著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.147-157, 2013

Murakami (2009) demonstrated the tendency toward underestimating the possible success of uncertain events after "lucky" events in terms of "Luck Resource Belief." However, this notion does not necessarily entail a consequent decision to avoid a high-risk option due to low expectations. A "relativity hypothesis of luck" has been proposed to explain this tendency from the perspective of the relative value of several relevant events. This hypothesis suggests that a lucky result by itself does not carry a negative value. Indeed, when considerations include future outcomes, the value of the lucky outcome shifts, which demonstrates relative cognitive change. To examine this change and the tendency to assign value to lucky results, we distributed questionnaires (Study 1) and conducted an experiment involving predictions about the actual outcomes of World Cup soccer matches (Study 2). The results indicated that the occurrence of a lucky event before subsequent important events was associated with avoidance of a high-risk option only for respondents with a "Luck Resource Belief," because this belief involves devaluing the lucky outcome before subsequent important events. These results support the "relativity hypothesis of luck" and are discussed in terms of their implication for anticipated regret.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.30-41, 2009

After obtaining positive results from uncertain events, individuals tend to feel confident in their skills (Langer, 1975). However, according to popular usage like lay theory, the word "lucky" carries relatively negative connotations for some people. This reflects the idea of "Luck Resource Belief," whereby luck supposedly decreases if it is consumed. In this study, we developed and administered a scale to survey this personal belief. We compared attitudes toward forthcoming uncertain events in the aftermath of a lucky or unlucky lotto outcome from the perspective of the "Luck Resource Belief." Results showed that when individuals adhering to the Luck Resource Belief obtained "lucky" lotto results, confidence and risky choices with regard to subsequent uncertain events were reduced. Such results have been discussed with regard to the Gambler's fallacy, anticipated regret, and mental simulation (Kahneman & Tversky, 1982).
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.133-146, 2005

It has been said that the reason why fortune telling in popular magazines (for women) is seen to "come true" derives from the authoritarian personality of the reader combined with the Barnum effect given by the text. However, past research had focused mostly on fortune telling of a personal character, and very few studies have been carried out which investigate matters of luck or fortune itself. The aim of this research is to investigate how people come to believe that a particular instance of fortune telling has actually "come true", focusing on the use of a "determination view of fate" as a descriptive style of text, and paying attention to both the presentation of material and the reader's cognition process, in four different studies. The "determination view of fate" is described as not varying no matter how readers act; it is something that readers accept as a set of values. For the purposes of this research, using the fortune telling descriptions in women's magazines, a line was drawn between cases in which the reader actually judged the contents as "likely to come true" (predictions) and those that actually "come true"(results), and the contents were analyzed. Consequently, among those who believed the prophecy at the stage of prediction and later judged it to have "come true, " certain structures of a self-fulfilling nature were seen to be held in common. In the light of the contents of the text, both negative and other contents described as nonvariable "fortune" contents were judged to have "come true." Although it can be concluded that, based on such results, fortune telling was recognized as actually dealing in "fortune, " it is conjectured that it evokes in the reader a feeling of hitting the mark through a revelation of fate. The reason why negative contents "come true" is discussed from the viewpoints of memory and content evaluation. The study indicates that those who believe in fortune telling do not do so because of authoritarianism, but rather because of flexible interpretation.
著者
荒川 歩 村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.85-97, 2006

We investigated why people own lucky charms. One hundred ninety-eight students answered our questionnaire. The results showed that ownership of lucky charms is not entirely related to the desire to connect to a transcendental power; people have lucky charms because they have received them as gifts from family and friends; family and friends give lucky charms when they cannot provide other forms of support directly; the gift of a charm is usually from an older person to a younger person; the relationship between the donor and the recipient affects the type of charm given. These results suggest that donors may give lucky charms to allay their anxiety, and that lucky charms act as a reminder of the donor's support of the recipient in times of trouble.
著者
村上 幸史 荒川 歩
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.233-248, 2009

Arakawa & Murakami (2006) reported that some people keep "lucky charms" not because they have faith in them, but because the lucky charms were gifts from people close to them. This indicates that lucky charms are used as a communication tool, through gift-giving, rather than as goods. To examine why lucky charms are given between parents and children, 89 pairs (students and their parents, the relatives who most commonly give lucky charms) completed questionnaires. The results showed that parents gave children lucky charms more often than vice versa. The lucky charms were given by parents to their children as a token to ward off danger or for luck in an exam. The parents thereby sought to reduce their own anxiety, as well as that of the children, and to relay the message that they were supportive as the child grew up. In addition, the children sometimes looked at the lucky charm and were reminded of their parents. It is clear from these results that, despite there being a difference of understanding in the purpose of the gift between the giver and the receiver, gift giving results in the mutual extraction of meaning from the act. The result is discussed in terms of "goods-mediated communication" through gift-giving, focusing on this ambiguity.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.87.14329, (Released:2016-01-15)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
1 1

