著者
渡辺 伸一
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.1, pp.115-125, 2007-10-31 (Released:2017-02-27)

Environmental cadmium pollution causes cadmium poisoning. The first cadmium-polluted area ever discovered in the world was the Jinzu River basin in Toyama Prefecture in Japan. The most severe case of cadmium poisoning is Itai-itai disease (osteomalacia), which was officially recognized as a pollution-related disease by the Japanese government in 1968, and a less severe case is tubular kidney dysfunction. In other words, the occurrence of Itai-itai disease is only the "tip of the iceberg". The tubular kidney dysfunction is the earliest and most prevalent adverse result of chronic cadmium poisoning. The Japan Public Health Association Cadmium Research Committee, supported by the Environmental Agency, carried out health surveys in cadmium-polluted areas of 8 prefectures during the period of 1976-1984 and reported that many cases of tubular kidney dysfunction were found not only in Toyama but also in Ishikawa, Hyogo and Nagasaki prefectures. However, the Environmental Agency and the research committee have never certified this kidney dysfunction as a pollution-related disease. In 1970, the Japanese government set tentative acceptable standards of 1ppm for brown rice and enacted the Agricultural Land Soil Pollution Prevention Law in 1971. Based on this Law, restoration projects of polluted soils of rice paddies were started. If cadmium nephropathy was certified as a officially pollution-related disease, acceptable standards for brown rice must be more strict than 1ppm, because 1ppm is a standard to prevent habitants from suffering from Itai-itai disease. This new strict standard arrives at increases in polluted rice and soils. This means increases in the expenses to buy polluted rice and to restore polluted soils. To offer indemnity to farmers for any reduction in his rice crop is the responsibility of polluting industries and to pay expenses to restore polluted soils is the responsibility of polluting industries, the central government and local authorities. This paper concludes that the main reason why cadmium nephropathy has not been certified as an official pollution- related disease is that the decision-making of the Environmental Agency and the research committee reflects the intention of the polluting industries and the government who regard the expenses above as too heavy a burden.
著者
高橋 豪仁
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2002

日本のプロ野球には、私設応援団や後援会が存在する。それは、近代社会におけるスポーツイベントが創出したスポーツファンによって形成された、応援のための自発的集団である。本研究の目的は、私設応援団「神戸中央会」の参与観察を通して、「全国広島東洋カープ私設応援団連盟」と「近畿カープ後援会」の設立経緯と活動状況を明らかにすることである。1.下位文化研究の視点から私設応援団の参与観察を実施した結果、球場における示威的コミットメントや選手との距離の近さが彼ら独自の勢力資源となり、スタジアムでの典型的な応援行動である旗振りやリードは応援団の社会的勢力を儀礼的に象徴化する機能を有することが推察された。そして、官僚制やヤクザ的な擬似的家制度が、これらの彼ら独自の行動様式や価値基準に取り込まれており、官僚制は近代社会の主流から取り込んだものであり、擬似的家制度は社会の周辺部分に位置づけられた親文化である。ここに、応援団の下位文化の多層性を見ることができ、私設応援団の下位文化は、応援に関する彼ら独自の価値基準や行動様式に官僚制や擬似家制度をドメスティケイト(domesticate)することによって創られているのである。2.近畿カープ後援会の設立母体であった近畿広島県人会は、戦後の復興期において広島と大阪の間の物流のパイプ役として機能しており、広島県から近畿圏への労働力のスムーズな移動に貢献していた。目に見える形で広島との繋がりを意識することのできるスポーツ観戦は、広島県人会のメンバーにとって、大阪の広島県人としてのアイデンティティを確認する場であった。カープ後援会設立のための共感の共同性を作り出したものは、単なる故郷に関する共通の記憶ではなかった。それはカープによって上演されたV1の物語であり、広島から大阪に出て来て働くという共通の体験を再帰的に映し出す社会的ドラマとなっていた。
著者
上村 盛人
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.69-80, 1977-11-15 (Released:2017-02-24)

