著者
夏原 隆之 中山 雅雄 加藤 貴昭 永野 智久 吉田 拓矢 佐々木 亮太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.71-85, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
31

Some of the mechanisms underlying superior performance in sports may be clarified by investigating the role of visual information in the execution of particular responses by expert athletes. The aim of this study was to examine how soccer players process visual information when executing a tactical pass in a 4 vs. 4 attacking play scenario. To identify the cognitive processes operating during task execution, we measured eye movement and correlated it with verbal reports from players. The subjects comprised 30 soccer players with differing proficiencies (15 “experts” and 15 “sub-experts”). 2 tests were carried out: a test to evaluate the level of passing skill, and a decision-making test to evaluate the reproducibility of tactical passing and the accuracy of passes aimed to specific locations. Eye movements were measured during the decision-making test. Furthermore, in each trial of the decision-making test, verbal reports were collected. These related to how and why participants decided to pass the ball to any particular player among the 4 attackers on screen and, in order to determine their best judgment, how they captured the play situation and what they paid attention to. The results revealed that for execution of the pass, the experts were significantly more proficient at passing accurately to the aimed location, and their passing judgment was more reproducible in comparison to the sub-experts, although both groups had a uniform level of passing skill in terms of pass execution. In addition, eye movement data obtained during pass execution confirmed that in the play observation phase, while experts maintained their line of sight on other objects, they also maintained a longer gaze on defensive players to identify gaps between them. Also in the ball approach phase, the experts maintained a longer gaze on the player who was judged to be the best choice for receiving an accurate pass. These observations suggest that the superior passing performance of expert soccer players is attributable to accurate and efficient extraction of visual information and utilizing it in the context of their accumulated knowledge base.
著者
松倉 啓太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.277-296, 2013 (Released:2013-06-08)
参考文献数
15

It is believed that the success of the goalkeeper (GK) in saving difficult shots by diving is a key factor in soccer because it can influence the outcome of the game to a large extent. However, the most appropriate way to exert force during the diving motion according to the course of the shot from either leg is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the fundamental mechanism of a GK's diving motion according to the height and distance of the shot. We performed an experiment in which 11 university GKs participated. They were asked to dive toward balls set at 3 different heights located a short or a long distance from the GK. By examining the GKs' diving motions, we calculated the ground reaction force (GRF), joint angular velocity, and joint torque. The results indicated that the magnitude of the GRF under both legs and the direction of the GRF under the ball-side (BS) leg differed with the ball height. We also found that a higher dive by the GKs corresponded to a larger counter-movement of the contralateral-side (CS) leg and a higher stopping power of the BS leg in order to increase the vertical velocity, and more exertion of extension torques at the hip and foot for takeoff compared to those in lower dives. Furthermore, a lower dive of the GKs corresponded to a larger angular impulse of the BS hip adduction after the BS leg touched the ground. These findings suggest that during the takeoff part of the diving motion of a GK, depending on the ball height, the CS leg controls the magnitude of power and the BS leg controls both the magnitude and the direction of power in order for the GK to dive directly towards the ball.
著者
平嶋 裕輔 中山 雅雄 内藤 清志 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.805-816, 2014 (Released:2014-12-20)
参考文献数
24

The purpose of this study was to clarify the principal factors related to shot situations that affect the outcome of goalkeeping saves in soccer and to build a regression formula that would predict the difficulty of saving a shot. The samples were 551 shots at goal in the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The shots data were collected using game performance analysis. For statistical processing, the principal factors affecting the outcome of a save in soccer were revealed using logistic regression analysis. The principal factors that influenced the results of a save attempt were: the duration between initiation of the shot and when the ball reached the goal, the presence or absence of a defender in front of the shooter, the presence or absence of a defender located lateral or posterior to the shooter, the part of the body used to perform the shot, i.e. the head or the leg, the type of shot, i.e., a liner, a lob, or a grounder, the shot course in a mediolateral direction, the shot course in a vertical direction, the presence or absence of a change in the direction of the shot by other players, the shooter's position angle in relation to the goal line and the line from the goal post to the shooter, and the distance from the center of the goal to the ball when the ball reached the goal line. In addition, a regression formula was constructed to predict the difficulty of the save by combining the odds ratios of the main factors. It was verified that the difficulty in making a save could be accurately predicted using the regression formula (84.8%). As a future task, using our regression formula, it would be practically important to develop predictors for evaluating the ability of a goalkeeper.
著者
松倉 啓太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.317-326, 2009-12-10 (Released:2010-02-13)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
2 or 0

