著者
渡辺 伸一
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.1, pp.115-125, 2007-10-31 (Released:2017-02-27)

Environmental cadmium pollution causes cadmium poisoning. The first cadmium-polluted area ever discovered in the world was the Jinzu River basin in Toyama Prefecture in Japan. The most severe case of cadmium poisoning is Itai-itai disease (osteomalacia), which was officially recognized as a pollution-related disease by the Japanese government in 1968, and a less severe case is tubular kidney dysfunction. In other words, the occurrence of Itai-itai disease is only the "tip of the iceberg". The tubular kidney dysfunction is the earliest and most prevalent adverse result of chronic cadmium poisoning. The Japan Public Health Association Cadmium Research Committee, supported by the Environmental Agency, carried out health surveys in cadmium-polluted areas of 8 prefectures during the period of 1976-1984 and reported that many cases of tubular kidney dysfunction were found not only in Toyama but also in Ishikawa, Hyogo and Nagasaki prefectures. However, the Environmental Agency and the research committee have never certified this kidney dysfunction as a pollution-related disease. In 1970, the Japanese government set tentative acceptable standards of 1ppm for brown rice and enacted the Agricultural Land Soil Pollution Prevention Law in 1971. Based on this Law, restoration projects of polluted soils of rice paddies were started. If cadmium nephropathy was certified as a officially pollution-related disease, acceptable standards for brown rice must be more strict than 1ppm, because 1ppm is a standard to prevent habitants from suffering from Itai-itai disease. This new strict standard arrives at increases in polluted rice and soils. This means increases in the expenses to buy polluted rice and to restore polluted soils. To offer indemnity to farmers for any reduction in his rice crop is the responsibility of polluting industries and to pay expenses to restore polluted soils is the responsibility of polluting industries, the central government and local authorities. This paper concludes that the main reason why cadmium nephropathy has not been certified as an official pollution- related disease is that the decision-making of the Environmental Agency and the research committee reflects the intention of the polluting industries and the government who regard the expenses above as too heavy a burden.
著者
上村 盛人
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.69-80, 1977-11-15 (Released:2017-02-24)

In Swinburne's poetry we find many remarkable femme fatale characters : Dolores, Faustine, Venus, Mary Stuart, and Atalanta are all typical femmes fatales, to give a few examples. He was almost possessed with the femme fatale image, and in fact, he became the first to introduce to the Victorian England the "fatal woman" imagery, which was indeed the representative iconography in the fin de siecle European art. Mary Gordon was Swinburne's closely related cousin and was also his bosom friend who had shared the romantic make-believe world of their own since their childhood. Mary's sudden announcement to marry a soldier was a shock to the poet, to whom perhaps it meant destruction of their cherished private world. Swinburne had been interested in the femme fatale theme since his boyhood, and in his imagination the "fatal woman" image had already taken shape, waiting only for a chance to be actually written down as a poem. Mary's engagement announcement gave him such a chance, and now he could set out to become a chief actor in his‘monodrama', in which he was to be tormented by cruel femmes fatales. Swinburne was a poet who was extremely conscious of his poetic art as a‘maker' of poetry. Almost all his poetry can possibly be said‘meta-poetry', that is, poetry about poetry. To achieve his aim to embody‘l'art pour l'art' in his poems, he made use of surprisingly many poetic forms and themes. And his femme fatale myth was one of such themes and his‘lost love' to Mary Gordon gave a good chance to start him writing femme fatale poems.
著者
豊田 弘司 照田 恵理
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.41-48, 2013-11-30