In Swinburne's poetry we find many remarkable femme fatale characters : Dolores, Faustine, Venus, Mary Stuart, and Atalanta are all typical femmes fatales, to give a few examples. He was almost possessed with the femme fatale image, and in fact, he became the first to introduce to the Victorian England the "fatal woman" imagery, which was indeed the representative iconography in the fin de siecle European art. Mary Gordon was Swinburne's closely related cousin and was also his bosom friend who had shared the romantic make-believe world of their own since their childhood. Mary's sudden announcement to marry a soldier was a shock to the poet, to whom perhaps it meant destruction of their cherished private world. Swinburne had been interested in the femme fatale theme since his boyhood, and in his imagination the "fatal woman" image had already taken shape, waiting only for a chance to be actually written down as a poem. Mary's engagement announcement gave him such a chance, and now he could set out to become a chief actor in his‘monodrama', in which he was to be tormented by cruel femmes fatales. Swinburne was a poet who was extremely conscious of his poetic art as a‘maker' of poetry. Almost all his poetry can possibly be said‘meta-poetry', that is, poetry about poetry. To achieve his aim to embody‘l'art pour l'art' in his poems, he made use of surprisingly many poetic forms and themes. And his femme fatale myth was one of such themes and his‘lost love' to Mary Gordon gave a good chance to start him writing femme fatale poems.
著者
豊田 弘司 照田 恵理
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.41-48, 2013-11-30

The present study examined the relationship among stress, stress response and emotional intelligence (EI) in undergraduates. Undergraduates were asked to rate the items from scales corresponding to EI (J-WLEIS; Toyota & Yamamoto, 2011), Stressor (STR; Shima, 1999) and Stess response (SRS-18; Suzuki et al., 1997). J-WLEIS consisited of four subscales: Regulating emotion, Self emotion appraisal, Others-emotions appraisal and Use of emotion. STR was composed of four subscales, existential, interpersonal, academic and physical stressors. SRS-18 consisted of three subscales: deppression, aggression and hopeless. The result indicated that EI scores were negatively correlated with both stressor and stress scores, and showing that participants with high EI had less stressor and less stress response than those with low EI. Stressor was correlated with stress response higher in participants with low EI compared to those with high EI. This result was interpreted as showing the possibility that EI moderated the relatonship between stressor and stress response.
著者
劉 麟玉
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.95-105, 2011-11-30

GAO Yi-Sheng, who was an aborigine of Tsuou tribe in Taiwan, was born in 1908. His native name was Uyongu Yatauyungana, and he also had a Japanese name, Issei Yada, because Taiwan was ruled by Japan around the time. When Taiwan became a territory of Republic of China in 1945, he again changed his name to a Chinese name, GAO Yi-Sheng. Although he was arrested on a false charge as a revolter against the government in 1952 and executed in 1954, Taiwanese and Japanese scholars have considered him as one of the elite in Tsuou tribe, not only because he attempted to build an autonomous society for Taiwanese aborigines, but also because he had considerable talents for literature and music. Even when he was in prison, GAO Yi-Sheng composed many songs, as thinking of his own children and people of Tsuou tribe. It is undoubted that he was a tragic figure in the history of politics, but I would like to shed more light on his music talent. We all know that music composition needs knowledge of organizing the notes and writing them on the staves. So where and why did GAO learn the knowledge about music composition? What is characteristic of his music? In order to answer the questions, in this paper, I will examine GAO's progress in music education during his school years and analyze his compositions as well.
著者
丹 敦 渡辺 伸一
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.1, pp.165-180, 2004-10-29

Deer in Nara - "Nara-no-Shika"- inhabit the area in and around Nara Park in Nara City, the capital of Nara prefecture. In Nara, they have been protected as sacred animals of the Kasuga shrine for a long time. On the other hand, damage to crops caused by them was so serious that the villages in Nara built "Shikagaki" (Shishigaki) during the Edo period. "Shikagaki" is a piece of equipment which is made of wood, stones and mud to prevent damage to crops caused by wild animals, especially deer in the case of Nara. According to our fieldwork, ruins of "Shikagaki" still exist around Nara Park. However, there has been no study to prove where they are located. We would like to propose that the rums of "Shikagaki" are very precious reminders of Nara's heritage in the sense that they are the products of local villagers' hard work. The purpose of this study is to clarify the distribution of the "Shikagaki" and their present situation.
著者
阿部 智 木村 真知子 若吉 浩二 石川 元美 小畑 治 高橋 豪仁
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.169-179, 2008-10-31

