著者
吉田 寛
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.25-36, 2010-06-30

Scholars in many disciplines have talked about the "hegemony of vision" in the modern Western culture and philosophy. We also know that the most critical issue of modern philosophy of perception had been the compatibility between vision and touch, as viewed in the prolonged discussion of Molyneux's Question. But, on the contrary, we know very little about the significance of audition and hearing in the tradition of modern philosophy. This paper is thus intended as a historical sketch of the status of hearing, examining the texts of three philosophers. For Herder, the ear is the most nearest sense to the soul, and the audition stands in the middle of our five senses, dominating the others. But, at the same time, he also attaches great importance to touch, inheriting the tradition of Molyneux's Question, and therefore presupposes a kinship between hearing and touch. Kant exiles the ear from his conception of the critique of judgment, preferring the eye as a normative sense for disinterested and formal judgment. But he emphasizes a moral function of the ear in his critique of practical reason, as an organ hearing the voice of reason, i.e. the divine voice. The ear, finally, gains a definitive advantage over the eye with Hegel. He describes the progress of Romantic art from painting to music as a process of the "negation of dimension." In his view, time is negation (or sublation) form of space, and equally the audition is that of vision. We can say therefore that the hypothetical "hegemony of vision" was never stable, and the status of seeing has always been challenged and undermined by the hearing in the course of modern philosophy.
著者
森 理恵
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.4, pp.41-54, 2006-03-31
被引用文献数
1

This article analyzes garments worn by young males depicted in Ihara Saikaku's 1687 publication entitled Great Mirror of Male Love, or Nanshoku Okagami. Saikaku describes garments with long fluttering sleeves, known as furisode, that were worn by young males, such as those who worked as pages in the service of military lords (kosho). Their garments, portrayed as gorgeous (hanayako) and elegant (furyu), represented the cutting edge of fashionable dress of the period. The furisode worn by young males employed in theaters mimicked those worn by young pages; however, their complicated patterns are thought to be specific to actors' garments. Furisode worn by young male actors differed little from that of young women. This study reveals that the wearing of furisode depended not on gender, but rather according to age or social status. On the other hand, the effect of interactions among social classes is apparent. Men described in The Great Mirror of Male Love followed established social norms but through interactions across class boundaries, created their own distinctive mode of beautiful clothing.
著者
吉田 寛
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.2, pp.15-28, 2006-09-30

The aim of this paper is to examine the history of the "art competitions" in the modern Olympics, and thus to cast a new light on the boundary problem between art and sport. Pierre de Coubertin, the principal founder of the modern Olympics, held up an ideal of reunification of muscle and mind, and proposed to introduce five art competitions -in architecture, sculpture, painting, music and literature- within the course of the Olympic games. Then "art competitions" were successfully held in seven Olympiads from 1912 to 1948; but they were replaced by "art exhibitions" without medals from the Helsinki Olympics (1952) onward. In spite of Courbertin's personal enthusiasm for art, some of the IOC members remained skeptical of the art competitions, mainly because they seemed incompatible with the amateurism policy of the Olympics: participants therein were professional artists in most cases, and the prizewinning artworks were often traded openly at high prices. Added to this issue, art was condemned for lack of the qualification to rank with the Olympic sports, from the viewpoints that it has no uniform rules and no clear criteria for evaluation like athletic games, and that prizewinning artists are in general much older as compared to athletes, violating the Olympic ideal of "youthfulness." The introduction and abolition of the Olympic art competitions thus suggests the fundamental discrepancy in cultural and social status between art and sport, while our attention is too often directed merely to their alikeness or affinity.
著者
加藤 隆文
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.1, pp.47-58, 2013-06-30

This paper is an attempt to suggest a provoking theory about actions of human beings (including art-creating actions, art-appreciating actions, etc.). With this aim, I refer to Alfred Gell's posthumous book, Art and Agency (AA hereinafter), especially focusing on his concepts of 'agency' and 'index'. Because 'index' is a concept derived from C. S. Peirce's semiotics, Gell's theory may also imply a kind of applicability of Peirce's idea, though Gell's 'index' is not necessarily compatible with Peirce's. In Gell's terminology, 'index' is an object that mediates 'agency'. What he argues is that 'agency' can be attributed to not only persons but also things such as god statues as long as they (persons and things) are seen as initiating causal sequences caused by some sort of intention. Utilizing these concepts, Gell puts forward 'Anthropology of Art'. He suggests that art objects should be anthropologically examined in order to grasp their 'behaviour' (AA, p.11) in the context of social relations. In this paper, above all I remark on Gell's unique idea The Extended Mind', which is also the title for the last chapter of AA. Interestingly, according to this idea, artworks (and artefacts) and persons can be regarded analogously as 'indexes' embodying collective consciousness of social agents.
著者
平野 千枝子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.97-108, 2010-12-31