The present study investigated the area covered by soccer goalkeepers during diving motions (reaching area). Goalkeepers were asked to dive towards the ball in accordance with a directional indicator that presented random electronic displays. To examine the characteristics of goalkeepers' diving motion toward each position of the ball, the time needed to reach the ball (reaching time) was measured, as well as the velocity and trajectory of the diving motion. Comparison of the reaching time for each ball height (upper, medium, and low) when each goalkeeper dived for only a short distance revealed statistically significant differences in attempts to stop the ball, the times increasing in the order medium, upper, low height. When a goalkeeper dived longer distances, there was a significant difference in the reaching time, which increased in the order medium, low, and upper height. No significant differences in reaching time were observed between the left and right sides for the same distances and heights. These results suggest that for short distances, more time is needed for relatively lower heights, whereas for longer distances, more time is needed to reach balls at relatively high levels. In terms of the velocity of the diving motion, when the center point between the shoulders was measured with the ball at longer distances, there was a trend for an acceleration phase to start 0.3 s after the directional indicator had been shown. It slowed temporarily at 0.5 s and then resumed. Meanwhile, when attempting to stop the ball at shorter distances, there was a trend for only one phase of acceleration without any stepping action (i.e., taking a running start). Moreover, temporal changes in the center position of the hand (the third metacarpophalangeal joint) that touched the ball were used to create a diagram depicting the estimated range of time needed to reach the ball. This diagram was able to clarify differences in reaching area with respect to ball height and distance.
著者
松竹 貴大 實宝 希祥 門岡 晋 菅生 貴之 浅井 武
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Psychology
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
2016

Primary scientific data for evaluating information processing ability of the central nervous system that are associated with decision making was investigated in football players, by using event-related potentials (ERP; N200, P300) and reaction times. Participants were college football players who were winners of the all Japan university championship (n=8; Elites) and 8 graduate students with no football experience (n=8; Novices). They used an oddball paradigm consisting of a simple visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 1: CRT1) and an oddball paradigm consisting of a complex visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 2: CRT2). Results indicated that Elites had a significantly shorter reaction time than Novices in the CRT2. This finding corroborated many previous studies, and indicated that reaction times of Elites were faster than Novices. In addition, ERP (N200 and P300) was observed in all participants and there were no significant differences between the two groups in N200, or P300 latencies in the CRT1. However, Elites showed latencies that were significantly shorter than Novices in the CRT2. These results indicated that the process of evaluating and classifying stimuli was faster in Elites, suggesting that information processing ability of Elites was superior to Novices. In conclusion, this study identified basic scientific data on reaction times and ERP associated with evaluating information that are indicative of central nervous system processing ability associated with decision making by football players.
著者
平嶋 裕輔 中山 雅雄 内藤 清志 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2014-09-20)
参考文献数
24

The purpose of this study was to clarify the principal factors related to shot situations that affect the outcome of goalkeeping saves in soccer and to build a regression formula that would predict the difficulty of saving a shot. The samples were 551 shots at goal in the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The shots data were collected using game performance analysis. For statistical processing, the principal factors affecting the outcome of a save in soccer were revealed using logistic regression analysis. The principal factors that influenced the results of a save attempt were: the duration between initiation of the shot and when the ball reached the goal, the presence or absence of a defender in front of the shooter, the presence or absence of a defender located lateral or posterior to the shooter, the part of the body used to perform the shot, i.e. the head or the leg, the type of shot, i.e., a liner, a lob, or a grounder, the shot course in a mediolateral direction, the shot course in a vertical direction, the presence or absence of a change in the direction of the shot by other players, the shooter's position angle in relation to the goal line and the line from the goal post to the shooter, and the distance from the center of the goal to the ball when the ball reached the goal line. In addition, a regression formula was constructed to predict the difficulty of the save by combining the odds ratios of the main factors. It was verified that the difficulty in making a save could be accurately predicted using the regression formula (84.8%). As a future task, using our regression formula, it would be practically important to develop predictors for evaluating the ability of a goalkeeper.
著者
鎌田 安久 浅井 武 栗林 徹
出版者
岩手大学
雑誌
岩手大学教育学部附属教育実践研究指導センター研究紀要 (ISSN:09172874)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.107-118, 1997