The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in physical fitness of elementary school children who participated in the long term sports classes using Ballschule program that has received high evaluation in Germany, and to compare the physical fitness and exercise habits of the children and that of those who had not participated in the classes. In addition, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ballschule program on the growth of child, and to obtain basic data to make a physical fitness program for elementary school children. First, a total of 47 children, the 2nd and 3rd grade, practiced in sports classes of Ballschule, participated in a sports class held over the long term. There was the improvement with physical fitness and balance in the total score of the physical fitness test. Next, In the comparison of a total 34 children of the 2nd, 10 children who had participated in sports classes of Ballschule and 24 of children who had not, it is confirmed that the total coordination score of Post-test was higher than that of Pre-test in the former children. As a result, it is suggested that the improvement of the physical fitness was caused by the long-term Ballschule program. We could consider Ballschule program as an effective training program, and furthermore we need to examine the validity of Ballschule program as school education. This study elucidated the importance that we should take unspecialized physical fitness program such as Ballschule for developing children. However, it is necessary that we demonstrate the effects of the Ballschule program by using other factors of physical fitness besides ability of coordination that have been central in test heads. And then, a program of Ballschule suitable for Japanese original social context must be suggested and practiced so that Ballschule will be familiarized, applied and practiced in various occasions.
著者
清水 キワ
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.177-191, 1972-11-15

The 'TANOMOSHI' as they call it, is a body of association which has passed current in Japan since the Medieval days; it is a system of financing for common people, managed autonomously in the spirit of mutual assistance. Nowadays, when available means of financing are everywhere prevalent, it might almost be assumed that the TANOMOSHI is already outmoded. Our investigation, however, amply shows that this system is still largely in practice among the common people, who resort to this system with a view to their household financing and also to the betterment of their social relations. Our final conclusion is that, unless any radical measures for common people's welfare are enforced by the State authorities, the TANOMOSHI will never fail to survive.
著者
河本 大地 劉 丹 馬 鵬飛
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 = Bulletin of Nara University of Education. Cultural and Social Science (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.125-146, 2019-11-29

History and present situation of Totsukawa Onsen, one of the three hot spring resorts in mountainous Totsukawa Village, Nara Prefecture, is examined in this paper. Totsukawa Onsen is a new hot spring resort that was established in 1963 when hot spring water was taken from the source in a steep valley to the lakeside of newly constructed Futatsuno Dam in Hiradani area where is the center of the commercial and service business function of Totsukawa Village. Managements of the accommodation facilities are specifically focused. As a result, it can be said that the development of this onsen made a great contribution to the economy of this village through tourism industries.
著者
中谷 昭 岡崎 政博 坂田 進
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 自然科学 (ISSN:05472407)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.2, pp.39-43, 2001-10-15

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high fat diet with different percent calories as fat on serum leptin level in rats. Male Wistar rats, 4 weeks old, were assigned to regular chow (12% calories as fat), a 40% high fat diet or a 60% high fat diet group. They ate each diet ad libitum for 5 weeks. Food intake per day was the highest in chow fed group and the lowest in 60% high fat fed group. Although epididymal fat pad weight, plasma triglycende, free fatty acid and total cholesterol in both high fat diet groups were significantly higher than in the chow fed group, there was no difference in body weight among the three diet groups. Serum leptin in the 40% fat and the 60% fat diet were higher than in the chow fed group ( ~136% and ~140%, respectively). Serum leptin was strongly correlated with epididymal adipose tissue weight (r=0.83, P<0.001). These results suggest that a high fat diet increases serum leptin level, and that increased leptin level might inhibit food intake and control body weight.
著者
清水 貞夫 玉村 公二彦
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 = Bulletin of Nara University of Education. 奈良教育大学 編 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.1, pp.41-54, 2015-11

