著者
辻 絵理子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.25-36, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

The Tokalı Kilise has a rare architectural plan, which is the reason for its local nickname, ‘the Church of the Buckle’. This paper enquired closely into the programme of the northern small apse, that is, the Prothesis of the New Church. The Prothesis was used for the preparation of the Eucharist in the liturgy, often decorated by iconography related to the Communion. The Hospitality of Abraham and the Communion of Mary of Egypt under the conch emphasize the Eucharistic meaning of the place. In this article, it is focused on the themes with irregular direction and with a different layout. Christ is duplicated in the Marriage Feast at Cana spanning between the north frieze and the half spandrel of the eastern arcade. In the half spandrel, there are the servant filling the jar, the steward tasting wine, and Christ’s right hand alone blessing the water. Above her son’s hand, Mary keeps the water of ordeal in the Trial by Water. Her gesture of accepting the cup from the priest resembles closely those of Apostles taking wine from Christ in the Communion of Apostles. These themes stressing the relation to the Communion are located in the place adjacent to the Prothesis.
著者
森 功次
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.16-29, 2009

Dans la pensee de l'art chez le premier Sartre, l'image et le reel sont-ils distinctement separes? Sartre a-t-il meconnu la materialite de l'oeuvre d'art? Il serait excessif d'affirmer cela. Premierement, si l'on examine les concepts de <<spontaneite pre-volontaire>>, de <<degradation>>, et de <<motivation>> dans la theorie de l'image de Sartre, il apparait clairement que dans l'experience de l'oeuvre, le reel se maintient derriere l'imaginaire. La negation de l'existence de l'objet d'appreciations esthetiques ne signifie pas ne pas voir l'oeuvre. Deuxiemement, par comparaison avec le reve, l'experience de l'oeuvre d'art maintient des relations plus etroites avec le reel. Certes, le reve et l'experience esthetique constituent pareillement une experience de la conscience captive et concernent l'imaginaire, et Sartre lui-meme a d'ailleurs souvent decrit la ressemblance entre les deux. Mais dans L'imaginaire, a certains egards-notamment la distance vis-a-vis du reel, la facilite de la reflexion, et la nature du sentiment-, Sartre a clairement distingue l'experience esthetique de celle du reve. De ce point de vue, dans la theorie sartrienne, la realite de l'oeuvre, elle aussi, joue un role efficace.
著者
城丸 美香
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.28-41, 2004

According to Walter Benjamin, the photography is the first revolutionary reproduction technology, and the invention of it has brought a certain critical situation, "a poverty of experience" or "a decline of experience". It has progressed with the change in the communicative form from the story to the information. The photography reproduces traumatic shocks, and it has two opposite functions, repetition and reproduction. On the one hand, repeating shocks is a fragmentation of time and space. On the other, reproducing shocks is a reconstruction of a new spatial-temporal order by re-arranging those fragments. And this re-arrangement (=construction) is done by means of words (characters). The construction is that people read a (non-sensitive) similarity between words and fragments of various things which are released from all relations, and by doing so, set them in a new context where things can expose their new meanings. This new context is the place where things can gain the actuality. The function of photography is to form the space where all possible words can exist toward an image, and Benjamin found out the possibility of new collective experience in this space.
著者
河上 春香
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.49-60, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

This paper examines the political situation of surrealism in Czechoslovakia in 1930s. In Czechoslovakia, Surrealism was developed in the close relationship with communism. For ideological and other reasons, the Prague movement emphasized a dialectical way of thinking. In other words, Surrealism was considered to be a process whereby reality and the self were apprehended through the synergistic and dialectical relationship between deliberate (conscious) and involuntary (unconscious) acts. In addition, surrealism was undergirded by the rule of “recounting truth”. According to Michel Foucault, “recounting truth” involves defining an autonomous position vis-a-vis one's relationship with truth – in other words, it is a technique of governing the self. Karel Teige describes Surrealism as an artistic and practical means for revolutionaries to establish the self. However, attempting to connect Communism and Surrealism is forced: while the Communist ideology attempts to enforce one extreme form of “truth” in order to control people, the “truth” presented by Surrealism is something ever-changing and varying from person to person. By linking Surrealism and Socialist realism, Teige attempted to suggest that Communist culture should develop diversity and complexity. However, with Stalinism wielding power in Czechoslovakia, that idea was only possible for a brief time.
著者
長野 順子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.4, pp.p1-12, 1987-03

