著者
松倉 啓太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.277-296, 2013 (Released:2013-06-08)

It is believed that the success of the goalkeeper (GK) in saving difficult shots by diving is a key factor in soccer because it can influence the outcome of the game to a large extent. However, the most appropriate way to exert force during the diving motion according to the course of the shot from either leg is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the fundamental mechanism of a GK's diving motion according to the height and distance of the shot. We performed an experiment in which 11 university GKs participated. They were asked to dive toward balls set at 3 different heights located a short or a long distance from the GK. By examining the GKs' diving motions, we calculated the ground reaction force (GRF), joint angular velocity, and joint torque. The results indicated that the magnitude of the GRF under both legs and the direction of the GRF under the ball-side (BS) leg differed with the ball height. We also found that a higher dive by the GKs corresponded to a larger counter-movement of the contralateral-side (CS) leg and a higher stopping power of the BS leg in order to increase the vertical velocity, and more exertion of extension torques at the hip and foot for takeoff compared to those in lower dives. Furthermore, a lower dive of the GKs corresponded to a larger angular impulse of the BS hip adduction after the BS leg touched the ground. These findings suggest that during the takeoff part of the diving motion of a GK, depending on the ball height, the CS leg controls the magnitude of power and the BS leg controls both the magnitude and the direction of power in order for the GK to dive directly towards the ball.
著者
平嶋 裕輔 中山 雅雄 内藤 清志 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.805-816, 2014 (Released:2014-12-20)

The purpose of this study was to clarify the principal factors related to shot situations that affect the outcome of goalkeeping saves in soccer and to build a regression formula that would predict the difficulty of saving a shot. The samples were 551 shots at goal in the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The shots data were collected using game performance analysis. For statistical processing, the principal factors affecting the outcome of a save in soccer were revealed using logistic regression analysis. The principal factors that influenced the results of a save attempt were: the duration between initiation of the shot and when the ball reached the goal, the presence or absence of a defender in front of the shooter, the presence or absence of a defender located lateral or posterior to the shooter, the part of the body used to perform the shot, i.e. the head or the leg, the type of shot, i.e., a liner, a lob, or a grounder, the shot course in a mediolateral direction, the shot course in a vertical direction, the presence or absence of a change in the direction of the shot by other players, the shooter's position angle in relation to the goal line and the line from the goal post to the shooter, and the distance from the center of the goal to the ball when the ball reached the goal line. In addition, a regression formula was constructed to predict the difficulty of the save by combining the odds ratios of the main factors. It was verified that the difficulty in making a save could be accurately predicted using the regression formula (84.8%). As a future task, using our regression formula, it would be practically important to develop predictors for evaluating the ability of a goalkeeper.
著者
松倉 啓太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.317-326, 2009-12-10 (Released:2010-02-13)
被引用文献数
2 or 0

The present study investigated the area covered by soccer goalkeepers during diving motions (reaching area). Goalkeepers were asked to dive towards the ball in accordance with a directional indicator that presented random electronic displays. To examine the characteristics of goalkeepers' diving motion toward each position of the ball, the time needed to reach the ball (reaching time) was measured, as well as the velocity and trajectory of the diving motion. Comparison of the reaching time for each ball height (upper, medium, and low) when each goalkeeper dived for only a short distance revealed statistically significant differences in attempts to stop the ball, the times increasing in the order medium, upper, low height. When a goalkeeper dived longer distances, there was a significant difference in the reaching time, which increased in the order medium, low, and upper height. No significant differences in reaching time were observed between the left and right sides for the same distances and heights. These results suggest that for short distances, more time is needed for relatively lower heights, whereas for longer distances, more time is needed to reach balls at relatively high levels. In terms of the velocity of the diving motion, when the center point between the shoulders was measured with the ball at longer distances, there was a trend for an acceleration phase to start 0.3 s after the directional indicator had been shown. It slowed temporarily at 0.5 s and then resumed. Meanwhile, when attempting to stop the ball at shorter distances, there was a trend for only one phase of acceleration without any stepping action (i.e., taking a running start). Moreover, temporal changes in the center position of the hand (the third metacarpophalangeal joint) that touched the ball were used to create a diagram depicting the estimated range of time needed to reach the ball. This diagram was able to clarify differences in reaching area with respect to ball height and distance.
著者
夏原 隆之 中山 雅雄 加藤 貴昭 永野 智久 吉田 拓矢 佐々木 亮太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.71-85, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)

