著者
平石 界 中村 大輝
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.27-50, 2022-03-31 (Released:2022-03-31)
参考文献数
126

It has been almost ten years since Bem published the psi study in a prestigious social psychology journal, which ignited the replicability crisis in psychology. Since then, drastic and systematic changes in research practices have been proposed and implemented in the field. After a decade of such controversy and reformation, what is the current status of psychology? We provide an overview of the 10 years of credibility revolution in psychology by taking the perspectives of “researcher's degree of freedom” and “specification space.” Based on the view, we propose possible future directions for psychology to proceed as a scientific discipline.
著者
飯川 遥
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.1, pp.29-1, 2021-09-30 (Released:2021-09-30)
参考文献数
14

Saul Kripkeʼs skeptical solution to the rule-following paradox has often been characterized as self-refuting. In this paper, I will attempt to reconstruct it into a consistent position. Alexander Miller, in a recent paper, showed that Kripkeʼs solution can be interpreted as a kind of quasi-realism about meaning, and pointed out its difficulties (Miller 2020). I will rather characterize the skeptical solution by comparing it to global expressivism, and show that such a reformulation can clear up the difficulties Miller points out.
著者
笠木 雅史
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.3-27, 2018-12-30 (Released:2019-11-27)
参考文献数
75

It is commonplace to characterize analytic philosophy in terms of the so-called “linguistic turn.” Recent historical studies, however, tell or remind us that analytic philosophy is not unified with regard to its methods or subject matters. The purpose of this paper is to contribute toward the accurate picture of the history of analytic philosophy, with a focus on the group of philosophers that was called “Cambridge Analysis” or the “Cambridge School of Analysis” in the 1930s. Firstly, the paper exposes the methods and conceptions of metaphysics championed by members of the Cambridge School of Analysis, such as G. E. Moore, B. Russell, L. S.Stebbing, and J. Wisdom. Secondly, the paper argues that when the Cambridge School of Analysis was succeeded by Cambridge Ordinary Language School in the late 1930s, metaphysics started being conceptualized linguistically.
著者
小山 虎
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.29-45, 2018-12-30 (Released:2019-11-27)
参考文献数
41

What is the exact relationship between analytic philosophy and philosophy of science? In this paper, I will address this question from the perspective of research traditions, with the help of recent historical studies on analytic philosophy. The two groups are particularly focused: the Polish philosophers and the logical empiricists in Berlin. Neither of them is unknown to us. However, by taking seriously their connection to the development of analytic philosophy and philosophy of science as research traditions, I believe, the understanding of our own tradition may be improved.
著者
太田 紘史
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.1, pp.143-162, 2019-12-30 (Released:2020-06-20)
参考文献数
8

In his recent book, Takayuki Suzuki proposes a novel physicalist solution toward the hard problem of consciousness, wherein the representationalist analysis of qualia is advanced via incorporating the intrinsic notion of representation. In this review, I critically examine the metaphysical character of his resultant position and present some questions on to what extent it satisfies the core theses of physicalism. The moral to be drawn is the significant tension between physicalism and the phenomenal principle, whose endorsement could misdirect us into troublesome positions in an unexpected manner.
著者
小田 拓弥
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.93-111, 2022-03-30 (Released:2022-03-31)
参考文献数
47

In recent years, David Plunkett and Tim Sundell have developed views on metalinguistic negotiations. A metalinguistic negotiation is a dispute where both parties use (rather than mention) a term to express a view about what the term should mean. Plunkett, Sundell, and others have presented philosophical views with the assumption that there are metalinguistic negotiations. For example, they consider that some (or many) philosophical disputes are metalinguistic negotiations and that contextualists about predicates of personal taste can defend their view by invoking the notion of metalinguistic negotiations. Moreover, the linguistic mechanism of metalinguistic usages is tried to explain by dynamic semantics and Gricean pragmatics.
著者
植原 亮
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.2, pp.259-273, 2021-03-31 (Released:2021-03-31)
参考文献数
21

In this review essay, I examine the significance of Conceptual Engineering Manifesto edited by K. Todayama and K. Karasawa, which is the first book in Japan that explores a new field called “conceptual engineering” in collaboration with psychology. After presenting an overview of its aim, distinctive features, and contents, I make general comments on the possibility of the research program proposed in this book, mainly in the following respects: its feasibility as engineering; continuity, function, and nature of concepts. Through discussing, I also articulate further tasks for conceptual engineering to be addressed.
著者
青山 拓央
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.2_81-2_94, 2010 (Released:2011-04-01)
参考文献数
6

