著者
小林 義雄 中村 民雄 長谷川 弘
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.24-33, 1993-08-31 (Released:2012-11-27)

In this historical study on the formation of modern kendo, we explore the system of techniques and its technical contents for shinai uchikomi geiko kendo practice, which is different from the performance of forms and styles called kata or kumitachi. We focus, among others, on master Chiba Shusaku, who constructed the practicing method and perfected the techniques into “68 winning techniques”. Further, we explore the thoughts behind and technical contents of the master's techniques, and compare the differences in techniques of “68 techniques” and what is considered to be its prototype, kumitachi of Onoha Ittoryu.In Ono School, most of the strokes are made to respond to the opponent's strokes, while “68 winning techniques” are primarily offensive, aiming at blowing or thrusting the opponent as quickly as possible to score men, tsuki, kote, or do. Thus, in both of the schools there are only three common techniques:1. Hitotsugachi and Kiriotoshitsuki, which are to cut down opponent's stroke and to thrust;2. Suriage and Suriagemen, which are to knock away opponent's sword and to blow opponent on the head;3. Tsubawari and Nukizuki, which are to duck opponent's blow by stepping back and to thrust the opponent after pulling your sword.Further, there are only seven techniques which are partially common:1. Chishou and Chishoumen, which are to put the point of the sword in opponent's arms who his trying to blow you on the head;2. Chishou and Chishouzuki, which are the same as above;3. Kobushi-no-harai and Kirikaeshimen, which are to blow opponent's head quicker than opponent's blowing you on the head;4. Uragiri and Sasoihikigote, which are to invite opponent's strike on your forearm;5. Aiha and Makiotoshimen, which are to twist down opponent's stroke and to blow opponent's head;6. Aiha and Makiotoshizuki, which are to twist down, rightward or leftward, opponent's stroke;7. Hariaiba and Harimen, which are to strike opponent's sword hard.From this it is clear that “68 winning techniques” were unique in its system of techniques and its technical contents, which were very different from Kumitachi of Onoha Ittoryu.
著者
小林 義雄
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.2, pp.27-28, 1986 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
14
著者
鳥羽 研二 大河内 二郎 高橋 泰 松林 公蔵 西永 正典 山田 思鶴 高橋 龍太郎 西島 令子 小林 義雄 町田 綾子 秋下 雅弘 佐々木 英忠
出版者
一般社団法人 日本老年医学会
雑誌
日本老年医学会雑誌 (ISSN:03009173)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.3, pp.346-352, 2005-05-15 (Released:2011-03-02)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
29 28

【目的】転倒は, 身体的要因と環境要因によっておきるとされているが, 地域において, 環境要因と身体的要因を定量的に比較した研究は少ない. 両者を加味した転倒リスク測定表の開発を目的とする.【方法】厚生労働省研究班, 転倒ハイリスク者の早期発見のための評価方法作成ワーキンググループの会議によって過去の転倒歴と21項目の危険因子を選択し仮の「転倒スコア」とした. 1) 過去一年の転倒 2) つまずく 3) 手摺につかまない階段の昇降 4) 歩く速度が遅延 5) 横断歩道を青のうちにわたりきれない 6) 1km歩行できない 7) 片足で5秒起立できない 8) 杖の使用 9) タオルを固く絞れない 10) めまい, ふらつき 11) 円背 12) 膝痛 13) 視力低下 14) 難聴 15) 物忘れ 16) 転倒不安 17) 5種類以上の服薬 18) 屋内が暗く感じる 19) 家の中の障害物 20) 家の中の段差 21) 家の中の階段使用 22) 生活上家の近くの急な坂道歩行. 対象は全国7地域住民2,439名 (76.3±7.4歳). 検討項目は各項目の該当頻度, 項目の該当有無と転倒の相関, 過去の転倒歴を従属変数とし, 21項目を独立変数とした重回帰分析を行った. 有意な項目に関しては, ロジスティック回帰分析によってオッズ比を算出した.【結果】転倒歴は29%に認められた. 転倒スコア項目では, 物忘れ, 家に段差が60%以上, つまずく, 階段昇降に支障, 視力障害が50%を越えた. 横断歩道を青のうちにわたりきれない, 一方照明が暗い, タオルがきつく絞れないは20%未満であった. 転倒の有無による各因子の頻度の有意差を検定すると, 段差, 階段, 坂道以外のすべての項目が, 転倒者は非転倒者に比べ, 有意に「はい」と答えた率が高かった. 重回帰分析では, 独立した有意な危険因子として, つまずく (p<0.0001), めまい (p<0.0001), 家の中に障害物がある (p=0.0001), タオルがきつく絞れない (p=0.0003), 杖を使っている (p=0.0027), 膝が痛む (p=0.0362) が抽出された. この項目と横断歩道の歩行 (p=0.1) の7項目を用いて, 転倒予測を解析し,3項目以上に該当する場合に, 転倒の感度, 特異度とも良好な値を得た.【結論】内的要因と外的要因を加味した簡便な転倒危険度調査票「転倒スコア」を開発した.「転倒スコア」は, 下位項目の殆どが転倒既往者で高く, 項目選択の妥当性は高い. 段差, 階段などの環境バリアは過去の転倒の危険因子としては重要ではない. 転倒予測因子として, 7項目の短縮板の作成を試み, カットオフ値3項目該当で2/3程度の転倒の予測が可能であり「転倒スコア」の有用性が示唆された.
著者
小林 義雄
出版者
日本植物分類学会
雑誌
植物分類・地理 (ISSN:00016799)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.252-257, 1962-05-30