現在の欧州のサッカー先進国におけるチーム戦術や技能について集約して分析することが可能な欧州サッカー選手権をイギリス現地で6試合視察分析し,そのうち,今回は準々決勝のドイツ代表(vsクロアチア戦)と準決勝のイングランド代表(vsドイツ戦)の2チームを対象としゲーム分析を行った.また,その際,前回のスウェーデン大会の分析から考えられた1.指導上のポイントや2.日本の問題点についての視点も含めてゲーム分析をおこなった。その結果,3-5-2システムを基調とする組織的で戦術的にもチームの構成選手の能力を活かしたチームのゲーム展開が攻守に渡り観られた。また,指導上の重要な要因と考えられるポイントや日本で問題点とされる技術面についても高いパフォーマンスが認められた。
著者
浅井 武 瀬尾 和哉 酒井 淳 笹瀬 雅史 河野 銀子
出版者
筑波大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2005 (Released:2005-04-01)

本研究では、実験風洞と数値流体解析を基にしたスポーツ流体シミュレーターを、パーソナル・スーパーコンピューター上に開発した.さらに,実際のスポーツ科学,スポーツ工学問題の展開事例として、流体工学的観点からスポーツ技術を検討すると共に,スポーツボールやスポーツシューズを代表とするスポーツ用具の空力特性の解析や改良を試みた.サッカーボールの空力解析の場合,スポーツ流体シミュレーターを用いたCFD解析と風洞実験により,無回転のサッカーボールの空力係数を分析すると共に,四塩化チタンを用いた可視化手法により,実際に飛翔するボール後流の動態を検討し,サッカーボールの空力特性を明らかにした.CFDと風洞実験におけるレイノルズ数と抗力係数の関係をみると,亜臨界レンジで0.43程度,超臨界レンジで0.15程度を示し,サッカーボールの臨界レイノルズ数は,約2.2〜3.0×10^5であると考えられた.サッカーボールの抗力係数は,平滑球とゴルフボールの中間的特性を示し,ボールパネルは臨界レイノルズ数を減少させるという意味で,空気抵抗を下げていると考えられる.CFDと可視化実験において,ボールの低速時(5m/s)と高速時(29m/s)のボール周りの流れを比較すると,低速時では,境界層の剥離点が前方岐点より約90deg.に位置していたのに対して,高速時では,剥離点が前方岐点より約120deg.に後退していた.ボール直後の渦リングのような渦塊から発生周波数を計測し,Stを推定すると,平滑球のレイノルズ数4×10^4近傍のハイモード値約1.0と近い値であると考えられた.ボールが飛翔した後,ラージスケールの渦振動(渦塊の蛇行)が観察された.このメカニズムの詳細は不明であるが,渦振動が,サッカーボールの「ナックルエフェクト」に関連している可能性があると思われた.
著者
青山 興司 中原 康雄 片山 修一 浅井 武 後藤 隆文
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本小児外科学会
雑誌
日本小児外科学会雑誌 (ISSN:0288609X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.6, pp.1018-1024, 2015-10-20 (Released:2015-10-20)
参考文献数
9

現在,日本の鎖肛の手術においては,Pena 術式が広く使用されている.この手術には視野の展開が容易であるという非常に優れた点もあるが,排便機能に最も重要な括約筋群を切開するという致命的な欠陥がある.これらを考慮し各症例においてPena 手術が適応かどうかを十分に考慮した上で使用すべき,との結論に達した.
著者
松竹 貴大 實宝 希祥 門岡 晋 菅生 貴之 浅井 武
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.1-13, 2016

Primary scientific data for evaluating information processing ability of the central nervous system that are associated with decision making was investigated in football players, by using event-related potentials (ERP; N200, P300) and reaction times. Participants were college football players who were winners of the all Japan university championship (n=8; Elites) and 8 graduate students with no football experience (n=8; Novices). They used an oddball paradigm consisting of a simple visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 1: CRT1) and an oddball paradigm consisting of a complex visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 2: CRT2). Results indicated that Elites had a significantly shorter reaction time than Novices in the CRT2. This finding corroborated many previous studies, and indicated that reaction times of Elites were faster than Novices. In addition, ERP (N200 and P300) was observed in all participants and there were no significant differences between the two groups in N200, or P300 latencies in the CRT1. However, Elites showed latencies that were significantly shorter than Novices in the CRT2. These results indicated that the process of evaluating and classifying stimuli was faster in Elites, suggesting that information processing ability of Elites was superior to Novices. In conclusion, this study identified basic scientific data on reaction times and ERP associated with evaluating information that are indicative of central nervous system processing ability associated with decision making by football players.
著者
中山 雅雄 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.343-353, 2009-12-10 (Released:2010-02-13)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
0 or 3