The present study examined the relationship among stress, stress response and emotional intelligence (EI) in undergraduates. Undergraduates were asked to rate the items from scales corresponding to EI (J-WLEIS; Toyota & Yamamoto, 2011), Stressor (STR; Shima, 1999) and Stess response (SRS-18; Suzuki et al., 1997). J-WLEIS consisited of four subscales: Regulating emotion, Self emotion appraisal, Others-emotions appraisal and Use of emotion. STR was composed of four subscales, existential, interpersonal, academic and physical stressors. SRS-18 consisted of three subscales: deppression, aggression and hopeless. The result indicated that EI scores were negatively correlated with both stressor and stress scores, and showing that participants with high EI had less stressor and less stress response than those with low EI. Stressor was correlated with stress response higher in participants with low EI compared to those with high EI. This result was interpreted as showing the possibility that EI moderated the relatonship between stressor and stress response.
著者
劉 麟玉
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.95-105, 2011-11-30

GAO Yi-Sheng, who was an aborigine of Tsuou tribe in Taiwan, was born in 1908. His native name was Uyongu Yatauyungana, and he also had a Japanese name, Issei Yada, because Taiwan was ruled by Japan around the time. When Taiwan became a territory of Republic of China in 1945, he again changed his name to a Chinese name, GAO Yi-Sheng. Although he was arrested on a false charge as a revolter against the government in 1952 and executed in 1954, Taiwanese and Japanese scholars have considered him as one of the elite in Tsuou tribe, not only because he attempted to build an autonomous society for Taiwanese aborigines, but also because he had considerable talents for literature and music. Even when he was in prison, GAO Yi-Sheng composed many songs, as thinking of his own children and people of Tsuou tribe. It is undoubted that he was a tragic figure in the history of politics, but I would like to shed more light on his music talent. We all know that music composition needs knowledge of organizing the notes and writing them on the staves. So where and why did GAO learn the knowledge about music composition? What is characteristic of his music? In order to answer the questions, in this paper, I will examine GAO's progress in music education during his school years and analyze his compositions as well.
著者
丹 敦 渡辺 伸一
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.1, pp.165-180, 2004-10-29

Deer in Nara - "Nara-no-Shika"- inhabit the area in and around Nara Park in Nara City, the capital of Nara prefecture. In Nara, they have been protected as sacred animals of the Kasuga shrine for a long time. On the other hand, damage to crops caused by them was so serious that the villages in Nara built "Shikagaki" (Shishigaki) during the Edo period. "Shikagaki" is a piece of equipment which is made of wood, stones and mud to prevent damage to crops caused by wild animals, especially deer in the case of Nara. According to our fieldwork, ruins of "Shikagaki" still exist around Nara Park. However, there has been no study to prove where they are located. We would like to propose that the rums of "Shikagaki" are very precious reminders of Nara's heritage in the sense that they are the products of local villagers' hard work. The purpose of this study is to clarify the distribution of the "Shikagaki" and their present situation.
著者
阿部 智 木村 真知子 若吉 浩二 石川 元美 小畑 治 高橋 豪仁
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.169-179, 2008-10-31

The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in physical fitness of elementary school children who participated in the long term sports classes using Ballschule program that has received high evaluation in Germany, and to compare the physical fitness and exercise habits of the children and that of those who had not participated in the classes. In addition, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ballschule program on the growth of child, and to obtain basic data to make a physical fitness program for elementary school children. First, a total of 47 children, the 2nd and 3rd grade, practiced in sports classes of Ballschule, participated in a sports class held over the long term. There was the improvement with physical fitness and balance in the total score of the physical fitness test. Next, In the comparison of a total 34 children of the 2nd, 10 children who had participated in sports classes of Ballschule and 24 of children who had not, it is confirmed that the total coordination score of Post-test was higher than that of Pre-test in the former children. As a result, it is suggested that the improvement of the physical fitness was caused by the long-term Ballschule program. We could consider Ballschule program as an effective training program, and furthermore we need to examine the validity of Ballschule program as school education. This study elucidated the importance that we should take unspecialized physical fitness program such as Ballschule for developing children. However, it is necessary that we demonstrate the effects of the Ballschule program by using other factors of physical fitness besides ability of coordination that have been central in test heads. And then, a program of Ballschule suitable for Japanese original social context must be suggested and practiced so that Ballschule will be familiarized, applied and practiced in various occasions.
著者
清水 キワ
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.177-191, 1972-11-15

