著者
吉田 寛
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.25-36, 2010

Scholars in many disciplines have talked about the "hegemony of vision" in the modern Western culture and philosophy. We also know that the most critical issue of modern philosophy of perception had been the compatibility between vision and touch, as viewed in the prolonged discussion of Molyneux's Question. But, on the contrary, we know very little about the significance of audition and hearing in the tradition of modern philosophy. This paper is thus intended as a historical sketch of the status of hearing, examining the texts of three philosophers. For Herder, the ear is the most nearest sense to the soul, and the audition stands in the middle of our five senses, dominating the others. But, at the same time, he also attaches great importance to touch, inheriting the tradition of Molyneux's Question, and therefore presupposes a kinship between hearing and touch. Kant exiles the ear from his conception of the critique of judgment, preferring the eye as a normative sense for disinterested and formal judgment. But he emphasizes a moral function of the ear in his critique of practical reason, as an organ hearing the voice of reason, i.e. the divine voice. The ear, finally, gains a definitive advantage over the eye with Hegel. He describes the progress of Romantic art from painting to music as a process of the "negation of dimension." In his view, time is negation (or sublation) form of space, and equally the audition is that of vision. We can say therefore that the hypothetical "hegemony of vision" was never stable, and the status of seeing has always been challenged and undermined by the hearing in the course of modern philosophy.
著者
源河 亨
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.2, pp.97, 2017 (Released:2019-01-02)

Peter Kivy claims, from his early works, that music cannot arouse “garden-variety emotion” such as joy, anger, fear, sadness. According to him, the emotion aroused by music is a special “musical emotion”; the object of this emotion is always music. This claim seems to be counterintuitive and thus elicits many objections from philosophers, musicologists, psychologists, neuroscientists, and artists. However, I will argue that Kivy’s position is most plausible given the philosophy of emotion. Especially, I will show that there is no emotion deserving to be called “sadness” that is aroused by music. By appealing to philosophical considerations on emotion, I will support the following two points that Kivy emphasizes. The first is the lack of an object. There are no sad things (no loss) while we listen to music. If sadness does not occur, the lack of an object makes no matter. The second point is the paradox of negative emotion. Sadness has a negative value and we prefer to avoid it. If we can accept this, why then, are we willing to listen to music that make us sad? Again, if sadness does not occur, there arises no paradox.
著者
高木 駿
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, 2018-07-01

In the First Book of the Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790), judgments of tastewhich state the beauty are based on a subjctive ground, or the feeling of pleasure,so that they are not logical cognitive judgments which constitute "a cognition of theobject through concepts of it" (V 211) but aesthetic judgments. Therefore, they cannotstate truth or falsehood of themselves as logical cognitive judgments do. However,Kant uses the expression of "a false (or an erroneous) judgment of taste (ein irrigesGeschmacksurteil)" (V 216). If this "false (or erroneous)" is not logical one, whatdoes it mean? About what are judgments of taste false? Now, we have three leadinginterpretations of judgments of taste to resolve these questions, i.e. interpretationfrom an epistemological, moral, aesthetic point of view. But I think that the first twointerpretations are not successful, because they contradict Kant's statements in somepoints as I will show. Thus, in this paper by adopting the aesthetic interpretation ofjudgments of taste I shall answer the questions concerned, namely argue that thefalsehood (or error) of them consists in choosing an inappropriate feeling of pleasurefor the ground of judgments of taste.
著者
高木 駿
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.1, 2016

