著者
高木 駿
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, 2018-07-01

In the First Book of the Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790), judgments of tastewhich state the beauty are based on a subjctive ground, or the feeling of pleasure,so that they are not logical cognitive judgments which constitute "a cognition of theobject through concepts of it" (V 211) but aesthetic judgments. Therefore, they cannotstate truth or falsehood of themselves as logical cognitive judgments do. However,Kant uses the expression of "a false (or an erroneous) judgment of taste (ein irrigesGeschmacksurteil)" (V 216). If this "false (or erroneous)" is not logical one, whatdoes it mean? About what are judgments of taste false? Now, we have three leadinginterpretations of judgments of taste to resolve these questions, i.e. interpretationfrom an epistemological, moral, aesthetic point of view. But I think that the first twointerpretations are not successful, because they contradict Kant's statements in somepoints as I will show. Thus, in this paper by adopting the aesthetic interpretation ofjudgments of taste I shall answer the questions concerned, namely argue that thefalsehood (or error) of them consists in choosing an inappropriate feeling of pleasurefor the ground of judgments of taste.
著者
高木 駿
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.1, 2016

In the First Book of the Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790), Immanuel Kant says that judgments of taste are not cognitive but aesthetic, because they are grounded only in a subjective ground, or the feeling of pleasure (Vgl. V 203). Now logical cognitive judgments constitute "a cognition of the object through concepts of it" (V 211 Italics mine), therefore judgments of taste must be without concepts of object, namely nonconceptual. However, Kant's example of an object of judgments of taste, "the rose that I am gazing at" (V 215), and the judgment of taste "This rose is beautiful." seem to contradict the nonconceptuality of judgments of taste themselves, because this judgment appears to presuppose the use of concepts of understanding for empirically identifying what an object is, and the cognition "This is a rose.". In this point, does Kant make a self-contradictory statement? In this paper, by considering the meaning of Kant's conception of the nonconceptuality, I shall argue that the judgment of taste "This rose is beautiful." does not contradict the conception, and thus there is no Kant's self- contradiction.
著者
辻 絵理子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.25-36, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

The Tokalı Kilise has a rare architectural plan, which is the reason for its local nickname, ‘the Church of the Buckle’. This paper enquired closely into the programme of the northern small apse, that is, the Prothesis of the New Church. The Prothesis was used for the preparation of the Eucharist in the liturgy, often decorated by iconography related to the Communion. The Hospitality of Abraham and the Communion of Mary of Egypt under the conch emphasize the Eucharistic meaning of the place. In this article, it is focused on the themes with irregular direction and with a different layout. Christ is duplicated in the Marriage Feast at Cana spanning between the north frieze and the half spandrel of the eastern arcade. In the half spandrel, there are the servant filling the jar, the steward tasting wine, and Christ’s right hand alone blessing the water. Above her son’s hand, Mary keeps the water of ordeal in the Trial by Water. Her gesture of accepting the cup from the priest resembles closely those of Apostles taking wine from Christ in the Communion of Apostles. These themes stressing the relation to the Communion are located in the place adjacent to the Prothesis.
著者
森 功次
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.16-29, 2009

Dans la pensee de l'art chez le premier Sartre, l'image et le reel sont-ils distinctement separes? Sartre a-t-il meconnu la materialite de l'oeuvre d'art? Il serait excessif d'affirmer cela. Premierement, si l'on examine les concepts de <<spontaneite pre-volontaire>>, de <<degradation>>, et de <<motivation>> dans la theorie de l'image de Sartre, il apparait clairement que dans l'experience de l'oeuvre, le reel se maintient derriere l'imaginaire. La negation de l'existence de l'objet d'appreciations esthetiques ne signifie pas ne pas voir l'oeuvre. Deuxiemement, par comparaison avec le reve, l'experience de l'oeuvre d'art maintient des relations plus etroites avec le reel. Certes, le reve et l'experience esthetique constituent pareillement une experience de la conscience captive et concernent l'imaginaire, et Sartre lui-meme a d'ailleurs souvent decrit la ressemblance entre les deux. Mais dans L'imaginaire, a certains egards-notamment la distance vis-a-vis du reel, la facilite de la reflexion, et la nature du sentiment-, Sartre a clairement distingue l'experience esthetique de celle du reve. De ce point de vue, dans la theorie sartrienne, la realite de l'oeuvre, elle aussi, joue un role efficace.
著者
城丸 美香
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.28-41, 2004

