著者
夏原 隆之 中山 雅雄 加藤 貴昭 永野 智久 吉田 拓矢 佐々木 亮太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.71-85, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
4 3

Some of the mechanisms underlying superior performance in sports may be clarified by investigating the role of visual information in the execution of particular responses by expert athletes. The aim of this study was to examine how soccer players process visual information when executing a tactical pass in a 4 vs. 4 attacking play scenario. To identify the cognitive processes operating during task execution, we measured eye movement and correlated it with verbal reports from players. The subjects comprised 30 soccer players with differing proficiencies (15 “experts” and 15 “sub-experts”). 2 tests were carried out: a test to evaluate the level of passing skill, and a decision-making test to evaluate the reproducibility of tactical passing and the accuracy of passes aimed to specific locations. Eye movements were measured during the decision-making test. Furthermore, in each trial of the decision-making test, verbal reports were collected. These related to how and why participants decided to pass the ball to any particular player among the 4 attackers on screen and, in order to determine their best judgment, how they captured the play situation and what they paid attention to. The results revealed that for execution of the pass, the experts were significantly more proficient at passing accurately to the aimed location, and their passing judgment was more reproducible in comparison to the sub-experts, although both groups had a uniform level of passing skill in terms of pass execution. In addition, eye movement data obtained during pass execution confirmed that in the play observation phase, while experts maintained their line of sight on other objects, they also maintained a longer gaze on defensive players to identify gaps between them. Also in the ball approach phase, the experts maintained a longer gaze on the player who was judged to be the best choice for receiving an accurate pass. These observations suggest that the superior passing performance of expert soccer players is attributable to accurate and efficient extraction of visual information and utilizing it in the context of their accumulated knowledge base.
著者
夏原 隆之 加藤 貴昭 中山 雅雄 浅井 武
出版者
The Japan Journal of Coaching Studies
雑誌
コーチング学研究 (ISSN:21851646)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.1-10, 2017-10-01 (Released:2019-03-01)
参考文献数
78
被引用文献数
1

Accurately judging a situation during soccer is one of the important factors for executing superior performance. In order to acquire decision making ability, in practice and instruction sessions, it is considered desirable to adapt scientific knowledge to coaches' rules of thumb and experiences. However, it has been pointed out that practice and instructions based on scientific evidence are hardly executed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to examine the relationship between the perceptual-cognitive skills and coaching science related to decision making for the perceptual-cognitive skill research in soccer through an overview of the research results that have been clarified so far about each factor of pattern recognition, visual search behaviors, and anticipation that constitute perceptual-cognitive skills, and the knowledge that supports them. In addition, one of the important tasks in perceptual-cognitive skill research is acquiring perceptual-cognitive skills and developing effective coaching and training methods. Therefore, from the standpoint of motor learning research, we discuss future works on perceptual-cognitive skills of soccer, while exploring the relationship between acquisition of perceptual-cognitive skills and coaching science. It is suggested that the theoretical background clarified through this review would be useful for obtaining scientific knowledge about decision making in an environment with severe temporal and spatial constraints.
著者
松竹 貴大 夏原 隆之 田部井 祐介 中山 雅雄 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, pp.111_1-111_1, 2016

<p> 本研究では、熟練したサッカー選手の状況判断時における脳内情報処理の特性を明らかにする事を目的に、競技レベルの異なる大学生サッカー選手26名(Expert群:13名、Sub Expert群: 13名)を対象に実際のプレー状況を想定した選択反応課題(3vs1パス回し課題、4vs2パス回し課題)における事象関連電位(event related potential:ERP)、筋電図反応時間(electromyography reaction time:EMGRT)及び反応時間(Reaction Time:RT)の測定を行った。結果、EMGRT、RTではExpert群がSub Expert群より有意に短かった。ERPにおいてはP300潜時、振幅ともに有意差は認められなかった。状況判断におけるExpert群とSub-Expert群の大きな違いは、正確に速く運動を実行できる(出力できる)ことであった。これらのことから、熟練したサッカー選手は状況判断を行い、プレーを実行する際「どのような状況か」という評価よりも、「何をすべきか」という反応・運動の処理が、より先行して賦活していることが示唆された。</p>
著者
松竹 貴大 夏原 隆之 小井土 正亮 鈴木 健介 田部井 祐介 中山 雅雄 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.1, pp.107-123, 2018-02-01 (Released:2018-01-19)
参考文献数
62

In this study, observing football players under simulated playing conditions to measure event-related potentials (ERPs, i.e. P300), electromyography reaction time (EMG-RT), and reaction time (RT), we investigated neural correlates of information processing during selective reaction challenges. A high performance group included 13 collegiate football players who had previously won the All Japan University Championships. A low performance group included 13 collegiate football players who never competed at the national level or played in prefectural or regional competitions. We conducted a 4 vs. 2 ball possession task (i.e. a Go/NoGo task) under simulated playing conditions that required situational assessment. Our results showed that the high-performance group had a significantly higher correct response rate than did the low-performance group in 4 vs. 2 ball possession tasks. Moreover, the EMG-RT and RT of the high-performance group were significantly shorter than that of the low-performance group. Furthermore, the P100 and P300 latencies of the high-performance group was significantly shorter than those of the low-performance group. These findings indicated that high-performance football players could perform the task-relevant stages of information processing (such as visual information processing, stimulus evaluation, and motor response output) in a short time. There was no correlation between EMG-RT and P100 (Go, NoGo stimulation), indicating that initial visual information processing did not contribute to the execution of the final motor response. There was no correlation between EMG-RT and Go P300 latency, whereas a significant correlation with NoGo P300 latency was shown. This suggested that the stimulus evaluation system by NoGo stimuli (response inhibition) is strongly involved in the final motor output reaction.