Die meisten Interpreten (cf. J. Kulenkampff, P. Guyer, G. Kohler) behaupten, dass die phanomenologische Analyse der Struktur des asthetischen Urteils den zentralen Aspekt der Kritik der asthetischen Urteilskraft bildet. Meines Erachtens aber geht es besonders in ihrer zweiten Halfte darum zu erklaren, welche Rolle das astheitische Urteil im Ganzheit des menschlichen Lebens spielen muss wenn der Mensch fur die Gesellschaft bestimmt sein soll. Der Kernbegriff ist der "allgemeinen Mitteilbarkeit" des Gemutszustandes oder des Gefuhl der Lust in gegebener Vorstellung. Schon seit langem war die "Geselligkeit" oder "Sozialitat" der unentbehrliche Faktor bei Kants fruher Theorie der Schonheit, wie gezeigt in seiner Vorlesungen uber Logik und Anthropologie um 1770. Aber in der ausgereiften Asthetik von seiner kritischen Philosophie, wahrend die Beziehung auf Gesellschaft den Geschmack zum blossen Mittel zur Verbindung oder sogar Konkurrenz mit anderen machen konnte, ist dem Begriff der allgemeinen Mitteilbarkeit eine ganz neue Bedeutung und eine wesentliche Funktion gegeben. Diesem Begriff liegt sensus communis (die Idee eines gemeinschaftlichen Sinnes) zugrunde, welcher durch die "Operation der Reflexion" dem Menschen moglich macht, sich in die Stelle jedes anderen zu versetzen, und so auf die allgemeine Gemeinschaft der Menschheit als einer Gattung, zielt. Fur Kant ist das Wesen des asthetischen Urteils die Beforderung der "Kultur der Gemutskrafte" zur "der Menschheit angemessenen Geselligkeit".
著者
源河 亨
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.13-24, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

In daily life, we judge various things aesthetically. For example: “this picture is graceful”, “this landscape is dynamic”, and “his clothes are old-fashioned”. One aspect of our ordinary practices concerning aesthetic judgement seems to support objectivism, according to which, aesthetic judgment can be assessed as right or wrong based on some objective ground. However, another aspect of our practices seems to support subjectivism (or extreme relativism), according to which, aesthetic judgement is a mere expression of subjective impressions and cannot be assessed as right or wrong. In this study, I survey the dispute between objectivism and subjectivism in recent analytic aesthetics, and present an approach that supports objectivism. I argue that some aesthetic judgement is based on “evaluative perception”. It is a special class of perceptual experience affected by evaluative component of emotion and has Gestalt-like “parts-whole structure”. Furthermore, I claim that evaluative perceptions and aesthetic judgement based on it can be assessed as right or wrong in a similar way as ordinary perception and judgement based on it (e.g. colour perception and colour judgement) can be assessed.
著者
田中 均
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.1-14, 2007

In this paper, I investigate the relationship between love and art in the novel Lucinde. First, I analyse two cases of disappointments in love experienced by the young painter-and protagonist-Julius, which are symbolised by certain aesthetic defects:Lisette could not respond to Julius' love because of her life as a prostitute, which corresponds to her sensualistic tastes. Likewise, Julius' fruitless love for a married woman gave rise to a strained style to his painting. Second, I focus on his relationship with Lucinde, in which they completely affirmed each other's individuality. The reconciliation with his own life through love brought grace and maturity to his art. This should be interpreted as the realisation of 'the romantic', which is defined in Schlegel's essay 'Dialogue on Poetry' as a combination of 'the sentimental' and 'the fantastic'. Third, I turn my attention to the distinction by Julius between male and female love. He believes that, in contrast to female love which is concentrated only towards one object, a man can develop friendships between multiplicities of mature spirits and thus complement his own individuality. From this, I draw the conclusion that, in this novel, a female artist is excluded from the artistic cooperation.
著者
松田 聡
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.70-83, 2003-09-30 (Released:2017-05-22)

