著者
木原 英逸
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.2_47-2_65, 2010 (Released:2011-04-01)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1 1

In the early 2000s a research movement called SHAKAI GIJUTU (‘social technology’ in English) emerged, and the topic of ‘science communication’ subsequently captured the interest of Japan's STS community. After 2005, some universities made also college courses designed to educate communicators and interpreters for science and technology, focusing on the communication specialist. This paper will examine from the above standpoint the relations between the full-scale neoliberal reform in Japan that started in the mid 1990s and the development of ‘science communication’ that coincided with neoliberal reforms.     The theory and practice of ‘science communication’ have focused on ‘interactive communication’ (the contextual model) as an ideal situation for over ten years. However, the understanding of communication and also power are narrow and could be amplified in two ways. First, rather than understand communication and power as relations between actors, the focus could shift to ‘institutions’, the arena where inter-actor communication is made and inter-actor power is exercised. If science communication aims at the public interest, it should be made in the course of changing how broad power and also broad inter-actor communication work, that is, changing or criticizing the shape of ‘institutions’ as media for communication and power. Second, in most cases, the shape of ‘institutions’ that ‘science communication’ has pursued, i.e. ‘interactive communication’ and ‘interactive power relation’, overlaps with the ideology and the social system that the neoliberal social reform has pursued. The neoliberal reform accompanied by the complementary New Civil Society requires ‘interactive communication’ and ‘interactive power relation’ as the ideological institution and the social institution to make commercialization and public-private partnerships work well. Therefore, even if the pursuit of interactive communication looks like the deepening of democracy, the true picture is the market-oriented change of democracy, and consequently it would not realize the public interest achieved by political community. Science communication should be extended into the shape of power and communication that is able to realize the public interest of social rights and social fairness that the neoliberal thought and policy fail in.
著者
青山 拓央
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.2_81-2_94, 2010 (Released:2011-04-01)
参考文献数
6

Achilles need not catch the tortoise, although Achilles is faster than the tortoise. Zeno's premise does not determine whether Achilles can catch up. In this paper, I clarify this fact through a critical examination of Noya (2005), which criticizes Aoyama (2002) and Uemura (2002). Noya's solution smuggles the unnecessary premise of equal ratio to make Achilles catch up. However, his solution gives a new idea about what speed is. In the last part of this paper, I develop this idea and explain the reason why Achilles usually catches up in the actual world.

9 0 0 0 OA 書評

出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.2_101-2_134, 2008 (Released:2009-08-31)
参考文献数
7
著者
稲岡 大志
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.67-82, 2014-07-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
21

In this paper, we would present an overview of the recent studies on the role of diagram in mathematics. Traditionally, mathematicians and philosophers had thought that diagram should not be used in mathematical proofs, because relying on diagram would cause to various types of fallacies. But recently, some logicians and philosophers try to show that diagram has a legitimate place in proving mathematical theorems. We would review such trends of studies and provide some perspective from viewpoint of philosophy of mathematics.
著者
伊勢田 哲治
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.2_1-2_17, 2010 (Released:2011-04-01)
参考文献数
20

In this paper I discuss the epistemological implications of the rise of so-called “Mode 2” science. Mode 2 science is a kind of knowledge production in the context of application where knowledge production is conducted in a heterogeneous manner. Because of these features, bilateral science communications, where lay expertise has the same authority as scientific expertise, play significant roles in Mode 2 science. Features of Mode 2 (especially heterogeneity and use of lay expertise) pose epistemological questions: is Mode 2 knowledge as reliable as Mode 1?; what is the methodology used (or at least available) in Mode 2 to assure the reliability?; is Mode 2 worth the name of “science”?; if yes, what is the definition of 'science' used there? I maintain that we can enrich the philosophy of science by taking these questions seriously, and I conduct some preliminary considerations on the final question, namely the question of demarcation taking into account of Mode 2.
著者
高橋 泰城
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.2, pp.17-30, 2013-12-20 (Released:2014-06-28)
参考文献数
14

One of the recent promising theoretical approaches to accounts of the violation of rationality (or generalize the concept of rationality) in human decision making is quantum decision theory. In this expository review article, I introduce 1) problems of rationality in quantum decision theory and 2) relationships between psychophysics, theoretical neuroscience including neuroeconomics, and quantum decision theory.
著者
岡本 賢吾
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.23-39, 2007-12-25 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
15

Two remarkable results attained by Domain Theory, which serves as mathematical foundations for denotational semantics of programming languages, are explained and considered from philosophical viewpoints: 1) the analysis of recursion by the fix-point semantics and 2) the introduction of the notion of continuity and of compact elements. In particular, the author finds them conceptually illuminating in that firstly, they succeed in making explicit those unnoticed semantic elements lying behind the syntax of the languages which play essential roles in the construction and execution of recursive programs, and that secondly, they show the way to reconstruct various ordinary classical mathematical structures by virtue of complementing approximation processes to their infinite noncompact elements.
著者
石田 正人
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.1, pp.47-63, 2012-07-30 (Released:2013-06-05)
参考文献数
25

