changes in the transportation to the increasing proportion of steel and petroleum.
著者
高野 昌二
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.82-90, 1978 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
1

Notsukezaki, well known as the typical compound recurved spit in Japan, develops over 20km in length toward SE from Shibetsu located in the middle of the east coast of Hokkaido. The writer tried to clarify the formation and the development of Notsukezaki, for that purpose, the coastal and submarine topography, recent deposits of the coast, wind's speed and direction at Notskezaki are surveyed.Waves from the northeast are undoubtedly the active force, judging from the submarine topography and the fetch. Fig. 4 shows that the waves from NE causing wave erosion at the northern coast of Notsukezaki may permit to derive marine deposition southward. In fact, Fig. 5 proves that the northern coast is retreating and furnishing an abundant débris, besides, the materials of the cliff formation are easily eroded. Therefore, the longshore drifting caused by the predominant NW winds could carry an excessive amount of sand and gravel southward and produced the spit. Notsukezaki has been formed since post-glacial without any existing nucleus along the main direction depending upon the longshore current from NW to SE and the wave agency from NE.The beach ridges which built each of compound spit shows uniform height (Fig. 3). The fact expresses the level of beach ridges in terms of past sea level as shown in Fig. 6. The result can be correlated with Fairbridge (1961) favourably and the development of Notsukezaki associated with the fluctuation of sea level is schematically shown in Fig. 7.
著者
渡辺 良雄
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.61-69, 1965 (Released:2010-10-29)
参考文献数
22

以上, 東北地方の都市の基本的産業構成を検討し, それが第3次産業依存である事実から, 中心地理論の解釈を適用しその規模的階層分化の事実を示した。そしてこれらの点のみに関していえば次の事を指摘出来る。1) Basic-Nonbasic 機能の統計的検出法を適用すると, 都市自体の消費等価分を超過する産業活動は, 東北地方では本質的には第3次産業のみであり, 流通と公務の都市の性格が明瞭である。2) この事実はIsolated Urban Societyに近い都市の構成性格を示唆するが, それらが全体として中央日本の都市の第2次産業との分業関係で成立する点では, 純粋なIsolated Urban Societyとも異質のものとみられる。3) これらの性格が典型的に示されるのは, 東北地方でも宮城県南縁部および山形県中部以北に限定される。4) これらの第3次産業依存の都市の地域では, 局地的には都市規模の階層分化の事実が明瞭に示される。しかしその様相は, おおよそ4つの地域的類型により規構成を異にする。従って東北地方全体といった規模の階層分化構造をみると, 異質の階構造の総和となるので全体としての分化構造は認められなくなる。
著者
浅黄谷 剛寛
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.87-93, 1968 (Released:2010-10-29)
参考文献数
16

The rice farming in Kitami-shi in the northernmost region of Hokkaido suffered much heavier crop failures due to the low temperature in summer before and after the World War II, compared to the central core region, and the area is more backward in the postwar development of rice farming. Before the War, there was a tendency in which the acreage of rice fields dropped markedly just after the crop failures. However, after the War, in spite of the severe crop failures in 1953, 1954 and 1956, the decrease in acreage of rice fields was little. As the reason, we can point out control of the price of rice by the government, the spread of the system of mutual insurance of rice farming, the improvement of the irrigation facilities, the progress of cultivation techniques, and the insecurity of unirrigated non-rice farming.The cool summer of 1964 has given slighter damage than in 1954 although the drop of the temperature was almost similar with that of 1964. Thus the rice farming in Kitami-shi has been improved to be more stable.
著者
安田 初雄
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.99-114, 1986-05-15 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
24