In February, 1786, the Emperor Joseph II gave a feast at Schonbrunn Palace. On this occasion, Der Schauspieldirektor, a comedy with music by Mozart, was given its first performance, together with Salieri's opera buffa Prima la musica e poi le parole. So it has long been widely accepted that the two composers' music competed with each other in the feast. But, in fact. Der Schauspieldirektor is a unique stage work, of which the first half is formed as a German Play and the latter as a Singspiel. This fact necessitates reconsideration of the "competition". From October, 1785, three genres of stage work, German Play, Singspiel and Italian Opera, were performed at Viennese court theatres, so the feast can be regarded as an epitome of this system of performance in operation. This system marks an epoch in the Viennese performance history of opera, because, till then, it had never occurred that both the Italian Opera and the Singspiel were performed at court theatres in the same period. The two works performed in the feast share the same subject, that is the rivalry and the harmony between the different genres, and through it, the Emperor demonstrated his new idea to treat both German and Italian theatrical genres equally.
著者
後藤 狷士
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.15-22, 1963-09-30 (Released:2017-05-22)

Die technische Existenz ist ein Zwischenwesen, d. h. wie Bense sagt, ein zwischen den Polaritaten von Leben und Geist hin- und hergehendes, welches die Selbstauffassung im schopferischen Augenblick erreicht, Unbewusstes, Irrationales, Konkretes und Bewuβtes, Rationales, Abstraktes im unermudlichen Experiment zu vereinbaren. Daraus wird sich ergeben, dass die Technik eigentlich nicht das bloβe Mittel zum Zweck, sondern den Vermittler zwischen den Gegenuberstehenden bedeutet. Im Erfinden befindet sich aber die Gestalt (Form), wie Dessauerische Losungsgestalt (-form). Es gibt keine Gestalt ohne Bild (Image). Die Erfindung verbindet sich also mit der Einbildung (Imagination) am tiefsten. Dies ist das Urphanomen der Menschheit. Heidegger bemerkt, dass die Einbildungskraft die Wurzel der beiden Stamme Sinnlichkeit und Verstand ist. Sie ist "die bildende Mitte". Man kann diese den Schopfunngspunkt im ursprunglichen Sinne nennen, in dem die Technik mit der Imagination zusammenarbeitet. Insofern zeigt die technische Sphare nicht immer ihren naturgesetzmaβigen, notwendigen Aspekt, und vielmehr im Urgrund ihren freiwilligen, zufalligen, so dass die kunstlerische Sphare damit zum Vorgrund herantritt. Technik und Imagination sind die fur sie unentbehrliche Voraussetzungen, unter denen sich die asthetische Existenz noch klarer und genauer charakteri-sieren und erfassen laβt.
著者
後藤 狷士
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.46-51, 1962-09-30 (Released:2017-05-22)

Die Affinitat zwischen der Technik und der Kunst ist so elementar, dass jene sich verandert und auch diese es tut. Daher verandert die moderne Kunst sich in dem Maβe zur Abstraktion, daβ die moderne Technik mittels des neuen Gedankens der modernen Naturwissenschaft Fortschritte macht. M. Bense analysiert diese Phase auf radikalisch rationale Weise. Und er beschreibt, daβ der asthetische Prozeβ und der physikalische sich in der abstrakten Kunst vertauschen konnen. Aber dort bemerkt er die Grenze des Rationalismus. Anders als Bense legt F. Dessauer nach seiner maβgebenden Ansicht uber die Technik den Verhaltnis des Menschen zum Kosmos aus, wobei er auf die Grenze des menschlichen Erkenntnisvermogens und der technischen Schopfungskraft dem Kosmos oder der Natur gegenuber hinweist. Also stehen sowohl Benses radikaler Rationalismus als auch Dessauers traditionelle Erkenntnistheorie im Grunde vor dem Existenzprobleme.
著者
礒山 雅
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.52, 1975-12-30 (Released:2017-05-22)

In seiner Stillehre ist J. Mattheson ein Nachfolger der Musikschriftsteller des Barockzeitalters, das Bukofzer "the era of style-consciousness" nannte. Darin spiegelt sich auch die Neigung des deutschen Geistes nach Luther wider, dass die Krafte des Schaffens durch Vertiefung der Selbstreflexion immer erneuert werden. In seinem Hauptwerk "Capellmeister" ist der Stil als Typus der Schreibarten begriffen, und durch dreierlei Einteilungen ist ein System gebaut. Wahrend die erste Einteilung, die eigentlich auf Ort und Funktion, hier aber auf der Absicht der Musik beruht, eine fuhrende Rolle spielt, unterordnen sich der ersten die zweite, die der Qualitat der darzustellenden Affekte entspricht, und die dritte, die auf Struktur und Form beruht. Jede einzelne Art des Stils gilt als gegenwartige Kunst im Schaffen und soll als Voraussetzung der rationalen Arbeitsgange der Barockkomponisten gewahlt werden. Matthesons Stillehre wurde in der Zeit geschrieben, wo der Stil sich bis zur aussersten Grenze in die "Kunst" verwandelte. Sogar der Nationalstil, der einst bei dem Urteil als eine Gegebenheit gegolten hatte, wurde mit in diesen Strom hineingerissen, so dass musikalische Ausdrucksmittel zum unerhorten Reichtum gelangten. Damit fangen aber Grunde der Stilunterscheidung zu wackeln an, mittlerweile erschien die Neigung, allgemeine Musiksprache festzusetzen, so dass der Stilbegriff sich zur Auflosung wandte.
著者
橋本 綾子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.10-39, 1969-09-30 (Released:2017-05-22)