Achilles need not catch the tortoise, although Achilles is faster than the tortoise. Zeno's premise does not determine whether Achilles can catch up. In this paper, I clarify this fact through a critical examination of Noya (2005), which criticizes Aoyama (2002) and Uemura (2002). Noya's solution smuggles the unnecessary premise of equal ratio to make Achilles catch up. However, his solution gives a new idea about what speed is. In the last part of this paper, I develop this idea and explain the reason why Achilles usually catches up in the actual world.
著者
木原 英逸
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.2_47-2_65, 2010 (Released:2011-04-01)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
3 1

In the early 2000s a research movement called SHAKAI GIJUTU (‘social technology’ in English) emerged, and the topic of ‘science communication’ subsequently captured the interest of Japan's STS community. After 2005, some universities made also college courses designed to educate communicators and interpreters for science and technology, focusing on the communication specialist. This paper will examine from the above standpoint the relations between the full-scale neoliberal reform in Japan that started in the mid 1990s and the development of ‘science communication’ that coincided with neoliberal reforms.     The theory and practice of ‘science communication’ have focused on ‘interactive communication’ (the contextual model) as an ideal situation for over ten years. However, the understanding of communication and also power are narrow and could be amplified in two ways. First, rather than understand communication and power as relations between actors, the focus could shift to ‘institutions’, the arena where inter-actor communication is made and inter-actor power is exercised. If science communication aims at the public interest, it should be made in the course of changing how broad power and also broad inter-actor communication work, that is, changing or criticizing the shape of ‘institutions’ as media for communication and power. Second, in most cases, the shape of ‘institutions’ that ‘science communication’ has pursued, i.e. ‘interactive communication’ and ‘interactive power relation’, overlaps with the ideology and the social system that the neoliberal social reform has pursued. The neoliberal reform accompanied by the complementary New Civil Society requires ‘interactive communication’ and ‘interactive power relation’ as the ideological institution and the social institution to make commercialization and public-private partnerships work well. Therefore, even if the pursuit of interactive communication looks like the deepening of democracy, the true picture is the market-oriented change of democracy, and consequently it would not realize the public interest achieved by political community. Science communication should be extended into the shape of power and communication that is able to realize the public interest of social rights and social fairness that the neoliberal thought and policy fail in.

28 0 0 0 OA 分類と対話

著者
榊原 英輔
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.1, pp.89-102, 2020-09-30 (Released:2020-09-30)
参考文献数
19

This is a review essay on Kohji Ishihara's Philosophy of Mental Disorder: From Classification to Dialogue. The book is a collection of Ishihara's recent works. Part Ⅰ of the book discusses the history of psychiatry that originally excluded those with mental disorders from the dialogue on psychiatry. Part Ⅱ describes the ever-changing nature of the classification of mental disorders. In Part Ⅲ, he presents what he calls the “dialogical approach” to mental disorders as a promising alternative way of doing psychiatry. The structure and subtitle of the book convey the message that the practice of classifying mental disorders will be superseded by the dialogue with those with mental disorders in the future. Contrary to this message, based on the notion of epistemic injustice proposed by Fricker, I argue that the classification of mental disorders has both merits and demerits for those whose disorders are thus classified, and that the classification of mental disorders will continue to assume the role of the starting point of such dialogue in the future.
著者
北島 雄一郎
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.2, pp.275-294, 2021-03-31 (Released:2021-03-31)
参考文献数
14

‘What is reality?’ is a Japanese book whose authors are a mathematician and a phenomenologist. The authors examine the general structure of nature as well as our behavior. In the present note, we review its content from the perspective of identity, which is an isomorphic natural transformation according to the authors.
著者
源河 亨
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.65-82, 2018-12-30 (Released:2019-11-27)
参考文献数
36