1. Calostoma japonicum H_<ENN>, which is very commonly found in Japan, is very near C. ravenelii (B_<ERK>.) M_<ASSEE>. They are, however, separated as follows. C. japonicum : Rooting stem shorter than the head or hardly exceeding the double length of it, narrower than the latter; exoperidium gelatinous in wet stage; endoperidium clay-coloured; spores oblong with somewhat larger and irregular pits. C. ravenelii: Rooting stem 3-5 times longer and commonly broader than head; exoperidium not gelatinous ; endoperidium clay to brown coloured ; spores oblong, mingled with globose one, with minute pits. 2. L_<LOYD>, Y_<ASUDA> and others have enumerated the same Japanese fungus in the name of C. ravenelii. The true C. ravenelii has not yet been found in Japan. 3. Dr. H. H_<ARA> collected two specimens of Calostoma in Bakkim (ca. 3000 m) of Sikkim-Himalaya during the Japanese Botanical Expedition (1960). This is surely C. junghuhnii (S_<CHLECHT>. et M_<UELL>.) M_<ASSEE> as already been reported by B_<ERKELAY> from Himalaya basing on the H_<OOKER>'s collection. 4. Calostoma formosanum (S_<AWADA>), which was found in Formosa, seems to be a form of C. junghuhnii with very short rooting stem.
著者
小林義雄著
出版者
北隆館
巻号頁・発行日
1972
著者
柴田 幸男 竹内 敏子 小林 義雄
出版者
中京大学
雑誌
中京大学教養論叢 (ISSN:02867982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.227-263, 2003-06-20

The fundamental philosophy guiding the Paralympic movement is that athletes with disabilities should have opportunities to pursue their goals in sport equivalent to those of non-disabled athletes. Athletes who complete in the Paralympics set their sights on the dream of wining a gold medal, are committed to strenuous training regimes and meet strict qualifying standards to be selected to their national team. The Paralympic Games represented to a committee to excellence that allows elite athletes to achieve their personal best. The Paralympic Games exemplify the Olympic ideal of participation and sportsmanship. The Pralympic Games originated in Aylesbury, England, where Games For People With Spinal Injuries, were first held in 1948. The games were organized to coincide with the London Olympic Games. The competition was organized by Dr. L. Guttmann, who originally planned them as part of a rehabilitation program for persons with spinal injuries. The first Paralympic Games were held in Rome in 1960. Since then, the Olympics and the Paralympics have almost always moved across the globe together. Since 1982, the Paralympics have been organized by the International Coordinating Committee (ICC). However, the ICC was replaced by The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) later. The Summer Paralympic Games became the ultimate competition for world-class athletes with a disability and as such as are linked to the Olympic Celebration each quadrennium. The Paralympic Games, in terms of complexity, duration and the number of competitions, are second only to the Olymoic Games. There have been eleven Summer Paralympic Games since Rome in 1960. There have also been eight Winter Paralympic Games since Ornskoldsvik, Sweden in 1976. The number of athletes, the number of countries and the number of scope of events programmed have all increased dramatically since the first Paralympic Games. There is an another world sports games for disabled athletes. It is called Special Olympics. Founded in 1968 by E.K. Shriver, Special Olympics provides people with mental retardation continuing opportunities to develop fitness, demonstrate courage and experience joy as they participate in the sharing of gifts and friendship with other athletes, their families and the community. Special Olympics is committed to empowering people with mental retardation on and off the playing field. The first Special Olympic World Games was held in Chicago, Illinois in 1968. The games offers children and adults with mental retardation-more than 1 million athletes in more than 150 countries-year-round training and competition in 26 Olympic-type summer and winter sports. The Special Olympics World Summer Games-one of the flagship events of the Special Olympic movement-are held every four years ; the 2003 World Summer Games will be held in Dublin, Ireland, on 20-29 June. Approximately 7, 500 athletes from more than 160 countries are expected to compete. The Special Olympics World Winter Games also are held every four years; the 2005 World Winter Games will be held in Nagano, Japan on 26 February-5 March. Table tennis. This popular and highly competitive sport has been part of the Paralympic program since the first Games in 1960. Table tennis is played in over 50 IPC countries and in terms of number of participating athletes is the 4 th largest Paralympic Games sport behind athletics, swimming and power lifting. Two hundreds and fifty players took part in Sydney. In the games, table tennis was open to athletes with physical and intellectual disabilities, with classes of competition ; wheelchair and standing. Athletes compete in individual and team events under International Table Tennis Federation rules, with slight modifications for wheelchair events. In Japan, persons with intellectual disability were not admitted to competitive sports until 1996 when the first competitive sport meets were held. The lack of socially adapted skills of the intellectual disabilities was a powerful reason for that. Fort unately, the Japan Table Tennis Association accepted the persons with intellectual disabilities in table tennis matches. Consequently, the first table tennis championships for athletes with intellectual disability was held in 1998, and in 1999 the Japan Table Tennis Federation for persons with intellectu al disabilities (JTTF-FID) was estabished as a member of the Japan Table Tennis Association. We also conducted a study comparing rally hit counts during table tennis matches between athletes with and without intellectual disabilities. The data were collected from table tennis games in 2002 FID Japan Table Tennis Championships for intellectual disability group, and from games in 2000 Japan Table Tennis Championships for normal group. In addition, the identical data were also obtained from women's singles matches in the INAS-FID Asian-South Pacific Region Table Tennis Championships. Mean rally hit counts per point in the group with intellectual disabilities were 2.56 and 2.17 for men and women, respectively while respective scorers for the group without disabilities were 4.05 and 4.60. The frequency distribution curves of rally hit counts for both groups in men as well as women were concentrated toward the low end of the scale with the curve training off to the right (high end of the scale). It was observed, however that the relative frequency ratio (%) of 1 and 2 hit rallies was higher in the group with than the group without. Comparing the cumulative distribution curves between two groups, the curve for athletes without tended to be on the right of the curve of the athletes with.
著者
小林 義雄
出版者
日本植物分類学会
雑誌
植物分類・地理 (ISSN:00016799)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, pp.201-205, 1982-04-20