Okyo Maruyama (1733-95) was the first to profess himself to be a realist in the history of Japanese pictorial art. Having studied the western method of the perspective through "Megane-e" picture, he was forced to face consciously with Japanese tradition in respect to the materials, motifs, and sense of space in the course of painting. There may be found in this point the primary moment in building up his original style. In his later years, however, he went through the process of returning to the tradition. Therefore, my attempt in this paper is to follow the development of his style, study every stage in his life, and contemplate some problems inherent in his style. For a chronological order I have made use of not only his 214 pieces of work, including 197 whose painting dates are already made public, but also his early works bearing his sign alone. By analysing the style of Kacho-ga (paintings of flowers and birds) which are typical of each period, I have divided 45 years of his activity (from the age of 17 to 63) into four periods. His style is considered to have been established by 1765 when he painted "Sessyo-zu" (a pine-tree covered with snow). The following period ending in 1776 was the style-developing stage. Reformations in his style were perfected in 1777 and years of maturity followed down to 1791. The final stage continued thereafter until his death in 1795. Okyo entered upon his career with taking lessons in the Kano school. After studying perspective, he aimed at the three-dimensional expression of the objects. The next period began at the time when the purpose was realized in "Sessyo-zu". He succeded gradually in building up his unique style which shows decorative composition of objects painted as they really are : "Fuji-zu" (wisteria) is an artistic perfection in this period. His interest in drawing lines appeared in the third period, developing itself into a plain composition by simplified forms, and this trend was accelerated in the course of Shoheki-ga age after 1784. In the fourth stage lines and stuctuctural power grew stronger than ever, and with the drying up of his sentiment he was seen, under his concentrated power of construction, to go back to the "Kanga" style showing structural space with a tinge of the Kano school. Considered from these developments, it seems that Okyo adopted the method of perspective only as a mean of visual effects without understanding the lying rationalism of western science. I have examined what bearing this fact has on the current thought of later Edo period and particularly on the pictorial ideas of Okyo.
著者
森 洋子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.4, pp.25-40, 1984-03-31 (Released:2017-05-22)

David Garrick dedicated for Hogarth's tombstone an epitaph with the inspired words, "pictur'd Morals". The present author interprets these words as being the embodiment and the key to Hogarth's art. This paper will discuss how Hogarth intended to warn - and to preach to - viewers of his prints about human vices that could be traced back to the medieval Christian iconography of "Seven Deadly Sins". For this purpose Hogarth chose the subject matter of his prints from topics of contemporary newspapers and journals, that is, "modern moral Subject". In my opinion "Pride" can be found in The Bench ; while "Gluttony" in Plate VII of Industry and Idleness, may have been inspired by Bruegel's Fat Kitchen. "Luxury" is one of the main vices in Hogarth's Progresses. The marriage of the Rake with an old, one-eyed, rich but ugly maid reminds one of the Northern tradition of "an unequal couple" of which the most popular pictures were painted by Cranach. Also, Hogarth's A Rake's Progress might be compared with Jacques Callot's series The Prodigal Son which faithfully illustrated a well-known parable. However, Callot's Prodigal Son has a happy ending, while Hogarth leads his Rake-and most of his other protagonists-to a tragic death as a result of their vices. Finally the author will point out that the works of Hogarth's contemporary, Jonathan Richardon (The Theory of Painting, Essay on the Art of Criticism and The Science of a Connoisseur), may have been theoretical sources for Hogarth's notion of the utility of painting, namely for the entertainment and the improvement of the mind. Previous authors have seemingly overlooked this important relationship.