In this article we analyzed the sociological labeling theory, especially focusing on Jane R. Mercer and also including the social climate of 1960s. According to Mercer, there are two perspectives in which mental retardation can be considered: (1) the clinical perspective and (2) the social system perspective. The clinical perspective is characterized by the simultaneous use of a medical model and a statistical model though these two models are frequently confused. She contends it is not appropriate to apply a medical model to mild mental retardation, but it is more appropriate to adopt a social system model for analyzing problems that people with mild retardation would meet in a community. She argues that from a social system perspective, mental retardation is a sociocultural phenomenon, That means that mental retardation is an achieved status in a social system and persons holding that status plays the social role designated by the social system. From Mercer's researches at Riversides, she found that there were a disproportionately large number of black persons and Mexican American persons labeled by community agencies. She also discovered that the schools were the chief labelers. From these and other findings Mercer came to three major conclusions. The first one is that clinicians and psychologists in the community were not measuring adaptive behavior only because there were no adaptive scales available for them to use. This meant that they judged persons as persons with mental retardation almost entirely on the basis of an IQ test score. The second one is that the cut-off point of an IQ score should be lowered to 2SD below, though public schools were using the cut-off point of IQ 79 or below. Third one is that tremendous cultural biases exists in the IQ test and the test is not appropriate when used with lower class persons who do not share the same cultural traditions as the dominant Anglo American society. These conclusions lead her to develop an improved assessment test called the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA). SOMPA includes an extensive battery of measures. SOMPA has extensively reviewed and debated, so it has not recognized as a valid assessment tool for children yet. Mercer's social system approach, however, provides us with the new perspective about intellectual disability. According to Mercer intellectual disability is not mental defect or deficiency, but a kind of devalued deviancy which is determined to be deviant by other people in the social system.
著者
北村 陽英 鯰 裕美 木村 洋子
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 自然科学 (ISSN:05472407)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.2, pp.51-60, 2004-10-29

Using a questionnaire which asseses premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea symptoms, we investigated 392 senior high school female students in June and July, 2002. Sixty-eight percent of these students were suffering from premenstrual syndrome, and eighty-three percent of these students were suffering from dysmenorrhea symptoms. Comparing symptoms of premenstrual syndrome with dysmenorrhea, there are a lot of somatic symptoms in both conditions, but premenstrual syndrome has more symptoms of swelling and breast pain than dysmenorrhea. Symptomatically, it is recognized that symptoms of premenstrual syndrome are different from symptoms of dysmenorrhea. In daily and school life, thirty-three percent of those students were disturbed by premenstrual syndrome. This study proposes that it is necessary to teach students not only about dysmenorrhea but also about premenstrual syndrome in school health education and mental health counseling classes.
著者
棚橋 尚子
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2003

本研究の目的は、漢字に付されたルビが児童の漢字習得に有効であるかの解明にある。近年、一般に使用する漢字の総体が多くなるに伴い、新聞等において常用漢字表外の漢字にルビを付す形のいわゆるルビ付き表記が多く見られるようになった。また、名文暗唱の流行も手伝い、児童が目を通す書物の中には総ルビ表記のものが目につくようになってきた。名文暗唱のブームを作った斎藤孝は総ルビ表記を評価し、児童が漢字の読みに習熟するために効果があるとしている。斎藤に限らず、従来多くの識者が、ルビ付き表記で漢字は覚えられる旨の指摘を続けてきた。しかしながら、棚橋が1999年に行った複数の調査によれば、漢字に対して苦手意識のある児童は、ルビの有無にかかわらず漢字そのものを敬遠する傾向があることが分かっている。本研究では、このような実態を踏まえ、教師の意識調査と、児童に対する漢字習得調査を柱に「ルビは漢字の習得に有効か」という点を追究した。その結果、まず教師の意識調査からは、自身の漢字習得経験においてルビの有効性を自覚していたかどうかにかかわらず、母集団(108名)の3割以上の教師が、漢字の「書き」についてもルビが効果的だと考えていることが理解できた。さらに、小学生1699名を対象にした、実験群(ルビ付き表記による事前学習をさせる群)と統制群(事前学習をさせない群)を設定した漢字ルビの効果を測定する調査では、統計処理の結果、ルビ付き表記を見せて学習させることが、漢字の読みの習得ばかりか、書きの習得にまで影響を及ぼす(極めて有為である)ことが判明した。したがって、従来、研究者個人の経験則に基づいて指摘されてきた漢字習得における漢字ルビの有効性は、科学的にも存在すると結論することができた。
著者
板橋 孝幸 岩本 廣美 河本 大地
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 = Bulletin of Nara University of Education. Cultural and Social Science (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.1-19, 2019-11-29

This paper shows the significance and problems of small schools laying both elementary and junior high schools in remote rural areas by arranging the cases of Ishigaki City and Taketomi Town in Okinawa Prefecture. In these schools, efforts have been made in school management and local area learning so that children can recognize their growth while considering the connection between elementary and junior high schools, by looking at the entire nine years of learning.
著者
青木 智史 小島 和人 金原 正明
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 自然科学 (ISSN:05472407)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.1-7, 2013-11-30