Gordon Matta-Clark (1943-1978) is best known for his 'building cuts', which involved the physical invasion of vacant urban buildings. Through these works, he criticized urban renewal and the standardization of space in order to achieve industrial efficiency. Though they received less attention than his architectural works, Matta-Clark was also heavily involved in 'culinary' projects from the outset of his artistic career. The most important of these was 'Food', a restaurant he opened in 1971 along with a group of collaborating artists. At the restaurant, Matta-Clark emphasized human activity and allowed for the purchase, preparation and serving of food to act as a metaphor for cultural transformation. Later, in 1975, he built on 'Food' by giving a performance called 'Cuisse de Bceuf' that involved his roasting 750 pounds of beef in front of the then under-construction Pompidou Center in Paris. Earlier in his career, Matta-Clark also used food as a motif in works such as 'Agar' and 'Museum', which highlight the natural ability of mold to transform the ingredients of food. These projects set out to demonstrate the variety and vitality of unrestricted nature. I divide Matta-Clark's culinary projects into representations of 'natural' and 'cultural' transformation (after Levi-Strauss' The Raw and the Cooked') in order to discuss how Matta-Clark's motif of 'food as symbol of transformation' compliments his architectural work by criticizing the scientific and functional basis of urban renewal.
著者
星野 太
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.13-24, 2010-06-30

In this paper, I examine Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757/59), comparing it with Pseudo-Longinus' On the Sublime. In his book, Burke does not refer to On the Sublime but once, although he shares one of the main subjects with Pseudo-Longinus, namely the "Sublime". However, in the Part V of Sublime and Beautiful, one can find some descriptions where the tradition of rhetoric, including On the Sublime, is recognized. Especially, Burkian notion of "Passion", which is discussed at the last part of Sublime and Beautiful, draws a lot of attention. According to Burke, arousing the "sympathy" or "contagion of our passion" is made possible only by words, not by paintings, architectures, or natural objects. And he assumes that the sympathy is aroused by words without "picture" (namely, mental representation). This is the very reason why, I suppose, Burke excludes Pseudo-Longinus' theory from his book on the "Sublime and Beautiful". For Pseudo-Longinus assumes that, when the violent power of speech arouses a sympathy, it is mediated as vivid image (phantasia). To put it briefly, while Pseudo-Longinus considers that the mental representation is necessary to influence other's passion by words, Burke takes the standpoint contrast with that of Pseudo-Longinus.
著者
松永 伸司
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.2, pp.97-108, 2013-12-31

When describing player's actions in videogame playing, we often use the sentences which seem to say that the player performs her actions within a fictional world. But it seems to be impossible for a real individual to act in a fictional location. Here is a puzzle. This paper attempts to analyze such sentences and solve this ontological puzzle. First, I examine some possible answers. Immersionism takes the sentences as expressing the player's experiences of immersion. Virtualism assumes that the sentences refer to players' actions within not fictional but virtual worlds. Realism says that the apparently fictional actions are really real. Fictionalism claims that the sentences are not true but fictionally true. I show that all of these are far from satisfactory. Then, I turn to two more sophisticated theories. Grant Tavinor's interactive fiction theory invokes Waltonian work-world/game-world distinction to account for the peculiarity of videogame fiction. John Sageng offers a realist theory according to which player's actions induce reference shifts from fictional happenings to on-screen happenings. But both have some fault as well. Finally, I claim that the apparently fictional actions are as real as actions in traditional games are, though specified by on-screen signs individuated by their fictional contents.
著者
太田 純貴
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.29-42, 2008-06-30