Pollen tetrads of 36 species belonging to 26 genera of Japanese Orchids were observed in details. The results are as follows : 1) Confirmation of types of the pollen tetrads and morphological variation in each type of them ; The arrangement of the four young pollens in the tetrads is variable within 36 species observed, although they could be classified into six types such as tetrahedral, square, decussate, rhomboidal, T-shaped and linear ones. Throughout the species observed the pollens constituting a tetrad were intact, and aberrantly large or small ones in the aberrant tetrads were not recognized. 2) Estimation of mixing ratios in each type of the pollen tetrads ; All six types of the pollen tetrads were recognized in 30 among 36 species observed. The ratios in each type of the pollen tetrads are shown in Table 1. The decussate tetrads show the highest ratio, about 50% throughout the species except Habenaria radiata and Goodyera maximowicziana. Values of the ratios of each type decreased from the decussate tetrads in sequence of rhomboidal, tetrahedral, square, T-shaped and linear ones. Detailed observation on the ratios among the pollen tetrads in each type of Calanthe discolor showed that the ratios were similar through five individuals collected from three different localities ( Table 2). In Goodyera maximowicziana, higher ratios of the T-shaped tetrads and linear ones were observed in extremely slender basal part of the pollinium than those of T-shaped and linear ones of the other part of the pollinium. 3) Ontogenetical observation on each type of the pollen tetrads ; All tetrads observed were produced by simultaneous membrane formation. The course of the tetrad formation was proceeded in the pollen mother cells which were gathered into parenchymatously compact mass. The courses of the pollen tetrad formation of each type are schematically shown in Fig. 1 with photographs in Figs. 2 and 3. It seems that different types of the pollen tetrads are caused by the different forms of the pollen mother cells and by the difference of the direction of the two axes of the second nuclear divisions. It is concluded that the species in the Orchidaceae observed have several types of pollen tetrads within a single pollinium which all develop normally and that the types of pollen tetrads in this family would be determined by the direction of axis of cell division and the forms of pollen mother cells. The forms may be correlated to those of the pollinia and to the parenchymatously compact gathering of the pollen mother cells throughout the course of the tetrad formation.
著者
鳥羽 研二 守屋 佑貴子 中居 龍平 岩田 安希子 小林 義雄 園原 和樹 長谷川 浩 神崎 恒一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本老年医学会
雑誌
日本老年医学会雑誌 (ISSN:03009173)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.269-270, 2009 (Released:2009-06-10)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
1 1