In the present paper, the authors report the results of thermoluminescence (TL) dating of the bricks from a modern structure, and discuss the validity of this method. TL method is a typical and well-used tool for estimating the age of heated relics. In this research, TL dating method applied to the bricks of the brickwork foundation of an officer' s mess hall which were excavated at the site of the 53th Infantry Regiment on the campus of Nara University of Education. In 1909, the 53 Infantry Regiment was located in the site, where the campus of Nara University of Education is now located. The Infantry Regiment site was first discovered in 2008. This site was excavated continuously between 2008 and 2011. And, the samples were collected at the Infantry Regiment site in 2011. The samples were measured according to the protocol of multiple aliquot additive dose. The TL age averaged for all samples is 96±10 years before present. Thus the results of the present work indicate that the bricks were burnt in the period around the early 20th century. The results are consistent with the ages shown from the archaeological aspects of view. The TL dating method was successfully applied to the modern burnt bricks. And the above result suggest that TL dating method is a valid technique for the research on the history of modern times.
著者
安田 寛
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.129-133, 2006-10

It is put outside the concern that the Imperial court poets held the school songs under their control. They were the conservative people who tried to defend the tradition of Japanese tanka poetry from the influence of the Christian hymns. The words of school song has been discussed from the perspective of cultivating of moral nature of the child, cultivating his nationality and patriotism. The point of view to maintain the tradition of Japanese tanka poetry in the school songs was missing. From the point of view that the school songs was missing. From the point of view that the school son was born of the conflict with the anti-Christian power to deny the Christianity, which had brought by a Japanese mission, this new perspective becomes important. From the 10th year of Meiji, the school song was made by the various organizations, the Tokyo Women' s Normal school, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government and the Ministry of Education. The Imperial court poets were concerned with the song production of these organizations, and they worked as a songwriter. They did an important function with Ceremony songs for the National holidays, which were decided by law in the 26th year of Meiji.
著者
上村 盛人
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.p41-58, 1978-11

With the publication of Atalanta in Calydon in 1865, Swinburne became famous and was welcomed "to an honourable place among younger poets of England". Aside from his juvenilia, The Queen Mother and Rosamond, issued in 1860, Atalanta was virtually his first important work, because we can find in it almost all Swinburnian traits that he was to develop further in his later works. From the legendary story of Meleager and the boar hunting which Homer, Euripides and Ovid had told, Swinburne created his own tragic version of the myth. Though Swinburne thought that Atalanta was "pure Greek", it was not necessarily so because of its Swinburnian antitheism and aestheticism. Throughout this drama, Heraclitean idea that "Παντα ρει" is repeatedly expressed. Althaea urges her son to serve the gods' law and social customs, while Meleager respects "great things done" that "endure". Chief Huntsman, Chorus and Althaea worship and implore Artemis, the goddess of moon, chastity, hunting and death, while Meleager wishes to be praised by Apollo, the god of sun and art. Artemis, Aphrodite and Atalanta are all represented as femmes fatales. Though Meleager dies a tragic death, he acquires an eternal fame for "what he did in his good time". Like Balen and Tristram, Meleager lives an everlasting life in the world of art, because his "great deeds" have been told by the artists who have immortal soul. Atalanta is a meta-poem and embodies "art for art's sake" like Swinburne's other excellent works.
著者
渡辺 伸一
出版者
奈良教育大学
雑誌
奈良教育大学紀要. 人文・社会科学 (ISSN:05472393)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.109-119, 2012-11-30

Over 190 animal species are designated as the national monument by the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. The "deer of Nara" have a very peculiar characteristic among them. It is difficult to specify which "sika" deer belong to the deer of Nara because the Cultural Properties Protection Committee (the Agency for Cultural Affairs since 1968) defines them ambiguously. The deer of Nara, Cervus nippon (species name), living from Hokkaido in the north to Kyushu in the South, are found mainly in Nara Park in the city of Nara. The deer of Nara are defined simply as "sika" deer (1) living in and around Nara Park and (2) being tame. Yet, both "around Nara Park" and "being tame" are ambiguous terms, whose specification varies from person to person. This article confirms that the way to specify the deer of Nara has been ambiguous since they were designated as national monument under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (1957). Then, it shows how the ambiguity of the provisions has brought about various confusions and problems among local people and clarified the reasons why their content has become ambiguous. Finally, the author proposes how new provisions should be framed from the position that they must be clearly articulated.