In his work entitled, Francis Bacon: Logique de la sensation (1981), Gilles Deleuze develops his theory of sensation by considering works by the painter Francis Bacon. The concept of the "haptic (haptique)" plays an important role in Deleuze's analysis of Bacon's paintings. The concept derives from the word "haptic ("taktisch" or "haptisch") as discussed by Alois Riegl. Deleuze captures Riegl's idea of the haptic as opposed to the optic, and extends it in a new direction. The main purpose of my study is to clarify the difference between the ideas of Riegl and Deleuze, and to achieve better understanding of Deleuze's theory of sensation by paying special attention to the haptic. In this paper, I focus on Deleuze's definition of the haptic through examining its use in his works Mille plateaux (1980) and the above-mentioned. Then I discuss the issues of color, the action of the hand, and the "meat," three things which Deleuze saw as crucial to Bacon's technique of painting. In my view, the haptic should be understood in relation to contingency and chance.
著者
辻 絵理子
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.25-36, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

The Tokalı Kilise has a rare architectural plan, which is the reason for its local nickname, ‘the Church of the Buckle’. This paper enquired closely into the programme of the northern small apse, that is, the Prothesis of the New Church. The Prothesis was used for the preparation of the Eucharist in the liturgy, often decorated by iconography related to the Communion. The Hospitality of Abraham and the Communion of Mary of Egypt under the conch emphasize the Eucharistic meaning of the place. In this article, it is focused on the themes with irregular direction and with a different layout. Christ is duplicated in the Marriage Feast at Cana spanning between the north frieze and the half spandrel of the eastern arcade. In the half spandrel, there are the servant filling the jar, the steward tasting wine, and Christ’s right hand alone blessing the water. Above her son’s hand, Mary keeps the water of ordeal in the Trial by Water. Her gesture of accepting the cup from the priest resembles closely those of Apostles taking wine from Christ in the Communion of Apostles. These themes stressing the relation to the Communion are located in the place adjacent to the Prothesis.
著者
戸口 幸策
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.3, pp.53-56, 1964-12-30

Nachdem ich die musikalische Notation des Codex Rossi 215 der Biblioteca Vaticana untersucht und einige Fragen uber die Erlauterung Pirrotta's, besonders der Divisiones, vorgeschlagen hatte, die sich nicht im klassischen System der italienischen Notation des Trecento finden ("Ongakugaku" X, 1) blieb mir die Analyse der in diesem Codex enthaltenen Stucke ubrig. In diesem Bericht habe ich von meinem literarischen und musikalischen Studium uber die 21 Madrigale des Codex gesprochen. Die Form des Madrigals war auch in der Zeit des "Syntagma Musicum" von Michael Praetorius literarisch nicht eindeutig festgestellt, und es war im Trecento nicht als eine vortreffliche Gattung der Dichtung gemeint. Es ist aber sehr sicher, dass das Madrigal quantitativ und qualitativ die wichtigste musikalische Gattung war, in der die Mehrstimmigkeit des Trecento entstand. Ich teile mit Martinez die Hypothese, das Madrigal auch als Dichtungsart erst in Verbindung mit der Musizierpraxis entstanden sei. Aber ich bin wenigstens fur die Madrigale des Codex Rossi nicht von der unfehlbaren Beteiligung von Instrumenten uberzeugt.
著者
安西 信一
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.36-49, 1989-09-30

According to the fundamental assumption of the picturesque aesthetics, the "painter's eye" or "picturesque eye, " the eye conversant with painting, is privileged to discover "the picturesque" hidden from the common eyes. This is done (often with the assistance of imagination) by abstracting the purely visual qualities of objects and disregarding their utilitarian, moral or emotional contents. "The picturesque" is characterised by irregular movement (Salvatoresque "roughness, " etc.), which corresponds to high valuation of sketchy and free execution as an indispensable element of painting, and in a wider context, to a change in the idea of nature. The "painter's eye, " however, discovers this irregularity only through the medium of painting, a fixed frame-work. Hence, contradictorily, "the picturesque" requires compositional unity (Claudesque "harmony, " etc.). The abstractedness of "the picturesque" enables the "painter's eye" to regard whatever object in the world as possible source of new aesthetic pleasure. But this "discovery of nature" also is occasioned by conforming to the established standard of painting. Because of such circularity and conventionality, the picturesque aesthetics has been criticised since Romanticism. Nevertheless, these aestheticians themselves found the tradition of painting not so much an unassailable authority as an endless succession of exeperiments towards better ways of seeing nature.
著者
嶋田 久美
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.121-132, 2012-06-30