The purpose of this study was to investigate the elements that constitute an effective environment for passing practice in soccer by analyzing the relationship between player age range as an organism constraint and the width of the area in which the ball is possessed in a three vs. one (3 vs. 1) task constraint. The task consisted of passing the ball employing one or two touches to maintain possession in a 3 vs. 1 formation in three different square-shaped areas measuring 8m×8m, 10m×10m and 12m×12m. The participants were divided according to age, and categorized as under (U)-10 (fourth grade elementary school), U-12 (sixth grade elementary school), U-14 (second grade junior school) and U-16 (first grade high school). The following criteria were then investigated: passing performance (passing success rate and the number of passing sequences), speed of the passing movement, support available to the player, and decision-making about the passing direction.It was found that U-10 players performed worse in the task than players in the other age groups. Moreover, passing speed was affected by the width of the play area for the U-10 and U-12 players, but not for the U-14 and U-16 players. The distance between the support players was the same for all age groups; however, for the U-10 players, the support angles were more acute than those for the other age groups, thus preventing the U-10 players from adopting useful supporting positions. Furthermore, it was found that the width of the play area did not affect passing performance, but did affect the speed of the passing movement in the 3 vs. 1 task. The distance and the angle of support differed among the players in the different age groups.It is concluded that a wider area in the 3 vs.1 possession task creates easier choices for U-10 and U-12 players, leading to easy understanding of the passing motions. For the U-14 and U-16 players, making the area narrower is effective for maintaining a higher 3 vs.1 possession level. From these perspectives, considering the width of the area for 3 vs.1 possession is important in relation to the developmental stage of soccer players.
著者
丹羽 健市 浅井 武 長井 健二 大貫 義人 笹瀬 雅史 竹田 隆一 曽 広新 李 宏玉 修 傳風 揚 振東
出版者
山形大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
1997 (Released:1997-04-01)

これは平成9年度〜平成11年度の3年間にわたって山形大学教育学部と中国・吉林師範学院体育分院の共同で行われた「日中東北地域におけるスポーツ科学の比較研究」の報告書である。近年、スポーツ科学の発展はめざましく、その国際化と多彩な分野の総合化は急務な課題となっている。そこで山形大学と吉林師範学院の体育・スポーツ研究者が、同じ東北地方に位置するという地理的条件などを考慮し、上記テーマを設定し、共同研究を通じて学術交流をすすめることになった。3年間にわたり、両大学の研究者が2名ずつ相互に訪問し、共同研究を実施した。この報告書には共同研究で得られた成果をもとに発表された論文・資料等を掲載した。また、共同研究会での発表の要旨も収録した。そこであきらかなように、この研究はバイオメカニクス、運動生理学、体育科教育、武道論、体育社会学などスポーツ科学がカバーする広範な分野に及んでいる。ここには、丹羽健市による運動時の水分摂取と体温調節の生理学的研究、大貫義人による低体温者の運動に関するスポーツ医科学研究、浅井武によるサッカーのバイオメカニクス研究。長井健二の体育科教育研究、曽広新の太極拳の運動生理学研究、竹田隆一、宮煥生の武道教育研究、笹瀬雅史の体育社会学的考察、などがまとめられている。また日本および中国の東北部という冬季寒冷な地城におけるスポーツ活動やスポーツ科学的トレーニングに関する知見の交流、さらに学佼やスポーツ施設などの実地見聞も共同研究をすすめるうえで有益であった。資料収集と情報交換は継続して行われた。こうして、同じように東北地方に位置し、教員養成系大学である山形大学と吉林師範学院の体育・スポーツ研究者の共同研究ならびに学術交流は一定の成果をあげたものである。今後は、この基礎作業を土台として、さらに共同研究を継続していくことが必要である。なお、この共同研究の実施と報告書の刊行は、「科学研究費補助金基盤研究(B)(2)」を得て行われたものである。
著者
浅井 武 瀬尾 和哉 藤井 範久 高木 英樹 小池 関也 藤澤 延行
出版者
筑波大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2008 (Released:2008-04-01)

本研究では,先端的スポーツ流体科学・工学の基盤創生と展開研究の一環として,実際にキックされたナックルボールに対して,高速度ビデオカメラと発煙物質を用いて可視化し,渦放出の動態について検討した.その結果,飛翔するボールに働く横力と揚力の周波数と,大規模渦構造における渦振動の周波数に高い相関がみられた(r=0.94,p<0.01).これらのことから,大規模渦構造における渦振動がナックルボールの不規則な変化を引き起こす大きな原因の一つになっていると考えられた.