In the First Book of the Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790), Immanuel Kant says that judgments of taste are not cognitive but aesthetic, because they are grounded only in a subjective ground, or the feeling of pleasure (Vgl. V 203). Now logical cognitive judgments constitute "a cognition of the object through concepts of it" (V 211 Italics mine), therefore judgments of taste must be without concepts of object, namely nonconceptual. However, Kant's example of an object of judgments of taste, "the rose that I am gazing at" (V 215), and the judgment of taste "This rose is beautiful." seem to contradict the nonconceptuality of judgments of taste themselves, because this judgment appears to presuppose the use of concepts of understanding for empirically identifying what an object is, and the cognition "This is a rose.". In this point, does Kant make a self-contradictory statement? In this paper, by considering the meaning of Kant's conception of the nonconceptuality, I shall argue that the judgment of taste "This rose is beautiful." does not contradict the conception, and thus there is no Kant's self- contradiction.
著者
岡本 源太
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.4, pp.43-54, 2007-03-31 (Released:2017-05-22)

Dans La chambre claire, Roland Barthes essaie de theoriser sur le ≪realisme photographique≫ (le mot ≪realisme≫ etant a entendre au sens philosophique, et non artistique), autrement dit sur le lien de la Photographic a la realite. Ce lien n'est pas seulement denie (la Photographic n'a pas de realite, mais de l'arbitraire), mais aussi surinterprete (la realite de la Photographic ne consiste que dans la vraisemblance), pour autant que la Photographic est produite et regardee a travers differentes mediations. Or ce deni aussi bien que cette surinterpretation ne font que meconnaltre le realisme photographique tel qu'il est concu par Barthes. Car, selon lui, la Photographic se met en rapport avec la realite par l'intermediaire de la verite de l'image, et la verite, qui se trouve dans la ressemblance, le lignage et l'air, est inseparable des souvenirs et des passions du sujet qui voit une photo. Avec cette theorie du realisme photographique, Barthes tente de sortir de la conception qui oppose l'image au reel, alors que la meme conception marque largement la societe moderne. Si cette conception est toujours dans l'air, comme le fait remarquer d'ailleurs Jacques Ranciere, le realisme photographique de Roland Barthes n'en parait pas moins actuel.
著者
平野 千枝子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.97-108, 2010

Gordon Matta-Clark (1943-1978) is best known for his 'building cuts', which involved the physical invasion of vacant urban buildings. Through these works, he criticized urban renewal and the standardization of space in order to achieve industrial efficiency. Though they received less attention than his architectural works, Matta-Clark was also heavily involved in 'culinary' projects from the outset of his artistic career. The most important of these was 'Food', a restaurant he opened in 1971 along with a group of collaborating artists. At the restaurant, Matta-Clark emphasized human activity and allowed for the purchase, preparation and serving of food to act as a metaphor for cultural transformation. Later, in 1975, he built on 'Food' by giving a performance called 'Cuisse de Bceuf' that involved his roasting 750 pounds of beef in front of the then under-construction Pompidou Center in Paris. Earlier in his career, Matta-Clark also used food as a motif in works such as 'Agar' and 'Museum', which highlight the natural ability of mold to transform the ingredients of food. These projects set out to demonstrate the variety and vitality of unrestricted nature. I divide Matta-Clark's culinary projects into representations of 'natural' and 'cultural' transformation (after Levi-Strauss' The Raw and the Cooked') in order to discuss how Matta-Clark's motif of 'food as symbol of transformation' compliments his architectural work by criticizing the scientific and functional basis of urban renewal.
著者
辻 絵理子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.25-36, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

The Tokalı Kilise has a rare architectural plan, which is the reason for its local nickname, ‘the Church of the Buckle’. This paper enquired closely into the programme of the northern small apse, that is, the Prothesis of the New Church. The Prothesis was used for the preparation of the Eucharist in the liturgy, often decorated by iconography related to the Communion. The Hospitality of Abraham and the Communion of Mary of Egypt under the conch emphasize the Eucharistic meaning of the place. In this article, it is focused on the themes with irregular direction and with a different layout. Christ is duplicated in the Marriage Feast at Cana spanning between the north frieze and the half spandrel of the eastern arcade. In the half spandrel, there are the servant filling the jar, the steward tasting wine, and Christ’s right hand alone blessing the water. Above her son’s hand, Mary keeps the water of ordeal in the Trial by Water. Her gesture of accepting the cup from the priest resembles closely those of Apostles taking wine from Christ in the Communion of Apostles. These themes stressing the relation to the Communion are located in the place adjacent to the Prothesis.
著者
森 功次
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.16-29, 2009