This article explores expression activities in clinical practices focusing on two cases: La Borde Clinic and Bethel House. The former is a psychiatric clinic in France known as a Psychotherapie institutionnelle and the latter is a community in Japan for people with mental disturbances founded in 1984. Both foster unique activities in ways that challenge the dichotomies in clinical practices such as art/therapy, client/therapist and normal/abnormal. In this article, two aspects of expression and art in these unique activities are verified referring to the concept of 'dispositif' by Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Giorgio Agamben. First, expression and art may function to analyze the power relations around the clinical site. Next, they function to maintain the dynamism of powers that generate liquidity and porosity among people. However, as Deleuze implies, these functions should be examined using immanent criteria. Therefore, these two cases must not be taken as universal models but should be positioned as nodes or hubs of networks concerning clinical environments. Which is why these two cases also urge us to reconsider the perspectives of disease and disability and the roles of group and community.
著者
利光 功
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.3, pp.1-11, 1994-12-31

From the second half of the 1940's to the first half of the 1960's, as is generally known, the linguistic analytic method has dominated over Anglo-American aesthetics. Recently this aesthetics, now colled anaylitic aesthetics, has been retrospected and reexamined by the various sides. Then, we also would like to analyze and loom up its primitive figure, focussing on the William Elton (Ed.) ; Aesthetics and Language (1954). In our view, analytic aesthetics can be characterized by the following three aspects, that is, its presupposition, theme and aim. (1) Analytic aestheics presupposes that the aesthetic discourse must be fundamentally empirical scientific, and based on the fact or its experience. (2) Its main theme is to analyze the ambiguous concepts and propositions, and to clarify the aesthetic discourse. (3) Its final aim is to take up the position that there is no such thing as essence in art and, therefore, no criterion for the judicial criticism. And J. A. Passmore once called aesthetics which searches for essence or the general properties dreary. Our conclusion, however, is that not aesthetics proper but analytic asethetics is dreary, for the latter never affords any insights about aesthetic or artistic phenomena.
著者
森 功次
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.16-29, 2009

Dans la pensee de l'art chez le premier Sartre, l'image et le reel sont-ils distinctement separes? Sartre a-t-il meconnu la materialite de l'oeuvre d'art? Il serait excessif d'affirmer cela. Premierement, si l'on examine les concepts de <<spontaneite pre-volontaire>>, de <<degradation>>, et de <<motivation>> dans la theorie de l'image de Sartre, il apparait clairement que dans l'experience de l'oeuvre, le reel se maintient derriere l'imaginaire. La negation de l'existence de l'objet d'appreciations esthetiques ne signifie pas ne pas voir l'oeuvre. Deuxiemement, par comparaison avec le reve, l'experience de l'oeuvre d'art maintient des relations plus etroites avec le reel. Certes, le reve et l'experience esthetique constituent pareillement une experience de la conscience captive et concernent l'imaginaire, et Sartre lui-meme a d'ailleurs souvent decrit la ressemblance entre les deux. Mais dans L'imaginaire, a certains egards-notamment la distance vis-a-vis du reel, la facilite de la reflexion, et la nature du sentiment-, Sartre a clairement distingue l'experience esthetique de celle du reve. De ce point de vue, dans la theorie sartrienne, la realite de l'oeuvre, elle aussi, joue un role efficace.
著者
西村 清和
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.4, pp.1-14, 2003-03-31

In his film "Strike", Eisenstein abruptly cuts from a shot of the slaughter of workers to one of the slaughter of a steer. Such a cutting is understood as a typical example of film metaphor, while it has been not incontrovertible among theorists whether it is a real metaphor. Do film metaphors or, more generally, visual metaphors exist in the world? We could enumerate three types of traditional theories of metaphor, i.e. the substitution, the comparison, and the interaction theory. These have a conception in common that metaphor is, just like synecdoche and metonymy, a relation between two things referred to by two words. Meanwhile, influenced by Max Black's epistemological view of metaphor, philosophers often use the word 'metaphor' in the expanded sense including 'analog-model' or 'symbol'. It is sure that an analog-model is a mode of recognizing the world based on the relation between two things. But metaphor is, we claim, nothing other than a linguistic phenomenon of predicative modification of a subject. If it is true, it follows that metaphor in its proper form can not appear at the dimension of such visual images as paintings and films.
著者
城丸 美香
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.28-41, 2004

