著者
藤田 昌大
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
まてりあ (ISSN:13402625)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.5, pp.464-467, 1997-05-20 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
1 1
著者
辛島 恵美子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
日本金属学会誌 (ISSN:00214876)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.12, pp.1236-1245, 2002 (Released:2008-04-24)
参考文献数
27

The Shinkansen Line has experienced no serious car-accidents since its operation start in 1964. Why has the Shinkansen Line been able to keep such a good safety performance? This paper intends to clarify the background and the reasons why those miracles became possible—when, what kinds of risks and what kinds of actions the staff of the Japanese National Railways took in, who participated in the development of the Tokaido Shinkansen railway-axles in 1950s∼1960s as a designer, an investigator, a maintenance engineer, an inspector, or a top executive in technology. I discovered all the staff had been dedicated to their duties and their actions were prudent enough in general. As a result their behaviors have reduced the riskiness of their works objectively. But the most of the staff were not so much sensitive to risk itself as a few technical top executives of JNR. For example when the inspectors first found unexpected micro cracks on the 20% running axles in 1965, the top executives adapted a new management system in 1966 based on those inspections, which contained a systematic long-range R&D plan of high-quality railway-axles as well as an effective risk management for micro cracks.
著者
梅川 莊吉
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
日本金属学会誌 (ISSN:00214876)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.8, pp.449-452, 1954 (Released:2008-04-04)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
1

Young’s modulus and its change accompanied by heat-treatment and by cold-working in gold-silver and gold-copper alloys has been measured by lateral vibration method of a cantilever under small amount of stress. The composition dependence of Young’s modulus is monotonous in both alloy systems. Young’s modulus of Cu3Au increases and of CuAu decreases the superlattice formation. The effect of cold work on Young’s modulus is similar for some gold-silver alloys, but it differs considerably with some gold-copper alloys.
著者
杉岡 奈穂子 北田 正弘 西嶋 雅彦
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
日本金属学会誌 (ISSN:00214876)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.5, pp.185-191, 2013 (Released:2013-05-01)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
2

The metallurgical microstructure and mechanical properties of the spear blade manufactured in the Edo period have been investigated. The purpose of this work is to obtain metallographic data of the spear blade, and to clarify the manufacturing technique of the spear blade. The specimen examined was estimated to have been made from the end of the Muromachi period to the Edo period and has the signature of Shinano-no-Kami Minamoto Takamichi. The spear is 31 cm in length and 10.7 mm in maximum width. The metallurgical microstructure and nonmetallic inclusions of the spear blade are observed using an optical microscope. The carbon concentration is determined by chemical analysis. To evaluate the hardness, micro Vickers hardness (Hmv) is used. The microstructure is observed using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The concentration of nonmetallic inclusions is obtained by electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS).    A cross-sectional image of the spear after chemical etching shows a metal flow pattern formed by deformation, possibly created by hammering. The striped structure of layers of two types of steel containing different carbon contents stacked on top of each other was observed. The bright areas after etching corresponded to the edges and ridges of the spear, which were cooled rapidly, forming the martensite structure. The other dark areas consist of pearlite and α-Fe (ferrite) grains. Optical micrographs of near-edge areas contain pearlite and martensite grains, and core areas contain pearlite and α-Fe grains. The nonmetallic inclusions in the core steel consist of a few metal oxide particles and a glass matrix. There are Fe-Ti oxide grains in the glass matrix, and an unknown oxide particle adhering on the Fe-Ti oxide grain surface was also observed.
著者
小岩 昌宏
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
まてりあ (ISSN:13402625)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.58-62, 2000-01-20 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
13
著者
原田 幸明 島田 正典 井島 清
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
日本金属学会誌 (ISSN:00214876)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.10, pp.831-839, 2007 (Released:2007-10-01)
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
11 6

Forecasting are made regarding the consumption up to 2050 of following metals: Fe, Al, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Si, Sn, rare earths, Mo, Li, Sb, W, Ag, Co, In, Au, Ga, Pt and Pd. The forecasts are based on the liniar decoupling model of the relation between per capita metal consumption and per capita GDP. The models of each metal are applied to the economic development model of BRICs and G6 countries. According these forecasts, the overall consumption of metals in 2050 will be five times greater than the current levels, and demand for metals, such as Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Sn, Zn, Pb, and Sb, is expected to be several times greater than the amount of their respective reserves. Demand for iron and platinum, which is considered to be optimistic about the resource exhaustion, will also exceed the current reserves. Urgent measures are needed to find alternatives from common resources and to shift into materials circulation society.
著者
釘屋 奈都子 永田 和宏 北田 正弘
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
日本金属学会誌 (ISSN:00214876)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.4, pp.149-158, 2014 (Released:2014-04-01)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1

The manufacturing technique of steel chains used for four Japanese armatures from the end of Muromachi to the Edo period has been investigated. The chains used in Kusazuri (tasset) and two types of Kote (guntlet) were composed of steel rings in round and oval shapes while those used in Kusarikatabira (chainmail) was only round. As for the former ones, round rings were connected by oval rings. The diameter of steel wire of rings was about 1 mm. The steel wire was produced from steel plate with the carbon content of 0.11 to 0.40 mass%. Steel was forge-and-welded twice to make in plate and was cut in a bar. The steel bar was drawn into standardized wires by die with the draft percentage of about 25% and annealed. Drawing of standardized wire followed by annealing was repeated several times to make a wire for armatures. The crystal grains in wires were elongated in axial direction and the aspect ratio of grain in oval rings was larger than that in round rings. A wire was rolled around a stick and cut by chisel to make rings.
著者
佐々木 清文
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
まてりあ (ISSN:13402625)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.10, pp.1149-1153, 1995-10-20 (Released:2011-08-11)
参考文献数
10
著者
桐野 文良 大野 直志 田口 智子 根津 暁充 横山 亮一
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
日本金属学会誌 (ISSN:00214876)
巻号頁・発行日
2019

<p>The production processes of old Japanese coins, <i>Genbun-koban</i>, <i>Akita-ginban</i> and <i>Morioka-ginban</i>, were studied. These coins were manufactured by a forging method in the <i>Edo</i>-era. <i>Genbun-koban</i>, manufactured at a gold mint of the <i>Tokugawa</i> shogunate called <i>Kinza</i>, in 1736, is made of Au-Ag alloy and its surface is not flat. The residual stress of this coin is compressive, and the residual stress in the stamped area is higher than that in the flat area. The <i>Iroage</i> method was used to color the coin; it is a thermal treatment, resulting in lows the residual stress is smaller at flat area. <i>Akita-ginban</i>, manufactured in the <i>Akita</i> domain in 1863 is made of pure Ag and its surface is also not flat. There is no residual stress in this coin. This result shows that the thermal treatment of this coin was carried out after processing. <i>Morioka-ginban</i>, manufactured in the <i>Morioka</i> domain in 1868, is made of pure Ag, and its surface is flat. The residual stress of this coin is compressive, and the residual stress in the stamped area is higher than that in the flat area. This result shows that the thermal treatment was not carried out after processing. These coins manufactured in the <i>Edo-</i>era thus had different thermal treatments.</p>