Dans la pensee de l'art chez le premier Sartre, l'image et le reel sont-ils distinctement separes? Sartre a-t-il meconnu la materialite de l'oeuvre d'art? Il serait excessif d'affirmer cela. Premierement, si l'on examine les concepts de <<spontaneite pre-volontaire>>, de <<degradation>>, et de <<motivation>> dans la theorie de l'image de Sartre, il apparait clairement que dans l'experience de l'oeuvre, le reel se maintient derriere l'imaginaire. La negation de l'existence de l'objet d'appreciations esthetiques ne signifie pas ne pas voir l'oeuvre. Deuxiemement, par comparaison avec le reve, l'experience de l'oeuvre d'art maintient des relations plus etroites avec le reel. Certes, le reve et l'experience esthetique constituent pareillement une experience de la conscience captive et concernent l'imaginaire, et Sartre lui-meme a d'ailleurs souvent decrit la ressemblance entre les deux. Mais dans L'imaginaire, a certains egards-notamment la distance vis-a-vis du reel, la facilite de la reflexion, et la nature du sentiment-, Sartre a clairement distingue l'experience esthetique de celle du reve. De ce point de vue, dans la theorie sartrienne, la realite de l'oeuvre, elle aussi, joue un role efficace.
著者
城丸 美香
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.28-41, 2004

According to Walter Benjamin, the photography is the first revolutionary reproduction technology, and the invention of it has brought a certain critical situation, "a poverty of experience" or "a decline of experience". It has progressed with the change in the communicative form from the story to the information. The photography reproduces traumatic shocks, and it has two opposite functions, repetition and reproduction. On the one hand, repeating shocks is a fragmentation of time and space. On the other, reproducing shocks is a reconstruction of a new spatial-temporal order by re-arranging those fragments. And this re-arrangement (=construction) is done by means of words (characters). The construction is that people read a (non-sensitive) similarity between words and fragments of various things which are released from all relations, and by doing so, set them in a new context where things can expose their new meanings. This new context is the place where things can gain the actuality. The function of photography is to form the space where all possible words can exist toward an image, and Benjamin found out the possibility of new collective experience in this space.
著者
源河 亨
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.13-24, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

In daily life, we judge various things aesthetically. For example: “this picture is graceful”, “this landscape is dynamic”, and “his clothes are old-fashioned”. One aspect of our ordinary practices concerning aesthetic judgement seems to support objectivism, according to which, aesthetic judgment can be assessed as right or wrong based on some objective ground. However, another aspect of our practices seems to support subjectivism (or extreme relativism), according to which, aesthetic judgement is a mere expression of subjective impressions and cannot be assessed as right or wrong. In this study, I survey the dispute between objectivism and subjectivism in recent analytic aesthetics, and present an approach that supports objectivism. I argue that some aesthetic judgement is based on “evaluative perception”. It is a special class of perceptual experience affected by evaluative component of emotion and has Gestalt-like “parts-whole structure”. Furthermore, I claim that evaluative perceptions and aesthetic judgement based on it can be assessed as right or wrong in a similar way as ordinary perception and judgement based on it (e.g. colour perception and colour judgement) can be assessed.
著者
木村 智哉
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.49-60, 2010

This paper aims to discuss the meaning of the revolution that happened to animation in Japan from the 1950's to the 60's. There are two features to which I pay attention: the historical peculiarity of the revolution, and the common trend of the animation movies for commerce and those for non-commerce. There are three topics that are the points of the discussion: the trends of domestic production companies, the introduction of overseas animation movies, and the transition of criticisms. This paper clarifies the following: first of all, the revolution of the animation expression at that time invented a new image by the abstraction of form or movement and by the unification with sound; secondly, the revolution supported the attempt of small-scale productions or independent animators who opposed to major movie companies; and thirdly, however, the same revolution contributed to the lowering of the cost of commercial studios. These phenomena can be related to the revolution of the expression of the audiovisual arts that happened widely from the 1950's to the 60's.
著者
河上 春香
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.49-60, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