目的:アルツハイマー型認知症の意欲の低下に,コリンエステラーゼ阻害薬が有効か検証する.方法:患者23名に対し塩酸ドネペジル5 mgを投与,前後にVitality Indexを測定し比較.結果:Vitality Indexは投与前7.87±0.25,投与後8.74±0.19と有意な改善がみられた.結論:アルツハイマー型認知症の生活の意欲の低下にコリンエステラーゼ阻害薬が有効である可能性が示唆された.
著者
長谷川 弘一 中村 民雄 小林 義雄
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.39-49, 1992-07-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
57

We noticed “Hokushin Ittoryu”, among several kenjutsu schools, which tried to re-build the sustem of techniquesa nd constracted them analytically. But in this essay, we have examinedt he kenjutesu-theory of Sugane Kubota who was a contemporary of Shusaku Chiba (the founder of “Hokushin Ittoryu”) and left enormous writings. Particularly we have studied, from the viewpoint of the history of athletic techniques, the features of the fundamentals of techniques which are the basis of the sustem of techniques.As a result, we have found the two faces; one is the part which tried to build the sustem of techniques consciously, that is, the part which changed from pre-modern (Edo era) kendo into modern (Meiji era) one, and the other in the part which could not get rid of the traditional “Kata-kenjutsu”.The results of the former are as follows(1) Not only feet position but also posture was right in the opposition to the opponent, and the direction of the sword was straight to the center of the opponent.(2) “Te-no-uchi in striking was similar to “pushing-cut” rather than “pulling-cut”.(3) The course of striking from the front along the central line to the opponent was proposed more mainly than from the right or left side. And continuous strikings were encouraged. The results of the latter are as follows:(1) The position of the sword was limited to the three; “jodan-no-kamae” “chudan-no-kamae”, and “gedannokamae”. And jodan-no-kamae”, in which the height of the point of the sword is fixed between the nose and mouth of the opponent, was the most basic.(2) The footwork was “ayumi-ashi” (walking step).(3) We guessed that swinging up was done without changing the condition of holding sword of the first posture.(4) The elbow joints were stretched more forward in holding the sword than modern kendo.(5) The follow-through of weight transfer after striking was not made unlike the present kendo, and it was directed to return to the former position soon.(6) “Kanemen-Zuki” was adopted, which was widely used in spear-fighting. It showed a tendency to the techniqueso f practical and comprehensivem ilitary arts. Thus, Kubota's kenjutsu-theory has some characteristics of the transitional age from pre-modern to modern theory. But it does not reach the stage which breaks with the traditional “kata-kenjutsu” and constructs the system of techniques.
著者
小林 義雄
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育學研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.31-44, 1975-08-25

高所における有酸素作業におよぼすビタミンEの単独効果を検索するために, 男子12が名高さ4,500mに相当する低圧室での自転車エルゴメーターによる作業テストに参加した. 二重盲検法によって, 1日1.200mgのビタミンEとプラセボが6週間投与され, 続く6週間に両者はスウッチされて投与された. 同一最大下作業時の酸素消費量(Submax Vo_2)と心拍数, 回復期の酸素消費量と静脈血乳酸値および, つづく all-out ridingによる最大酸素摂取量(max Vo_2)等がビタミン投与の効果を測定するパラメターとして用いられた. 6週間にわたるビタミンE投与の結果, max Vo_2は14%増加した. さらに最大下作業にもとづく酸素負債および静脈血中の乳酸値はそれぞれ20%と17%低下した. これらの諸結果から, ビタミンの大量投与は急性低圧環境における有酸素作業成績を高めるのに効果的に働いたものと考えられる.
著者
小林 義雄 細井 輝男 竹内 敏子 吉崎 英清
出版者
中京大学
雑誌
中京大学教養論叢 (ISSN:02867982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.431-443, 2003-10-15

The concentration of beta-endorphin (B-EP) was measured in 12 male recreational runners before and after marathon running. All subjects could finish 42 km distance and their mean time for finishing was 3 hr and 50 min (3 hr 6 min - 4 hr 22 min). Plasma B-EP significantly (P<0.0001) increased to about 9.8-fold above base line, from 9.1 ± 0.8 (SE) to 88.9±17.0 pg/ml. In addition, B-EP remained above baseline at 30 min and 60 min after the marathon race (43.9 + 12.7 pg/ml; P<0.0001 and 33.6± 6.6 pg/ml; P<0.001, respectively) and dropped to baseline 24 hr following the race. Lactate concentration also significantly (P<0.0001) increased during the marathon race (from 11.8±0.12 to 2.33± 0.18 mmol/L). This value was far below anaerobic threshold levels, 4 mmol/L, and was equivalent to approximately 60-65% VO_2max of our subjects. Previous studies have reported that the peripheral B-EP responses may be intensity dependent and that an exercise intensity of at least 70% VO_2max for 15 min is needed to increase plasma B-EP. Since our subjects performed extremely over-duration exercise and were exhausted after the race, therefore, the undue physical stress might affect the increase in B-EP. In conclusion, plasma B-EP responses may be both intensity and duration dependent.