Some of the mechanisms underlying superior performance in sports may be clarified by investigating the role of visual information in the execution of particular responses by expert athletes. The aim of this study was to examine how soccer players process visual information when executing a tactical pass in a 4 vs. 4 attacking play scenario. To identify the cognitive processes operating during task execution, we measured eye movement and correlated it with verbal reports from players. The subjects comprised 30 soccer players with differing proficiencies (15 “experts” and 15 “sub-experts”). 2 tests were carried out: a test to evaluate the level of passing skill, and a decision-making test to evaluate the reproducibility of tactical passing and the accuracy of passes aimed to specific locations. Eye movements were measured during the decision-making test. Furthermore, in each trial of the decision-making test, verbal reports were collected. These related to how and why participants decided to pass the ball to any particular player among the 4 attackers on screen and, in order to determine their best judgment, how they captured the play situation and what they paid attention to. The results revealed that for execution of the pass, the experts were significantly more proficient at passing accurately to the aimed location, and their passing judgment was more reproducible in comparison to the sub-experts, although both groups had a uniform level of passing skill in terms of pass execution. In addition, eye movement data obtained during pass execution confirmed that in the play observation phase, while experts maintained their line of sight on other objects, they also maintained a longer gaze on defensive players to identify gaps between them. Also in the ball approach phase, the experts maintained a longer gaze on the player who was judged to be the best choice for receiving an accurate pass. These observations suggest that the superior passing performance of expert soccer players is attributable to accurate and efficient extraction of visual information and utilizing it in the context of their accumulated knowledge base.
著者
平嶋 裕輔 中山 雅雄 内藤 清志 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2014-09-20)

The purpose of this study was to clarify the principal factors related to shot situations that affect the outcome of goalkeeping saves in soccer and to build a regression formula that would predict the difficulty of saving a shot. The samples were 551 shots at goal in the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The shots data were collected using game performance analysis. For statistical processing, the principal factors affecting the outcome of a save in soccer were revealed using logistic regression analysis. The principal factors that influenced the results of a save attempt were: the duration between initiation of the shot and when the ball reached the goal, the presence or absence of a defender in front of the shooter, the presence or absence of a defender located lateral or posterior to the shooter, the part of the body used to perform the shot, i.e. the head or the leg, the type of shot, i.e., a liner, a lob, or a grounder, the shot course in a mediolateral direction, the shot course in a vertical direction, the presence or absence of a change in the direction of the shot by other players, the shooter's position angle in relation to the goal line and the line from the goal post to the shooter, and the distance from the center of the goal to the ball when the ball reached the goal line. In addition, a regression formula was constructed to predict the difficulty of the save by combining the odds ratios of the main factors. It was verified that the difficulty in making a save could be accurately predicted using the regression formula (84.8%). As a future task, using our regression formula, it would be practically important to develop predictors for evaluating the ability of a goalkeeper.
著者
鎌田 安久 浅井 武 栗林 徹
出版者
岩手大学
雑誌
岩手大学教育学部附属教育実践研究指導センター研究紀要 (ISSN:09172874)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.107-118, 1997

現在の欧州のサッカー先進国におけるチーム戦術や技能について集約して分析することが可能な欧州サッカー選手権をイギリス現地で6試合視察分析し,そのうち,今回は準々決勝のドイツ代表(vsクロアチア戦)と準決勝のイングランド代表(vsドイツ戦)の2チームを対象としゲーム分析を行った.また,その際,前回のスウェーデン大会の分析から考えられた1.指導上のポイントや2.日本の問題点についての視点も含めてゲーム分析をおこなった。その結果,3-5-2システムを基調とする組織的で戦術的にもチームの構成選手の能力を活かしたチームのゲーム展開が攻守に渡り観られた。また,指導上の重要な要因と考えられるポイントや日本で問題点とされる技術面についても高いパフォーマンスが認められた。
著者
松竹 貴大 實宝 希祥 門岡 晋 菅生 貴之 浅井 武
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.1-13, 2016