This paper examines the political situation of surrealism in Czechoslovakia in 1930s. In Czechoslovakia, Surrealism was developed in the close relationship with communism. For ideological and other reasons, the Prague movement emphasized a dialectical way of thinking. In other words, Surrealism was considered to be a process whereby reality and the self were apprehended through the synergistic and dialectical relationship between deliberate (conscious) and involuntary (unconscious) acts. In addition, surrealism was undergirded by the rule of “recounting truth”. According to Michel Foucault, “recounting truth” involves defining an autonomous position vis-a-vis one's relationship with truth – in other words, it is a technique of governing the self. Karel Teige describes Surrealism as an artistic and practical means for revolutionaries to establish the self. However, attempting to connect Communism and Surrealism is forced: while the Communist ideology attempts to enforce one extreme form of “truth” in order to control people, the “truth” presented by Surrealism is something ever-changing and varying from person to person. By linking Surrealism and Socialist realism, Teige attempted to suggest that Communist culture should develop diversity and complexity. However, with Stalinism wielding power in Czechoslovakia, that idea was only possible for a brief time.
著者
池田 まこと
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.1, pp.37, 2016 (Released:2017-07-18)

Language crisis occurred mainly in Germany and Austria of the early 20th century. It means the Situation that a language losts a function of the reality recognition. R. M. Rilke (1875-1926) is one of poets who experienced the language crisis. His crisis has been often compared with that of Hofmannsthal (1874-1929) conventionally. However, the comparisons were intended to rather give the common points of both. Therefore, this article tries to make their difference clear, and throw light on the originality of Rilke’s crisis. This report compares Rilke with Hofmannsthal with following three points: (1) the aspect of the crisis, (2) the factor of the crisis, (3) the way to solve the crisis. In conclusion, the aspect of Rilke’s crisis is more existential than that of Hofmannsthal’s crisis. The crisis of Rilke occurs on a road establishing the view of the world of own, and, for it, the crisis of Hofmannsthal produces it to defeat a view of the world that was already established. The former tries to solve his crisis through verbal expression, and, for it, the latter pursues nonverbal expression.
著者
新田 孝行
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.1, pp.133, 2016 (Released:2017-07-18)

The staging of Norwegian opera director Stefan Herheim (1970-) is characterized by a critical musicology, such as musical hermeneutics of Lawrence Kramer. Like Kramer, Herheim takes advantage of the performative power of interpretation. His puzzle-like mise-en-scène, where a number of historical facts concerning the composer and the reception history are simultaneously visualized, is a summary of the information on the opera, which helps us to make up our stories. Equally important are the emotional and even religious aspects of Herheim’s staging. He often directs an opera to show that its tragedy was already done at the beginning. The unrealized possibilities are suggested by the coexistence of past and present which reproduces the ambiguity of reality. We feel regrets about the past of the characters, and about our own past. This experience has a cathartic effect of what I call operatic flashback, which functions as a therapy for us because we are not sure of the rightness of our choices about life in the era of postmodern loss of legitimacy. Opera has told incessantly the failed attempts to change the course of fate, most distinctively exemplified in the myth of Orpheus. Herheim’s opera is a postmodern version of the myth.
著者
西田 紘子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.121-132, 2017 (Released:2018-07-01)

