著者
山田 圭一
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.1, pp.1-9, 2018 (Released:2018-11-01)
参考文献数
28

This paper aims to elucidate how the meaning of words would change by the experience in using figurative expressions on the basis of later Wittgenstein's considerations. The various figurative expressions he investigated can be divided into three categories, metaphors in thinking, metaphors in perception, and “the secondary meaning”. I insist that all of these are brought about by the notice or forefeel of resemblances which is also needed in aspect-switching and conclude that the experiences of meaning could be the driving forces for changes of language games.
著者
山田 圭一
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.1_51-1_63, 2009 (Released:2009-09-30)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1 1

This paper aims to overcome the problem “fragility of knowledge” with which conversational contextualism is confronted by presenting Wittgensteinian contextualism model which replaces “conversational context” dependency of knowledge with “language game” dependency of knowledge. Wittgensteinian contextualism can be distinguished into two standpoints. One is “contextualism of justification” which insists on the variability of justification rules with language games, the other is “contextualism of hinge” that insists on variability of error possibilities to be excluded with language games. Wittgensteinian contextualism which combine these two contextualism can make knowledge stable by fixing and structurizing the context.
著者
山田 圭一
出版者
日本哲学会
雑誌
哲学 (ISSN:03873358)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2008, no.59, pp.309-325,L23, 2008-04-01 (Released:2010-07-01)
参考文献数
18

In his last writing, Wittgenstein suggests that the border between empirical propositions and logical or mathematical propositions is continuous (I call this idea the ‘continuity thesis’ in this paper). The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate what brought about this idea and what it means.In the system of language games, just as the basic form of calculation cannot be mistaken insofar as far as it functions as the measure for other calculations, so the basic form of judgment cannot be mistaken since it functions as the measure for other judgments. However the basic forms of our language games are supported by various contingent and natural facts and therefore we cannot preclude the possibility that exceptional states of things which cause mistakes might change into ordinary states, and consequently our present scaffolding would break down. The doubt about Moorean propositions (e. g. ‘Here is a hand’) implies doubt about the background conditions or scaffolding of our ordinary judgments and to refuse these doubts means to refuse doubts about this basic form of judgments. In this respect Moorean propositions possess the logical status of a norm of inquiry which is similar to what mathematical propositions possess.It was the encounter with epistemological skepticism that led to Wittgenstein's continuity thesis. And this thesis shows the contingency of our epistemic norms and implies that the hardness of the epistemic ‘must’ consists in the fact that we must start from this scaffolding when we see this world from within the world.
著者
山田 圭一
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.11-20, 2007-03-25 (Released:2010-02-03)
参考文献数
19

Epistemological contextualism holds that the truth-conditions of knowledge-attributing sentences depend on the contexts in which they are uttered. While Contextualists have presented solutions of the skeptical paradox with reference to this dependence, they are confronted with various criticisms. In this paper, I examine DeRose's solution of skepticism, and then elucidate why it fails to do justice to the persuasiveness of skeptical argument. Finally, as an alternative resolution of radical skepticism, I suggest the position of “radical contextualism” that claims not only standards of knowledge but of epistemic distinction (justification) depend on the context, and illustrate the justification model of radical contextualism in contrast with that of radical skepticism.
著者
平中 英二 塚原 修一 山田 圭一
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
日本教育社会学会大会発表要旨集録
巻号頁・発行日
no.34, pp.42-43, 1982-10-02

すぐれた科学・技術研究者を養成し, 研究者として確保することは, 創造的な科学技術活動を促進するうえできわめて重要な要因のひとつである。研究者を養成するための代表的な機関として大学院の博士課程をあげることができる。しかし大学院博士課程では, 修了者の就職難すなわちオーバードクター問題(以下, ODと記す)が深刻化し, 博士課程のありかたをめぐって様々な議論がなされている。ところがこれらの議論をみるかぎり, 状況認識の段階から関係者の意見は必ずしも一致していないように思われる。本研究は, オーバードクター問題の関係者を対象とする社会調査によって関係者の認識の不一致がどのような点にあるのかを明らかにし, これを通して科学・技術研究者の養成と確保のあり方に関して考察を行うことを目的としている。
著者
山田 圭一
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.47-55, 2019 (Released:2019-11-07)
参考文献数
12

In The Aporia of Mind: Space, Body and Meaning, Noya tried to answer two difficult philosophical problems about the world and other minds. And his answers were given mainly by the elimination of person from his theory of Cyoubou. In this paper, I examine his arguments and explain why sceptics would not be fully satisfied with his solution. First, I argue that the explanation of the unity of multimodal perceptions should require person. Second, I insist that person is needed for the individualization of the body and show that the subject of experiences can be separated from that of acts. Finally, after showing the difference between actuality and reality, I point that Noya's theory missed the problem of the other lives in the different actuality.
著者
藁谷 敏晴 小山田 圭一
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.31-43, 2011-11-25 (Released:2017-08-01)
参考文献数
67

In this paper, we present a logical system which is constructed on the following principles: I) the singular proposition is a universal proposition with a singular term as its subject; II) the identity proposition is a singular proposition with a singular term as its predicate; III) a singular term is a term which designates the only one object. The resulting system is shown to be inferentially equivalent to the original system of Lesniewski's Ontology dating from 1920. We shall present some results on the comprehension axiom and the law of extensionality, too.
著者
山田 圭一
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.1_35-1_47, 2011 (Released:2011-10-13)
参考文献数
12

Until now, Many philosophers have tried to elucidate plurality of epistemic norms in terms of plurality of aims with which we acquire knowledge. In this paper, I try to elucidate them in terms of plurality of aims with which we evaluate knowledge. For this purpose, I construct the new knowledge model which is composed of the idea of Attributor Contextualism and the conception of language games by Wittgenstein. With this model, I want to suggest a new research program of epistemology which can contain both Internalism and Externalism that have caused a lot of controversy in contemporary epistemology.