The 'TANOMOSHI' as they call it, is a body of association which has passed current in Japan since the Medieval days; it is a system of financing for common people, managed autonomously in the spirit of mutual assistance. Nowadays, when available means of financing are everywhere prevalent, it might almost be assumed that the TANOMOSHI is already outmoded. Our investigation, however, amply shows that this system is still largely in practice among the common people, who resort to this system with a view to their household financing and also to the betterment of their social relations. Our final conclusion is that, unless any radical measures for common people's welfare are enforced by the State authorities, the TANOMOSHI will never fail to survive.
著者
渡辺 伸一
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.109-119, 2012-11-30

Over 190 animal species are designated as the national monument by the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. The "deer of Nara" have a very peculiar characteristic among them. It is difficult to specify which "sika" deer belong to the deer of Nara because the Cultural Properties Protection Committee (the Agency for Cultural Affairs since 1968) defines them ambiguously. The deer of Nara, Cervus nippon (species name), living from Hokkaido in the north to Kyushu in the South, are found mainly in Nara Park in the city of Nara. The deer of Nara are defined simply as "sika" deer (1) living in and around Nara Park and (2) being tame. Yet, both "around Nara Park" and "being tame" are ambiguous terms, whose specification varies from person to person. This article confirms that the way to specify the deer of Nara has been ambiguous since they were designated as national monument under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (1957). Then, it shows how the ambiguity of the provisions has brought about various confusions and problems among local people and clarified the reasons why their content has become ambiguous. Finally, the author proposes how new provisions should be framed from the position that they must be clearly articulated.
著者
小笠原 真 真鍋 祐子
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.77-99, 1986-11-25

Modernization in Western Europe is, according to Max Weber, based upon the rationnal spirit by Protestantism, forced by the rational, purpose-oriented attitudes in life which does not admit even incantation. According to this inductive study for "an ideal type", the shamanism is nothing but a momentary transition of relief, therefore, it cannot possibly bring about the rational, purpose-oriented attitudes in life towards any radical reforms. But in Korea, modernizing itself rapidly from 1970's to today, the shamanism cannot necessarily be assumed to be thoroughly broken down. Some conclusions in this thesis are in order; 1. According to "the traditional belief about succession of the shaman as profession" by Chijun Murayama, the temporal revision of the modernization of <traditional→rational> can be seen everywhere we investigated. 2. The shape of temporal transition changes variously in accordance of the space because <the meaning> in that people find in the exorcism by the main callings in particular regions. 3. The aspects of the change in shamanism can be captured this shift. This is the changing of the religious goal, and moreover, within this can be said to be based upon the rationalism by modernization. Therefore, such a cultural phenomenon of the shamanism may be said not to cease to exist but to modulate its functions in various ways as the modernization process proceeds.
著者
牧野 英三
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.115-136, 1980-11-25

At the Shunie performed at the Nigatsudo Hall of the Todaiji Temple, the Jimmyocho, which is supposed to have originated with the Engishiki, is recited immediately after the Shoya period every day during the fortnight's ritual, following the Jobun of the Kanjoku recited by the officiating priest, Daidoshi. The chanting of the Jimmyocho, of which seven common priests (Hirashu) take charge as chanters (Yomiyaku) by turns, takes place for the purpose of inviting the gods omnipresent throughout Japan, amounting to over 13,700, to the ceremonial hall of the Shunie, and calling on them to help carry out the religious cerermony, Gyobo, uneventfully. It is not, however, until he is confined in the Nigatsudo Hall for the religious devotion for the third year that the Hirashu is qualified for the Yomiyaku. There are two ways of chanting-Hombushi, orthodox recital, and Hikiage, informal recital. The Hombushi is recited for the first seven days, Johichinichi, and the Hikiage for the latter seven days, Gehichinichi. However, on the days with rather lots of rituals, such as the fifth and seventh days during the Johichinichi, the Hikiage is recited. The Jimmyocho is divided into nine sections. The first section is recited rather slowly to anicety. The tempo of the recitation is accelerated gradually from the second section on, until it comes to its audible limit, especially in the fifth to the seventh section. In the eighth section the tempo is decelerated to that of the first part. In the recitation of the Goryo in the ninth section the scale is toned down, and the whole recitation comes to the finish in stillness. The time required for chanting varies from twenty to twenty-eight minutes according to the Hombushi or the Hikiage, and the Yomiyaku, etc. The note of the melody of the Jimmyocho and the pattern of each section are shown on the following pages. (The music is based on what was taped by the late Daisojo Kokai Kitagawara, former Betto of the Todaiji Temple, in 1958.)
著者
丹 敦 渡辺 伸一
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.1, pp.165-180, 2004-10-31

