著者
榊原 英輔
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1-2, pp.55-75, 2017 (Released:2017-09-07)
参考文献数
62

The concept of mental illness has been challenged by various parties and with various background concerns. In this paper, I will discuss how mental illness is defined, as far as it is considered as a title to special treatment. The essentialism about mental illness insists that mental illness is distinguished from other harmful human conditions by some scientific criteria. Three essentialistic theories―physical lesion, biological disadvantage,and evolutionary dysfunction theories―are reviewed, and it is shown that they all fail to appropriately distinguish illness from normality. I will alternatively defend the anti-essentialism about mental illness,which characterize mental illness as harmful human conditions that are best treated by psychiatric professionals.
著者
丸山 久美子
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.77-86, 1981-03-30 (Released:2009-07-23)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1 1
著者
八杉 満利子 小田 宗兵衛
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.87-92, 2001-03-31 (Released:2009-07-23)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1
著者
鈴木 秀憲
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.27-42, 2012-09-30

In 1980s, Benjamin Libet and his colleagues conducted a series of experiments on voluntary acts. Its result is that certain brain potential (RP) precedes conscious will, which has excited much discussion about the existence and nature of free will. This paper shows that this result admits various interpretations about RP, conscious will, and their relation, depending on philosophical assumptions concerning free will and the relation between mind and brain. I also argue that the process of deliberation, rather than the momentary decision, should be the focus of investigation in order to elucidate the role of conscious will and the nature of free will.
著者
中戸川 孝治
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.4, pp.47-51, 1984-03-30 (Released:2009-07-23)
参考文献数
31
著者
薄葉 季路 藤田 博司
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.83-92, 2012-03-25 (Released:2017-08-01)
参考文献数
9

This article is to give a brief survey of roles of large cardinals (those ordinals which are in certain sense very big) in set theory of our time. In particular, close relationship of the structure of the continuum to large cardinals is emphasized. We also mention the inner model method which is a comparable approach to large cardinal axioms, so that we could make clear the reason why large cardinals are so important.
著者
高田 敦史
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1-2, pp.35-53, 2017 (Released:2017-09-07)
参考文献数
29

This paper argues for the event view of the story. According to the event view, stories are the specific type of complex events. Another competitor is the content view, according to which stories are abstract contents. First, I explain the event view is an attractive option for narrative approach in philosophy. Narrative approach regards lives as narratives. We can understand this, considering lives as the same type events as stories. Next, I argue that the event view can explain the identity of stories. The same story could be retold in different media with different details. The content view has trouble explaining that. Finally, in the case of fictional narratives, retelling of stories is amounts to trans-work transposition of fictional entities. This position is quite simple and respects much intution.
著者
小林 傳司
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.1-7, 1983-12-25 (Released:2010-01-20)
参考文献数
16
著者
木村 元
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.79-84, 2013-03-25

The problem to search physical principles of Quantum Mechanics is discussed by focusing on its significance from both points of view of instrumentalism and realism. After a brief review of the general probabilistic theories, we introduce the recent developments of the problem which are derived especially in the field of quantum information theory.
著者
筒井 晴香
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.59-66, 2010-03-25

David Lewis's theory of convention is one of the most influential studies on convention. In this article, I will investigate the role of higher-order expectations (HOEs) in this theory. Each agent's HOEs of other agents' expectations and behaviors are a distinctive feature of Lewis's theory. Using Margaret Gilbert's argument, however, it can be shown that HOEs are not necessary for the emergence or continuation of convention. I will show that HOEs are indispensable for characterizing conventional actions as rational ones, referring to the idea of interpretationism in the philosophy of mind.
著者
黒崎 宏
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.4, pp.211-217, 1986-03-25 (Released:2009-07-23)
参考文献数
11

ウィトゲンシュタインの数学論については, 彼の『数学の基礎』の, 第二版よりも遙かに充実した第三版が出版され, またクリスピン・ライトの浩瀚な研究書なども出て, 我々の周辺でも近頃話題になることが多い。しかし彼の科学論については, かつてトゥールミンが彼の小さな本『科学哲学』において, またハンソンが彼の本『発見のパターン』において, 援用していること等を別にすれば, 今も昔もあまり正面から話題にされる事がなかった-ように思われる。しかし私は, 彼の科学論は科学の本質を深く洞察していると思うので, ここで彼の科学論を私なりに整理し, その意味を考えてみようと思う。
著者
丹治 信春
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.3, pp.111-115, 1977-02-25 (Released:2009-09-04)
参考文献数
9
著者
鈴木 生郎
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.13-24, 2011-11-25

This paper aims to show that the combination of Three-dimensionalism, a theory of persistence, and Eternalism, a theory about the ontological nature of time, gives us the best solution to a widely known problem of the harm of death. To begin with, we argue that the following two claims are plausible: Termination Thesis, which says that people go out of existence when they die, and Harm after Death Thesis, which says that death harms people at some time after their death. Next we point out that there is an apparent conflict between these claims, as Epicurus and other philosophers argued. Then we show that the combination of Three-dimensionalism and Eternalism enables us to settle the conflict. Finally we show that the combination is preferable to two alternatives which have been discussed in the literature, namely, the combination of Four-dimensionalism and Eternalism (H. Silverstein), and the combination of Three-dimensionalism, Presentism and Meinongianism (P. Yourgrau).
著者
源河 亨
出版者
科学基礎論学会
雑誌
科学基礎論研究 (ISSN:00227668)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.81-91, 2014-03-30

This paper aims to show that the absence of sounds can be an object of auditory perception. First, I present various types of objections to the possibility of hearing the absence of sounds. Next, I explain that there is a kind of absence of sounds which seems to be heard, namely, the absence of sounds occurred in between sounds. I argue that perception of such an absence can be explained by the same mechanism for hearing sounds and detecting sound sources, that is, auditory scene analysis. I also argue that such an absence can be characterized, analogous to holes, as a dependent object which ontologically depends on previous and succeeding sounds. Based on these considerations, I reply the objections. Finally, I propose a modality-neutral model of absence perception based on the auditory case, and suggest that this model casts a doubt on the basic assumptions about perception.