Some features of music are described using emotional terms, for example, sad music, joyful rhythm, fearful melody, and so on. These features are called expressive properties. There are two leading theories concerning expressive properties, the resemblance theory and the persona theory. The former claims that sad music shares some features of the behavior of a sad person, the latter claims that sad music induces an imagining in the listener, of a sad person. In this paper, I will suggest that, given the philosophy of mind, these two theories can be compatible.
著者
中尾 央
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.1, pp.1-16, 2012 (Released:2016-01-13)
参考文献数
31

For the last two decades, since Barkow et al. (1992), evolutionary psychology has been fiercely criticized by many philosophers of science and other scientists. This article aims to rebut these criticisms and defend the research program of evolutionary psychology. I mainly focus on three criticisms: (1) we have not evolved as many modules in the changing environments as evolutionary psychologists have assumed, (2) massive modularity hypothesis fails, and (3) it is difficult to infer the present from the past. Through rebutting them, I conclude that evolutionary psychology is methodologically valid, and also empirically promising to some degree.
著者
井頭 昌彦
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.2_59-2_73, 2009 (Released:2010-02-15)
参考文献数
21

Although physicalism is usually understood as an ontological thesis, it is not clear that what implications this position has on the matter of ontology expressed by the question “What there is?” In this paper, I begin with Quine's “indispensability argument,” and abstract from it a framework for sorting ontological positions. Then, I try to locate supervenience thesis, which is an important part of physicalism, within the framework above. One conclusion of this paper is that supervenience thesis works, neither as a direct assertion on what there is nor as an assertion on the criterion of ontological commitment we should adopt, but as an assertion on the class of the sentences from which we should extract ontology.
著者
鈴木 聡
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.150-154, 2022-03-31 (Released:2022-03-31)
参考文献数
3
著者
森田 邦久
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.1_1-1_14, 2009 (Released:2009-09-30)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1 1

In this essay, I would like to show a demarcation between science and pseudo-science, from two approaches: theoretical and experimental/observational. Theoretical approach pays attention to revision pattern in theoretical explanation. Especially, when the elucidator introduces new unknown elements for explanation, pseudo-scientific explanation fails to satisfy some conditions. On the other hand, experimental/observational criterion says, pseudo-science claims doubtful phenomenological laws.

14 0 0 0 OA 感情と身体

著者
長滝 祥司
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.41-60, 2020-03-30 (Released:2020-07-03)
参考文献数
52

In this paper, I examine the relationship between emotion and body. First, I briefly survey the history of the concept of emotion with referring to the concept of reason. Second, I explain three ways to access the mind and consider the controversy of nature vs culture about emotion from a viewpoint of the intersubjective body. I argue that the controversy depends on what aspects of the body we focus, suggesting that nature and culture in this context are not necessarily exclusive. Finally, I introduce the experiment we have conducted and confirm that the body involved in emotion is social and intersubjective even at the physical level.
著者
坂上 雅道 山本 愛実
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.2_29-2_40, 2009 (Released:2010-02-15)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1

To survive in changeable circumstances, we have to make appropriate decisions on our behavior. Recent studies have suggested that we have two brain processes to calculate reward values of objects. One is the process coding a specific reward value of a stimulus or event dependent on direct experience. The other enables us to predict reward based on the internal model of given circumstances, including societies, which doesn't necessarily require direct experience. The nigro-striatal network works for the model-free decision and the prefrontal network contributes to the model-based decision. These two networks are cooperative in one occasion and are competitive in another.
著者
鈴木 貴之
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.2_13-2_28, 2009 (Released:2010-02-15)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

Brain sciences can show that our acts are caused by deterministic processes in our brain and that our acts are often influenced by unconscious brain processes, but these facts alone cannot deny free will. Brain sciences are important rather because they, along with other biological and behavioral sciences, offer the data that seem troublesome for compatibilists. The problem of free will cannot be solved either by conceptual analysis alone or by empirical research alone. Whether we endorse reductionism or non-reductionism, it is necessary to revise our commonsense concept of free will to establish compatibilism.
著者
稲岡 大志
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.67-82, 2014-07-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
21

In this paper, we would present an overview of the recent studies on the role of diagram in mathematics. Traditionally, mathematicians and philosophers had thought that diagram should not be used in mathematical proofs, because relying on diagram would cause to various types of fallacies. But recently, some logicians and philosophers try to show that diagram has a legitimate place in proving mathematical theorems. We would review such trends of studies and provide some perspective from viewpoint of philosophy of mathematics.