According to Walter Benjamin, the photography is the first revolutionary reproduction technology, and the invention of it has brought a certain critical situation, "a poverty of experience" or "a decline of experience". It has progressed with the change in the communicative form from the story to the information. The photography reproduces traumatic shocks, and it has two opposite functions, repetition and reproduction. On the one hand, repeating shocks is a fragmentation of time and space. On the other, reproducing shocks is a reconstruction of a new spatial-temporal order by re-arranging those fragments. And this re-arrangement (=construction) is done by means of words (characters). The construction is that people read a (non-sensitive) similarity between words and fragments of various things which are released from all relations, and by doing so, set them in a new context where things can expose their new meanings. This new context is the place where things can gain the actuality. The function of photography is to form the space where all possible words can exist toward an image, and Benjamin found out the possibility of new collective experience in this space.
著者
河上 春香
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.49-60, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

This paper examines the political situation of surrealism in Czechoslovakia in 1930s. In Czechoslovakia, Surrealism was developed in the close relationship with communism. For ideological and other reasons, the Prague movement emphasized a dialectical way of thinking. In other words, Surrealism was considered to be a process whereby reality and the self were apprehended through the synergistic and dialectical relationship between deliberate (conscious) and involuntary (unconscious) acts. In addition, surrealism was undergirded by the rule of “recounting truth”. According to Michel Foucault, “recounting truth” involves defining an autonomous position vis-a-vis one's relationship with truth – in other words, it is a technique of governing the self. Karel Teige describes Surrealism as an artistic and practical means for revolutionaries to establish the self. However, attempting to connect Communism and Surrealism is forced: while the Communist ideology attempts to enforce one extreme form of “truth” in order to control people, the “truth” presented by Surrealism is something ever-changing and varying from person to person. By linking Surrealism and Socialist realism, Teige attempted to suggest that Communist culture should develop diversity and complexity. However, with Stalinism wielding power in Czechoslovakia, that idea was only possible for a brief time.
著者
源河 亨
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.13-24, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

In daily life, we judge various things aesthetically. For example: “this picture is graceful”, “this landscape is dynamic”, and “his clothes are old-fashioned”. One aspect of our ordinary practices concerning aesthetic judgement seems to support objectivism, according to which, aesthetic judgment can be assessed as right or wrong based on some objective ground. However, another aspect of our practices seems to support subjectivism (or extreme relativism), according to which, aesthetic judgement is a mere expression of subjective impressions and cannot be assessed as right or wrong. In this study, I survey the dispute between objectivism and subjectivism in recent analytic aesthetics, and present an approach that supports objectivism. I argue that some aesthetic judgement is based on “evaluative perception”. It is a special class of perceptual experience affected by evaluative component of emotion and has Gestalt-like “parts-whole structure”. Furthermore, I claim that evaluative perceptions and aesthetic judgement based on it can be assessed as right or wrong in a similar way as ordinary perception and judgement based on it (e.g. colour perception and colour judgement) can be assessed.
著者
平野 千枝子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.97-108, 2010-12-31 (Released:2017-05-22)

Gordon Matta-Clark (1943-1978) is best known for his 'building cuts', which involved the physical invasion of vacant urban buildings. Through these works, he criticized urban renewal and the standardization of space in order to achieve industrial efficiency. Though they received less attention than his architectural works, Matta-Clark was also heavily involved in 'culinary' projects from the outset of his artistic career. The most important of these was 'Food', a restaurant he opened in 1971 along with a group of collaborating artists. At the restaurant, Matta-Clark emphasized human activity and allowed for the purchase, preparation and serving of food to act as a metaphor for cultural transformation. Later, in 1975, he built on 'Food' by giving a performance called 'Cuisse de Bceuf' that involved his roasting 750 pounds of beef in front of the then under-construction Pompidou Center in Paris. Earlier in his career, Matta-Clark also used food as a motif in works such as 'Agar' and 'Museum', which highlight the natural ability of mold to transform the ingredients of food. These projects set out to demonstrate the variety and vitality of unrestricted nature. I divide Matta-Clark's culinary projects into representations of 'natural' and 'cultural' transformation (after Levi-Strauss' The Raw and the Cooked') in order to discuss how Matta-Clark's motif of 'food as symbol of transformation' compliments his architectural work by criticizing the scientific and functional basis of urban renewal.
著者
長野 順子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.4, pp.p1-12, 1987-03