Deer in Nara - "Nara-no-Shika"- inhabit the area in and around Nara Park in Nara City, the capital of Nara prefecture. In Nara, they have been protected as sacred animals of the Kasuga shrine for a long time. On the other hand, damage to crops caused by them was so serious that the villages in Nara built "Shikagaki" (Shishigaki) during the Edo period. "Shikagaki" is a piece of equipment which is made of wood, stones and mud to prevent damage to crops caused by wild animals, especially deer in the case of Nara. According to our fieldwork, ruins of "Shikagaki" still exist around Nara Park. However, there has been no study to prove where they are located. We would like to propose that the rums of "Shikagaki" are very precious reminders of Nara's heritage in the sense that they are the products of local villagers' hard work. The purpose of this study is to clarify the distribution of the "Shikagaki" and their present situation.
著者
劉 麟玉
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.95-105, 2011-11

GAO Yi-Sheng, who was an aborigine of Tsuou tribe in Taiwan, was born in 1908. His native name was Uyongu Yatauyungana, and he also had a Japanese name, Issei Yada, because Taiwan was ruled by Japan around the time. When Taiwan became a territory of Republic of China in 1945, he again changed his name to a Chinese name, GAO Yi-Sheng. Although he was arrested on a false charge as a revolter against the government in 1952 and executed in 1954, Taiwanese and Japanese scholars have considered him as one of the elite in Tsuou tribe, not only because he attempted to build an autonomous society for Taiwanese aborigines, but also because he had considerable talents for literature and music. Even when he was in prison, GAO Yi-Sheng composed many songs, as thinking of his own children and people of Tsuou tribe. It is undoubted that he was a tragic figure in the history of politics, but I would like to shed more light on his music talent. We all know that music composition needs knowledge of organizing the notes and writing them on the staves. So where and why did GAO learn the knowledge about music composition? What is characteristic of his music? In order to answer the questions, in this paper, I will examine GAO's progress in music education during his school years and analyze his compositions as well.
著者
片岡 弘勝
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.1, pp.1-19, 2016-11-30