According to Walter Benjamin, the photography is the first revolutionary reproduction technology, and the invention of it has brought a certain critical situation, "a poverty of experience" or "a decline of experience". It has progressed with the change in the communicative form from the story to the information. The photography reproduces traumatic shocks, and it has two opposite functions, repetition and reproduction. On the one hand, repeating shocks is a fragmentation of time and space. On the other, reproducing shocks is a reconstruction of a new spatial-temporal order by re-arranging those fragments. And this re-arrangement (=construction) is done by means of words (characters). The construction is that people read a (non-sensitive) similarity between words and fragments of various things which are released from all relations, and by doing so, set them in a new context where things can expose their new meanings. This new context is the place where things can gain the actuality. The function of photography is to form the space where all possible words can exist toward an image, and Benjamin found out the possibility of new collective experience in this space.
著者
富士栄 厚
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.4, pp.48-59, 1998-03-31

In previous remarks, I have stated that <Spiral Jetty> of Robert Smithson was inspired by the form and the concept of Babel Upside-Down. I also explored the analogy between the pigment of the Salt Lake and human blood. (Ph. D. dissertation, "American Land art and the notion of the picturesque and sublime." University of Paris I, 1993.) In the present paper, I shall focus deeper into these concepts regarding Smithson's <Spiral Jetty>, reflecting upon my research of Metamorphosis of the Spiral and its association with the concept of Goethe. I shall also put forth my ideas on the reconstitution of the "Figure" of <Spiral Jetty> through synthesizing the triangular and reflexive relation between A : Site works of Spiral Jetty. B : Text on S. J. C : Films on S. J. Situating the problematic of Topos of <Spiral Jetty> in classical term, I will attempt to display the Reversibilty of Topos (Babel Upside-Down) as a form in the frame of Time/Space. I will involve the analogy between the circulation of blood in the human body and the organic form of red water at Salt Lake exploring the concept of "Inside-Out".
著者
森 功次
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美學 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.37-48, 2012-06-30

In the last section of Saint Genet (1952), Jean-Paul Sartre attempts to vindicate Jean Genet's immoral works. Sartre tries to save Genet from severe moral criticism in French literary world at the time. In this paper, I will organize Sartre's argument and examine his complex defense. According to Sartre, the immorality of Genet's works consists in the veriter's devious intention to invert our values and the bad influence he has on his readers. On the other hand, Sartre claims that Genet's works have some moral merits: to give readers some understanding of what Sartre calls 'solitary' positions such as Genet's, and to impress upon readers an identical possibility for themselves. Moreover, these moral merits are supported by the aesthetic appreciation of his works. The fact that readers could fully appreciate Genet's immoral works irresistibly points out to the readers the relation between themselves and the immorality of the works. It is not, however, clear how these moral merits are able to overcome the criticism against Genet. Moreover, because Sartre's argument presupposes an appreciation that deviates from Genet's own intention, which Sartre himself recognizes, it is not clear whether or not Sartre's attempted vindication can be viewed as a legitimate evaluation of Genet's works.
著者
河上 春香
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.49-60, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

This paper examines the political situation of surrealism in Czechoslovakia in 1930s. In Czechoslovakia, Surrealism was developed in the close relationship with communism. For ideological and other reasons, the Prague movement emphasized a dialectical way of thinking. In other words, Surrealism was considered to be a process whereby reality and the self were apprehended through the synergistic and dialectical relationship between deliberate (conscious) and involuntary (unconscious) acts. In addition, surrealism was undergirded by the rule of “recounting truth”. According to Michel Foucault, “recounting truth” involves defining an autonomous position vis-a-vis one's relationship with truth – in other words, it is a technique of governing the self. Karel Teige describes Surrealism as an artistic and practical means for revolutionaries to establish the self. However, attempting to connect Communism and Surrealism is forced: while the Communist ideology attempts to enforce one extreme form of “truth” in order to control people, the “truth” presented by Surrealism is something ever-changing and varying from person to person. By linking Surrealism and Socialist realism, Teige attempted to suggest that Communist culture should develop diversity and complexity. However, with Stalinism wielding power in Czechoslovakia, that idea was only possible for a brief time.