Die meisten Interpreten (cf. J. Kulenkampff, P. Guyer, G. Kohler) behaupten, dass die phanomenologische Analyse der Struktur des asthetischen Urteils den zentralen Aspekt der Kritik der asthetischen Urteilskraft bildet. Meines Erachtens aber geht es besonders in ihrer zweiten Halfte darum zu erklaren, welche Rolle das astheitische Urteil im Ganzheit des menschlichen Lebens spielen muss wenn der Mensch fur die Gesellschaft bestimmt sein soll. Der Kernbegriff ist der "allgemeinen Mitteilbarkeit" des Gemutszustandes oder des Gefuhl der Lust in gegebener Vorstellung. Schon seit langem war die "Geselligkeit" oder "Sozialitat" der unentbehrliche Faktor bei Kants fruher Theorie der Schonheit, wie gezeigt in seiner Vorlesungen uber Logik und Anthropologie um 1770. Aber in der ausgereiften Asthetik von seiner kritischen Philosophie, wahrend die Beziehung auf Gesellschaft den Geschmack zum blossen Mittel zur Verbindung oder sogar Konkurrenz mit anderen machen konnte, ist dem Begriff der allgemeinen Mitteilbarkeit eine ganz neue Bedeutung und eine wesentliche Funktion gegeben. Diesem Begriff liegt sensus communis (die Idee eines gemeinschaftlichen Sinnes) zugrunde, welcher durch die "Operation der Reflexion" dem Menschen moglich macht, sich in die Stelle jedes anderen zu versetzen, und so auf die allgemeine Gemeinschaft der Menschheit als einer Gattung, zielt. Fur Kant ist das Wesen des asthetischen Urteils die Beforderung der "Kultur der Gemutskrafte" zur "der Menschheit angemessenen Geselligkeit".
著者
小野寺 奈津
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.61-72, 2017 (Released:2018-07-01)

In the early 1960s, Fluxus, an art movement organized by George Maciunas (1931- 1978), an art historian and designer, performed “Event” based on the instruction called “Score.” Their central activity was holding the concert consisted of “Event.” “Event” was performed under avant-garde interpretation in the concert and it emphasized the anti-artistic aspect of Fluxus. On the other hand, George Brecht (1926-2008) who wrote “Score” intensively and developed “Event” into concept, thought “Event” did not need to be performed. It was intended as a means of drawing the perceptual experience. I would like to pay attention to the gap between the two and how to perform the “Event” in this thesis. When looking at the idea that Maciunas aimed at Fluxus, it turns out that he requested the viewers to experience the “Event” subjectively, but in the concert actually, the viewers were passive. Therefore, through reconsideration of the “Event” by Brecht, I intend to present the viewpoint that the very “Event” which Brecht attempted embodied the ideal that Maciunas envisioned in Fluxus.
著者
田中 均
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.1-14, 2007

In this paper, I investigate the relationship between love and art in the novel Lucinde. First, I analyse two cases of disappointments in love experienced by the young painter-and protagonist-Julius, which are symbolised by certain aesthetic defects:Lisette could not respond to Julius' love because of her life as a prostitute, which corresponds to her sensualistic tastes. Likewise, Julius' fruitless love for a married woman gave rise to a strained style to his painting. Second, I focus on his relationship with Lucinde, in which they completely affirmed each other's individuality. The reconciliation with his own life through love brought grace and maturity to his art. This should be interpreted as the realisation of 'the romantic', which is defined in Schlegel's essay 'Dialogue on Poetry' as a combination of 'the sentimental' and 'the fantastic'. Third, I turn my attention to the distinction by Julius between male and female love. He believes that, in contrast to female love which is concentrated only towards one object, a man can develop friendships between multiplicities of mature spirits and thus complement his own individuality. From this, I draw the conclusion that, in this novel, a female artist is excluded from the artistic cooperation.
著者
國安 洋
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.10-22, 1976-12-30 (Released:2017-05-22)