The purpose of this article is to clarify the base and moment for generating “subjectivity” in UEHARA Senroku’s “The Dead Person and the living person” theroy, by focussing the “imminency” and “responsibility” for “The Dead Person”. This study analyzed UEHARA’s works texts and clarified the following five points.1. UEHARA proposed the idea of “subjectivity of the living person as media of The Dead Person”. This idea rinks to criticism to religion, that implies to find out the human abilities which have been preserved in the form of religion in histroy.2. In the case of being imminet by message of “The Dead Person” who was killed unjustly, “the living person” is stimulated and roaded to must to check and direct own’s living styles and standpoints of valuing. According to this UEHARA’s theory context, “subjectivity of the living person” is founded by listening the wording of “The Dead Person” intently and correctly.3. This study examined to compare UEHARA’s “subjectivity” theory with Emmanuel Lévinas’s “subjectivity” theory(discussed by UCHIDA Tatsuru). Then this study indicated the following two common factors and two different factors in both theories. One factor of the common factors is the idea that wording of “The Dead Person” directs “the living person”. The other factor is the strong intention for recognizing something”(“etwas”) that is cannot be described by present academic methods, namely “extremly complex realties” and “the dynamics and chaos of human mind”.4. One factor of the different factors is following point. Lévinas used wordings of “withdrawing one’s previous statesments”. However UEHARA used wordings of “checking and bounding one’s previous statesments relatively”. The other factor is following point. Lévinas supposed the “subjectivity” to responsibility for “The Dead Person” in relation to absolute “God”. However UEHARA supposed the “subjectivity” to responsibility for “The Dead Person” in relation to historical recognition to the oath of Shakyamuni and Nichiren in Buddhism thoughts.5. On this discussion context, the momnet of UEHARA’s “subjectivity” is “responsibility” for “The Dead Person” as absolute “The Other Being”. Further, the base of UEHARA’s “subjectivity” is the one’s recognition and standpoints for attaching importance to “reverence to human life” in severe situation that all persons are fronted the risk of being killed and becoming assistants of killers.
著者
吉川 美恵子
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.207-225, 1985-11-25

Ono-no-Tofu(894-966), Fujiwara-no-Sari (944-998) and Fujiwara-no-Kozei (972-1027) who appeared in the tenth century after the three eminent calligraphers, known as "Sampitsu (Three Brushes, i.e.Kukai (774-835), Emperor Saga (786-842), Tachibana-no-Hayanari (?-842)) have been called "Sanseki" (Three Brush Traces; another set of three eminent calligraphers), and they are the representative masters of Japanese calligraphy who started and established "wayo" (the Japanese style) which means the break from the direct influence of "karayo" (the Chinese style) that had originated in China and then later was introduced to Japan. Sari, one of the above-mentioned "Sanseki", was a very unique person who has greatly influenced the present-day calligraphers like us in our fundamental attitudes towards making our own calligraphic works. The purpose of this paper is to give a tentative explanation for the charm of his art by paying special attention to his way of lije and the age in which he lived. Sari was born to the north branch of the reputable Fujiwara Clan, and he lost his father when he was four years old and then lost his grandfather, too, who had been his guardian after the death of his father. That prevented him from holding an important place in the political world of his days. But he was very good at writing calligraphic works on tablets and "shikishi" (square pieces of fancy paper) attached to "byobu" (folding screens) and he gradually became known as one of the finest calligraphic artists. Only a few of his works are now extant - that is, Shikaishi and five letters. Judging from his calligraphical characteristics that we can see in those extant works of his, he was not a mere successor to Tofu who started "wayo", but he established his own free style with the aesthetic and rhythmical writing of his own. The main feature of Sari's calligraphy has been traditionally called "ichiboku-no-yo" (the style of ink in one streamline), which means writing several characters with one stroke, but at the same time, giving variations to each character, which reminds us of "renmentai" (the style of unbroken line) of "kana" syllabary. It is often said that when you see a man's writing you can see the man. Sari's calligraphic style seems to have much to do with his own personality and the historical background of the age in which he lived. He was never a worldly-wise man and he was sometimes even called "jodeinin" (a loose man). But he doggedly lived up to his own way of life without going with the current of his times. We can say that Sari's writing is nothing but his own sincere attitude towards life itself.
著者
松元 忠士
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.59-69, 1983-11-25

Aus Bruno's Wendung "Libertas philosophica" in dem letzte 16 Jhr. stammt die Idee "Libertas Philosophandi", welche durch Chr. Wolff in Deutschland in 18 Jhr. allgemein wurde. Sie war damals nur ein Protestidee gegen die religious Unterdrucken. Neuere Wissenschaft, vor allem Copernicanische Kosmologie war noch wegen der Ubertretung der Bibel der Gegenstand der Unterdrdcken durch Romkirche. Nach die Galileos Verteidigung ihrer Theorie erleidet die Kondemnation in Rom in 1616, zuerst rechtfertigte sich Tommasso Gampanella theoretisch "Libertas philosophandi" in Apologia pro Galileo. Unsere Schrift analysiert den historischen Prozess der Gestaltung deren Idee seit dem letzte 16 Jhr..
著者
大山 明彦
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.1, pp.75-90, 2001-10-15