Primary scientific data for evaluating information processing ability of the central nervous system that are associated with decision making was investigated in football players, by using event-related potentials (ERP; N200, P300) and reaction times. Participants were college football players who were winners of the all Japan university championship (n=8; Elites) and 8 graduate students with no football experience (n=8; Novices). They used an oddball paradigm consisting of a simple visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 1: CRT1) and an oddball paradigm consisting of a complex visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 2: CRT2). Results indicated that Elites had a significantly shorter reaction time than Novices in the CRT2. This finding corroborated many previous studies, and indicated that reaction times of Elites were faster than Novices. In addition, ERP (N200 and P300) was observed in all participants and there were no significant differences between the two groups in N200, or P300 latencies in the CRT1. However, Elites showed latencies that were significantly shorter than Novices in the CRT2. These results indicated that the process of evaluating and classifying stimuli was faster in Elites, suggesting that information processing ability of Elites was superior to Novices. In conclusion, this study identified basic scientific data on reaction times and ERP associated with evaluating information that are indicative of central nervous system processing ability associated with decision making by football players.
著者
松竹 貴大 實宝 希祥 門岡 晋 菅生 貴之 浅井 武
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Psychology
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
2016

Primary scientific data for evaluating information processing ability of the central nervous system that are associated with decision making was investigated in football players, by using event-related potentials (ERP; N200, P300) and reaction times. Participants were college football players who were winners of the all Japan university championship (n=8; Elites) and 8 graduate students with no football experience (n=8; Novices). They used an oddball paradigm consisting of a simple visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 1: CRT1) and an oddball paradigm consisting of a complex visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 2: CRT2). Results indicated that Elites had a significantly shorter reaction time than Novices in the CRT2. This finding corroborated many previous studies, and indicated that reaction times of Elites were faster than Novices. In addition, ERP (N200 and P300) was observed in all participants and there were no significant differences between the two groups in N200, or P300 latencies in the CRT1. However, Elites showed latencies that were significantly shorter than Novices in the CRT2. These results indicated that the process of evaluating and classifying stimuli was faster in Elites, suggesting that information processing ability of Elites was superior to Novices. In conclusion, this study identified basic scientific data on reaction times and ERP associated with evaluating information that are indicative of central nervous system processing ability associated with decision making by football players.
著者
中山 雅雄 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.343-353, 2009-12-10 (Released:2010-02-13)
被引用文献数
0 or 3

The purpose of this study was to investigate the elements that constitute an effective environment for passing practice in soccer by analyzing the relationship between player age range as an organism constraint and the width of the area in which the ball is possessed in a three vs. one (3 vs. 1) task constraint. The task consisted of passing the ball employing one or two touches to maintain possession in a 3 vs. 1 formation in three different square-shaped areas measuring 8m×8m, 10m×10m and 12m×12m. The participants were divided according to age, and categorized as under (U)-10 (fourth grade elementary school), U-12 (sixth grade elementary school), U-14 (second grade junior school) and U-16 (first grade high school). The following criteria were then investigated: passing performance (passing success rate and the number of passing sequences), speed of the passing movement, support available to the player, and decision-making about the passing direction.It was found that U-10 players performed worse in the task than players in the other age groups. Moreover, passing speed was affected by the width of the play area for the U-10 and U-12 players, but not for the U-14 and U-16 players. The distance between the support players was the same for all age groups; however, for the U-10 players, the support angles were more acute than those for the other age groups, thus preventing the U-10 players from adopting useful supporting positions. Furthermore, it was found that the width of the play area did not affect passing performance, but did affect the speed of the passing movement in the 3 vs. 1 task. The distance and the angle of support differed among the players in the different age groups.It is concluded that a wider area in the 3 vs.1 possession task creates easier choices for U-10 and U-12 players, leading to easy understanding of the passing motions. For the U-14 and U-16 players, making the area narrower is effective for maintaining a higher 3 vs.1 possession level. From these perspectives, considering the width of the area for 3 vs.1 possession is important in relation to the developmental stage of soccer players.