Oft fuhrt man als Merkmale der Wiener klassischen Musik Kontraste, Affektwechsel, Homophonie, Symmetrie, Periode, Liedtypus, obligates Akkompagnement, Sonatenform, motivische Arbeit und Gruppenbildung an. Aber sind solche Merkmale nicht die wesentlichen, die die Wiener Klassikern von den Vorklassikern und von den Romantikern trennen. Die Klassiker schaffen die neue geistige Wirklichkeit, die als das Erfassen des spezifisch menschlichen Handelns verstanden werden soll. Und Th. Georgiades bestimmt diese neue Haltung der Wiener Klassik als die Theater-Struktur im Gegensatz zu Epos-Struktur (Bach) und zu Lyrik-Struktur (Schubert). 1. Theater-Struktur. Sie weist als die Struktur des Hier-und-Jetzt und des mensch-lichen Gegenuber das wesenhafte Merkmal des Korperhaften auf. Und "Erst und allein die Wiener klassische Musik macht den dem musikalischen Phanomen latent innewohnenden Sinn des Korperhaften nun auch als Struktur ausdrucklich und weist eine spezifische Struktur-Analogie zum freien menschlichen Handeln auf." Und diese Theater-Struktur verkorpert sich am hochstens in der Musik Mozarts, besonders im Theater Mozarts als einem genuin-musikalischen Theater. 2. Diskontinuitat. Satztechnisches Merkmal dieser Theater-Haltung ist die Diskontinuitat, das Prinzip der selbstandigen Glieder, also der Zusammenstellung des Satzes aus kleinen selbststandigen Impulsen. 3. Der neue, gelauterte Taktbegriff. Jedes Glied des Satzes ist, als ein fester Korper, in sich kompakt, fur sich hermetisch geschlossen, den anderen heterogen. Doch das Ganze ist eine Einheit. Und das, was die Einheit gewahrleistet ist der neue, gelauterte Taktbegriff. 4. Einheit. Sie ist nicht die im objektiv-musikalischen Werke vorgefundene Ordnung, sondern besteht erst beim auffassenden Ich, kann nur im vom Gegenstand abstrahierten Geist hergestellt werden.
著者
玉生 正信
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.1-10, 1971-09-30 (Released:2017-05-22)

The child is born with creative power, but at a certain age this power begins to decline. The puberty crisis in child's life usually comes about fourteen-this is the time of the awakening intellect. The teacher ought to try to help the child to get over this crisis. The creative dies out only owing to the unfavourable influence of three factors : parents, school, and environment (civilization). How can creative Child Art be continued without the surrogate of perspective and without mannerism? In this paper the writer will grasp the continuity of creativity in connection with the discipline of plasticity. Creative art begins when the child starts struggling to find the right form. "The principal aim of Child Art", said Cizek "is that the creative power develops and influences right through life".
著者
松永 伸司
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.2, pp.97-108, 2013-12-31 (Released:2017-05-22)

When describing player's actions in videogame playing, we often use the sentences which seem to say that the player performs her actions within a fictional world. But it seems to be impossible for a real individual to act in a fictional location. Here is a puzzle. This paper attempts to analyze such sentences and solve this ontological puzzle. First, I examine some possible answers. Immersionism takes the sentences as expressing the player's experiences of immersion. Virtualism assumes that the sentences refer to players' actions within not fictional but virtual worlds. Realism says that the apparently fictional actions are really real. Fictionalism claims that the sentences are not true but fictionally true. I show that all of these are far from satisfactory. Then, I turn to two more sophisticated theories. Grant Tavinor's interactive fiction theory invokes Waltonian work-world/game-world distinction to account for the peculiarity of videogame fiction. John Sageng offers a realist theory according to which player's actions induce reference shifts from fictional happenings to on-screen happenings. But both have some fault as well. Finally, I claim that the apparently fictional actions are as real as actions in traditional games are, though specified by on-screen signs individuated by their fictional contents.
著者
増田 哲子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.73-84, 2011-12-31 (Released:2017-05-22)

This paper focuses on the image of "eating" in Francisco Goya's Saturn Devouring His Son (1820-23). We aim to grasp the meaning of "eating" in the above and other works of Goya by examining the grotesque body image of Saturn who devours his victim with wide-open mouth and eyes, angular limbs, and disheveled grey hair. As a court painter at the end of the 18^<th> century Spain, Goya was commissioned for works like portraits and tapestry cartoons, where he drew the dignified public body of royalty and nobility, which represented the classical notion of "ideal beauty." However, in a series of works executed after the Peninsular War of 1808-1814, such as the Disasters of War and the Black Paintings, Goya painted distorted and grotesque images of bodies that eat, excrete, grow old, die, and decay. In these images, Goya represented the body as "matter" that was far from the ideal beauty. In this article, we show that the grotesque image of "eating" in Goya's works does not convey the enjoyment and pleasure of life but the insatiable desire to eat, cruelty, and violence in the act of eating, as well as aversion to food.