The intention of this study is to reconstruct the designs of 16 sorts of textiles in the Shoso-in whose techniques are various such as twill weave silk, brocade, and painting in colors, on the basis of close investigation. In the course of this research, some inportant points are clarified. For instance, it is clarified that the coloring of Bakufu-Saieno- Hanpi jacket corresponds to a typical Ungen coloring of the Japanese Nara era.
著者
三原 和子 北村 陽英
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.1, pp.97-111, 2001-10-15

Right after World War II , the General Headquarters (GHQ) of the allied forces occupation conducted a drastic reform of the Japanese education systenr. As part of this reform, 8 Institutes for Educational Leadership (IFEL) were held for 9.374 educators from 4 October 1948 to 28 March 1952. The Civil Information and Education Section (CIE) of the GHQ had expressed sharp criticism of past Japanese school education in the Report of the United States Education Mission to Japan (United States Government Printing Office,1946). In that report it stated that "Instruction in health appcars to be seriously lacking in the elementary school. There is practically no teaching either of physiology or of hygiene"--a scrious omission. Three IFEL sessions on school nursing were held, in which 84 school nursing teachers participated. How these courses and workshops on school nursing functioned was not known up to now, and there have been no major research reports about the IFEL school nursing program. We recently fotrnd mineographed copies of Study Reports issued by the Institute for Educational Leadership's 5th Session, XXⅢ School Nursing, edited by the IFEL in 1950 - 1951, which we have analyzed. It closely resembles the content of today's Japanese school nursing teacher's duties. Today's Japanese school nursing teacher system is considered to be better than the systen used in the USA and that the School Education Law should be revised so that in school affairs the school nursing teacher should have charge not only of school nursing but of health education as well.
著者
上村 盛人
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.35-53, 1979-11-15

Tennyson had been greatly interested in the legends of King Arthur since his boyhood, because he had always felt the "passion of the past" even from a boy. However, when he wrote "Sir Launcelot and Queen Guinevere," the first treating of Arthurian theme, he had probably no intention of enlarging it into a longer poem. The germ of Idylls of the King was "Morte d'Arthur" started in 1833. and the final complete edition of the Idylls was published in 1888. Thus for more than fifty years Tennyson had been engaged in completing the work. Yet, his version of the Arthurian legends is quite uniquely his own since he seems to have inserted his own ambiguous and rather pessimistic vision towards the Victorian society into the framework of the Arthurian story. In 1872 Swinburne harshly attacked Tennyson's Idylls in his critical pamphlet, "Under the Microscope." According to Swinburne, "the moral tone of the Arthurian story has been lowered and degraded by Mr.Tennyson's mode of treatment." Swinburne had found in the legends of King Arthur "something almost of Hellenic dignity and significance" just like Aeschylus' Oresteian tragedy. Tennyson degraded the original noble story, Swinburne said, by making Arthur into a "wittol", Guenevere into a "woman of intrigue", Launcelot into a "co-espondent", and Vivien into "the most base and repulsive person". Swinburne regarded Tennyson's representation of Tristram and Iseult as an outrageous fiction which was "perilously akin to lying." Tennyson and Swinburne are seemingly contrastive and antagonistic. In the skilful management of poetical technique, however, both poets were equally excellent as "word-musician." And the two poets had almost the same view of the "changing world of changeless law." Living in such a world of changeless change, both poets sought for something changeless and everlasting. Tennyson found it in the "principle of immortal Love" as is embodied by King Arthur himself in the Idylls. However, as the last book of the Idylls implies, Tennyson's faith in "immortal Love" was rather precarious, living as he was in the transitional Victorian era. On the other hand, Swinburne who was one of the leading advocates of "art for art's sake" thought that only the great work done by the great artist was immortal. Strongly opposed to Tennyson's degradation of the legendary story, Swinburne, true to "the dear old story," produced his own version and published it as Tristram of Lyonesse in 1882, though in Swinburne's poem Wagnerian 'Liebestod'and the existence of Fate were idiosyncratically emphasized. It was somewhat ironical that Tennyson, a conservative poet as a spokesman of the Victorian society, was rather radical in his interpretation of the Arthurian story and that Swinburne, a radical aesthete, was rather conservative in his treatment of the story of King Arthur. Tennyson stressed the Christian element of the legends, implying his own ambiguous sentiment towards his own society at the same time, while Swinburne emphasized the tragic element with characteristically Swinburnian touch.
著者
佐野 誠
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.101-107, 2012-11