(1) 邑鑑によると, 信夫郡大森村の大森城およびその侍屋敷は高を請けたが, 信夫郡福島村の福島城とその侍屋敷は高を請けなかった。これらの事実は大森城が廃城であり, 他方福島城とその侍屋敷は除地 (免税地) として扱われたことを示す。(2) 長井郡の米沢城とその侍屋敷は, 伊達政宗が1591 (天正19) 年9月23日, 米沢を去ってから, 蒲生四郎兵衛が1591年10月中旬米沢に到着するまでの間の検地で高を請けた。(3) 長井郡における太閤検地は1591年9月に実施されたことはすでに立証されている。邑鑑における村高は文禄3年に実施された検地の結果ではなく, また1597 (慶長2) 年以降の検地による高でもない。それは正しく1591年の検地で得られた結果である。(4) 1592年5月から6月に, 家数人数等改 (家数人数調査) が伊達政宗領内で実施された。それは唐入 (支那征伐) のために豊臣秀吉の指令によって実施された。それゆえ, 蒲生氏所領でもこの調査が実施されるのは, 当然である。(5) 検断, 肝煎および小走を含む邑鑑の大森における家数は, 1591年秋, 大森城が廃城となって間もない時の調査であることを示す。なんとなれば, 町の所在を示す検断の存在と, 他の村に比し大森村の村役人の数が多いこととが, 城下町が廃止された直後の状態を示す名残りと見なされるからである。
著者
安田 初雄
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.69-76, 1955 (Released:2010-10-29)
参考文献数
59

(1) The followings are famous nine pastures of NANBU-HAN in recent times; The pastures of Oma, Okoppe, Arito, Kisaki, Matashige, Sumiya, Ainai, Kita, and Misaki. (2) They are on the north-eastern corner of Honshu, and have a characters of lowland pasture. Of which, Arito, Kisaki, and Matashige are on the diluvial tableland, Oma, Okoppe Kita and Misaki are on the coastal terrace, Sumiya and Ainai are on the foot hills. (3) Formerly the pastures of Kita and Misaki had not the fence around them, And grazing horses (so called NOMMA there) ran about freely among the forest and on the grass lands of this neghbourhood. This is a type of free grazing. Therefore for the protection of crops there were fences that enclose the farms. (4) BY the grazig habits, the nine pastres are classified two types. The one is the type of OKITSUKI (a type of grazing all the year round). The other is the type of grazing during warm seasons. Oma, Okoppe Kisaki, Kita and Misaki belong the former type. And Arito, Matasige, Sumiya and Ainai belong the latter. The pastures of the type of OKITSUKI was near the coast. There were bamboo grass and dead grass that were not buried by snow because wiod blew away them. The Pastures of the type of graziug in warm seasons was on the more snowy land. Therefore in winter it was difficult to grazing there. (5) The landscape of pastures of the two types were different. That of the pastures of the type of OKITSUKI was forest-like, because there had been prohibited to burn grass and Jree on the pastures, for thr shelter was needed there. That of the pastures of the type of grazing in warm seasons was grass-land-like, because it had been burned there every year.
著者
籠瀬 良明
出版者
THE TOHOKU GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION
雑誌
東北地理 (ISSN:03872777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.4, pp.159-168, 1983 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
4

In the western part of Ibaraki prefecture, there is a slender zone of paddy fields which is located in between Mitsukaido City and Sanwa Town. It is called ‘Iinuma-Shinden’. This zone had been a shallow lake until 1725 (the 10th Year of Kyoho). The lake was reclaimed by Tokugawa Shogunate which accepted the villagers' petition of the reclamation.The writer has studied this zone, and clarified where the former lacustrine shoreline was existed (Figs. 4, 8, etc.). The data for deciding upon the shoreline are as follows; a) the large scale maps published after 1965 (Figs. 8, 9, etc.), b) the map of district baundaries of former towns and villages in this zone (Fig. 6.), and c) the old map of this zone made in 1724 (Figs. 1, 7, etc.).From these data, the writer has estimated the surface level of the former lake was 10.7 meter in height and made clear that the farmers' settlements were distributed around the paddy fields made by reclamation. Furthermore, the writer has clarified that the place of their settlements was on the topset flat of the former delta (of the “lake days”), and consisted of soft silt and sand from 20 to 40 meter thick.