This paper selects Neo-Riemannian theory and aims to contextualize and characterize the developmental process of the relevant academic discipline by tracing the complementary and competitive relationship of Neo-Riemannian theory with the existing Schenkerian theory. Neo-Riemannian and Schenkerian theories cannot be compared even by analytical objects. However, as observed by Julian Hook (2007, 168) who considers it a “mistake” if one regards “transformation” and “prolongation” as antithetical conceptions, even though there is a fundamental difference between the theories, the integration or differentiation of both theories has been suggested in several studies (Cohn 1999, Samarotto 2003, Hook 2007, Goldenberg 2007, Rings 2007, Baker 2008). This case study examines the effects of the methodological arguments that advocate a new theory over an existing one. The effects are divided into two categories: first, enabling heuristic interpretations through a hybrid theoretical framework by quasi-integration and, second, showing the capacity of one theory by explaining what the other theory reveals. In other words, a series of arguments arise from the methodological difference related to the priority of “interpretation” or “method,” that is, the theory that sets as an end objective renewing the interpretation of musical pieces, holding the incompatibility of methods, or evoking a new theoretical model.
著者
平芳 幸浩
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.4, pp.37-48, 2001

If it is true that Pop Art is the logical extension of Ready-Made, it is to the extent that Pop Art shows, symptomatically, the premise that creative act is no less the naming one as "this is art, " so that each speaker is virtually an artist. In the relation to this premise, how was vulgarity questioned in the critical discourse on Pop Art? The "cool" expression of Pop Art cannot free from the ambivalence of interpretation. Under such condition, three discursive circuits were set up around the vulgarity of Pop Art. First, the vulgarity was negatively interpreted as a peculiarity of degraded American society. Then, Pop Art was "naively" defined as the effective criticism of the society. And finally, the individual visions of Pop Artists were discovered behind their vulgarity. In either circuit, the criticisms avoided the problem that art was reduced to the only utterance, protecting the opposition of the artists against the society. By the same token, Ready-Made was interpreted as an pop icon of the contemporary society or its vicious symbol, and the "optical indifference" as the characteristic of Ready-Made was completely negated. Such distortion of the discourse is a symptomatic reaction to the reductive premise.
著者
松永 伸司
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.2, pp.97-108, 2013-12-31 (Released:2017-05-22)

When describing player's actions in videogame playing, we often use the sentences which seem to say that the player performs her actions within a fictional world. But it seems to be impossible for a real individual to act in a fictional location. Here is a puzzle. This paper attempts to analyze such sentences and solve this ontological puzzle. First, I examine some possible answers. Immersionism takes the sentences as expressing the player's experiences of immersion. Virtualism assumes that the sentences refer to players' actions within not fictional but virtual worlds. Realism says that the apparently fictional actions are really real. Fictionalism claims that the sentences are not true but fictionally true. I show that all of these are far from satisfactory. Then, I turn to two more sophisticated theories. Grant Tavinor's interactive fiction theory invokes Waltonian work-world/game-world distinction to account for the peculiarity of videogame fiction. John Sageng offers a realist theory according to which player's actions induce reference shifts from fictional happenings to on-screen happenings. But both have some fault as well. Finally, I claim that the apparently fictional actions are as real as actions in traditional games are, though specified by on-screen signs individuated by their fictional contents.
著者
西村 清和
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.2-15, 2009

Ruins are places in which memories have been accumulated. For understanding the aesthetic phenomenon of ruins, we must make it clear what places really are. M. de Certeau considers a place as a configuration of the elements distributed within the relations of coexistence and a space as a crossing of historical subjects and 'a practiced place'. This conception of place is close to Gibson's 'ground theory' of space perception. The environment we perceive is, first of all, not an empty space but a place as a surface of the earth on which we are standing. The perception of the environment as the persisting structure of surfaces accompanies the perception of an instantaneous self, including the head, body, arms, and hands. And the nonperceptual awareness such as memory or expectation is made possible by the fact that the concurrent perception of the persistence of place and that of the change of a moving self are concurrent. Memory and expectation open a space of history. Yet the space turns back to the persisting place of a ruin when the history has come to be forgotten. The poetics of ruins consists not in retelling a history but in the awareness of the persistent linkage between us and the past.