The purpose of this paper is to critically consider Georg Jellinek's views on the origin of human rights. Main points proposed in his writing The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens (1895) are as follows: the first is that the legal historical origin of codifying human rights does not lie in the French Declaration of 1789, but in the Virginia Bill of Rights of 1776. The second is that the model of the French Declaration is not Rousseau's The Social Contract of 1762, but the bills of rights of American states enacted in and after 1776. The third is that the historical source of the American bills of rights, including the Virginia Bill of Rights, consists in Protestants' struggles for freedom of religion in the days of North American colonies, especially in the English Protestant theologian, Roger Williams' contributions to it. I particularly would like to deal with the second and third points and propose some objections against them. Plainly speaking, it is emphasized that Rousseau's The Social Contract had a certain influence on the French Declaration, freedom of religion stipulated in American bills of rights was nothing but that for Protestants, and the influence of Williams on the codification of human rights was not so great as that of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.本稿は、G・イェリネクの『人および市民の権利宣言』(1895年初版)で喚起された人権の起源をめぐる問題に1つの決着をつけることを目的とする。イェリネクの主要論点は以下の3つである。第1は、人権の成文法化の法史的起源は、フランスの「人および市民の権利宣言」(「人権宣言」1789年)にあるのではなく、ヴァージニアの「権利の章典」(1776年)にあること、第2は、フランスの「人権宣言」のモデルは、当時の通説であったルソーの『社会契約論』(1762年)にあるのではなく、ヴァージニアの「権利の章典」を含む、アメリカ諸州の「権利の章典」にあること、第3は、このアメリカ諸州の「権利の章典」の歴史的源泉は、北アメリカのイギリス植民地時代におけるプロテスタントの「信教の自由」獲得のための闘争、とりわけ政教分離主義者ロジャー・ウィリアムズの思想と行動にあることである。本稿は、これら3つの論点に対する筆者の見解を述べたものであり、イェリネクの意に反し、(1)ルソーの『社会契約論』がフランスの「人権宣言」に一定の影響力を与えたことは間違いなく、彼のルソー観は一面的にすぎること、(2)1776年6月以降、アメリカ諸州に自由権を含む「権利の章典」が制定されていくが、その実態は、自由の享受にはほど遠く、北部では神権政治、南部では国家教会制の形態が取られていたこと、しかも(3)「信教の自由」の享受者は、アメリカ諸州の全人民ではなく、キリスト教信仰者、特にプロテスタントに限定されていたこと、(4)ロジャー・ウィリアムズの思想とアメリカ諸州における「権利の章典」制定との直接的な歴史的関係は存在しないこと等が強調される。普遍的、中立的意味での「信教の自由」の法史的起源は、ジェームズ・マディソンが起草したアメリカ合衆国憲法修正10箇条における第1条(1791年)にあるが、この制定過程の詳細な検討は今後の課題として残された。本研究は、平成21~23年度科研費(基盤研究(C))(課題番号:21530010)の助成を受けたものである。