- オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
- vol.38, no.1, pp.45-60, 1995
The 10th century, when Neoplatonism was introduced into early Isma'ili cosmogonical doctrines, was a turning point for Isma'ilism. The early Isma'ili cosmogoincal doctrines were what should be called "Isma'ili Myth, " which varied according to each Isma'ili thinker, but had some common gnositic tendencies. For example, in that myth the angelic being falls from heaven because of its own error and it emanates this world like Demiurge of Plato.<br>In the 10th century, Isma'ili mythical cosmogony was greatly philosophized by Persian Isma'ili thinkers, especially Abu Ya'qub al-Sijistani. The structure of al-Sijistani's cosmogony looks similar to that of Plotinus, which is controlled by three Hypostates, that is, God, Intellect ('Aql) and Soul (Nafs). But Isma'ili Myth did not become extinct in the philosophized cosmogony, because in that system, too, al-Sijistani's Soul plays the role of the Falling Angel in the Isma'ili Myth.<br>In the 11th century, Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani introduced not the Plotinian cosmogony used by al-Sijistani but the Farabi's cosmogonical system made up of Ten Intellects. At first, al-Kirmani's God hardly looks different from al-Sijistani's. Al-Kirmani's First Intellect does not fundamentally differ from the Intellect of al-Sijistani, either. But his definition of it is closer to Farabi's concept of God than al-Sijistani's definition of Intellect. In al-Kirmani's cosmogony the First Intellect plays the role of both Farabi's God and his First Intellect at the same time. On the other hand, al-Sijistani's Soul is identified with the Second Intellect by al-Kirmanf, which emanates from the First Intellect, but the Second Intellect is no more than one of the Ten Intellects and has completely lost the mythical personality like al-Sijistani's Soul. The Falling Angel in the Isma'ili Myth has vanished in the highly philosophized cosmogony based on Farabi's system of the Ten Intellects.<br>In this paper I will examine al-Kirmani's theory of Intellect, comparing it with the philosophized Isma'ili Myth of al-Sijistani or Farabi's theory of Intellect, and consider the significance of his theory in the history of Isma'ilism. In conclusion, it will be shown that his system is the climax in the philosophization of Isma'ili doctrines since the 10th century.