A commonly shared image of convergence is that of arrays of light aiming at a focus―a projected vanishing-point to which all empirical inquiry strives to converge or the Kantian regulative ideal that reason aims at beyond the boundaries of all possible experience. Such an intuitive image of convergence is not completely foreign to Peirce's view, but a predominantly optical model of convergence fails to capture the generality and flexibility of the idea that Peirce wished to advocate. This paper formulates Peirce's convergence theory of truth based upon his mathematical insights and examines a number of criticisms leveled against the theory including that of Quine. I argue that Peirce's understanding of convergence is far more sophisticated than what critics have often assumed and that simultaneous convergence to multiple elements is not excluded from his picture.
著者
源河 亨
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.1, pp.37-48, 2016-07-31 (Released:2016-11-10)
参考文献数
26

In our daily lives, we assign some value to various things. For example, we say, ‘this picture is dynamic', ‘his clothes are unfashionable' and ‘she is brave'. In these cases, we experience the value of these things. In this study, I examine the nature of such value experiences. I argue that some value experiences are cognitively penetrated perceptual experiences and that what penetrates into them is emotion. In other words, owing to the evaluative component of emotion, which affects perceptual systems, perceptual experiences can represent things as having some value to us. Furthermore, I propose that this cognitive penetration model of value experience supports the particularistic view of evaluative judgement.
著者
網谷 祐一
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.1, pp.35-48, 2015

In <i>Realism and Naturalizing Knowledge</i> (Keisho Shobo, 2013), Ryo Uehara carefully formulates the homeostatic property cluster theory of natural kinds and expands it by applying this framework to artifacts and knowledge and thereby drawing them in the naturalistic picture of the world. This is a substantial addition to the development of naturalistic philosophy in Japan. In this essay I shall make general comments on his account of natural kinds in the following respects: Ueharas distinction between real and nominal kinds, his objection to the species-as-individual thesis, the relative lack of attention to the distinction between the realism of natural kinds and the scientific realism, and finally, races as possible natural kinds.
著者
島村 修平
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.29-46, 2012

It is commonly assumed that a personʼs avowal of her own mind is privileged. But quite a few researchers doubt this first-person privilege, finding it difficult to give it a secure place within their theories of the mind. This paper aims to show that a psychological subject must have first-person privilege. Some philosophers claim that psychological subjects must be rational agents, and a special subclass of them (like us) must have first-person privilege. Accepting this basic idea, I attempt to give substance to it by offering an indisputable interpretation of rational agency and a non-trivial argument to derive first-person privilege from it.
著者
小川 芳範
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.1-13, 2002

In this paper, I consider a philosophical interpretation of Hilbert's program put forward by Paul Bernays. The paper consists, roughly, of two parts. In the first part, I briefly describe Bernays's polemic against "immanence philosophy" over the question concerning the epistemological status of theoretical sciences and its relation to the foundational controversy in mathematics in the 1920s. In the second part, I briefly discuss the theory of cognition contained in the transcendental philosophy of Jakob Friedrich Fries and his twentieth century evangelist, Leonard<BR>Nelson, and consider Bernays's view against the background of this intellectual tradition. I conclude the paper by arguing for the importance of attending to Friesian influence in order to achieve a deeper understanding of Bernays's (and Hilbert's) philosophy of mathematics.

6 0 0 0 OA 書評

著者
鈴木 生郎 等
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.2, pp.49-75, 2013-12-20 (Released:2014-06-28)

6 0 0 0 OA 書評

出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.2_135-2_148, 2011 (Released:2012-06-06)
著者
西堤 優
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.1_31-1_44, 2010 (Released:2010-09-26)
参考文献数
9

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH) proposed by A. R. Damasio has brought forward a new framework for understanding our decision-making based on the latest findings of neuroscience, and holds that emotion is an essential factor in any decision-making. However, the “Iowa Gambling Task” (IGT), which is the evidence to confirm the hypothesis, has unclear points about how to interpret its results. The present paper makes clear the interpretative problem of the IGT results, suggests some additional tasks to solve the problem, and then, clarifies the contents of SMH.
著者
古田 徹也
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.53-66, 2014-07-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
5

This review concerns Professor Hitoshi Nagai's recent book, Wittgenstein no Goshin (Wittgenstein's Misdiagnosis). In this book, Professor Nagai makes his understanding of the latter part of Wittgenstein's “Blue Book”. He argues that Wittgenstein set up an epoch-making solipsism, which Professor Nagai calls “Wittgenstein's solipsism” or “linguistic solipsism”, but he adds that Wittgenstein himself misunderstood the meaning and significance of this solipsism. In this review, I consider the validity of Professor Nagai's arguments.

5 0 0 0 OA 書評

著者
戸田山 和久他
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.139-149, 1997-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)