This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward “Luck Resource Belief,” a notion regarding luck. The 500 Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences, but not regional or generational differences with regard to the “Luck Resource Belief” scale scores. Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.147-157, 2013-03-31 (Released:2017-03-03)

Murakami (2009) demonstrated the tendency toward underestimating the possible success of uncertain events after "lucky" events in terms of "Luck Resource Belief." However, this notion does not necessarily entail a consequent decision to avoid a high-risk option due to low expectations. A "relativity hypothesis of luck" has been proposed to explain this tendency from the perspective of the relative value of several relevant events. This hypothesis suggests that a lucky result by itself does not carry a negative value. Indeed, when considerations include future outcomes, the value of the lucky outcome shifts, which demonstrates relative cognitive change. To examine this change and the tendency to assign value to lucky results, we distributed questionnaires (Study 1) and conducted an experiment involving predictions about the actual outcomes of World Cup soccer matches (Study 2). The results indicated that the occurrence of a lucky event before subsequent important events was associated with avoidance of a high-risk option only for respondents with a "Luck Resource Belief," because this belief involves devaluing the lucky outcome before subsequent important events. These results support the "relativity hypothesis of luck" and are discussed in terms of their implication for anticipated regret.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.11-24, 2002-08-19 (Released:2017-01-07)

In Japan, the term "strength of luck" (as directly translated from Japanese) commonly refers to a fixed dispositional trait. In order to gain a more concrete understanding of the usage of the term "strength of luck," a questionnaire was designed and survey conducted of subjects to study the belief that some people have "strong luck" and others have "weak luck." The results showed that people who see themselves as having "strong luck" differ from those who see themselves as having "weak luck" in that : 1. They believe that they have many "lucky" experiences and few "unlucky" experiences. 2. Most of these "lucky" experiences occurred in "important situations." There was no difference between people who see themselves as having "strong luck" and those who see themselves as having "weak luck" when the occurrence probability of the event was considered low from the start. 3. They think that their "strength of luck" is correlated with their amount of effort. 4. It wasquite rare for them to make social comparisons. On the other hand, according to these results, people who see themselves as having "weak luck" don't necessarily feel they have few successful experiences in daily life, nor did they feel helpless. It was concluded that how one interprets one's own "strength of luck" is based on particular "lucky" and/or "unlucky" experiences.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.11-24, 2002

In Japan, the term "strength of luck" (as directly translated from Japanese) commonly refers to a fixed dispositional trait. In order to gain a more concrete understanding of the usage of the term "strength of luck," a questionnaire was designed and survey conducted of subjects to study the belief that some people have "strong luck" and others have "weak luck." The results showed that people who see themselves as having "strong luck" differ from those who see themselves as having "weak luck" in that : 1. They believe that they have many "lucky" experiences and few "unlucky" experiences. 2. Most of these "lucky" experiences occurred in "important situations." There was no difference between people who see themselves as having "strong luck" and those who see themselves as having "weak luck" when the occurrence probability of the event was considered low from the start. 3. They think that their "strength of luck" is correlated with their amount of effort. 4. It wasquite rare for them to make social comparisons. On the other hand, according to these results, people who see themselves as having "weak luck" don't necessarily feel they have few successful experiences in daily life, nor did they feel helpless. It was concluded that how one interprets one's own "strength of luck" is based on particular "lucky" and/or "unlucky" experiences.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.133-146, 2005-11-30 (Released:2017-02-07)

It has been said that the reason why fortune telling in popular magazines (for women) is seen to "come true" derives from the authoritarian personality of the reader combined with the Barnum effect given by the text. However, past research had focused mostly on fortune telling of a personal character, and very few studies have been carried out which investigate matters of luck or fortune itself. The aim of this research is to investigate how people come to believe that a particular instance of fortune telling has actually "come true", focusing on the use of a "determination view of fate" as a descriptive style of text, and paying attention to both the presentation of material and the reader's cognition process, in four different studies. The "determination view of fate" is described as not varying no matter how readers act; it is something that readers accept as a set of values. For the purposes of this research, using the fortune telling descriptions in women's magazines, a line was drawn between cases in which the reader actually judged the contents as "likely to come true" (predictions) and those that actually "come true"(results), and the contents were analyzed. Consequently, among those who believed the prophecy at the stage of prediction and later judged it to have "come true, " certain structures of a self-fulfilling nature were seen to be held in common. In the light of the contents of the text, both negative and other contents described as nonvariable "fortune" contents were judged to have "come true." Although it can be concluded that, based on such results, fortune telling was recognized as actually dealing in "fortune, " it is conjectured that it evokes in the reader a feeling of hitting the mark through a revelation of fate. The reason why negative contents "come true" is discussed from the viewpoints of memory and content evaluation. The study indicates that those who believe in fortune telling do not do so because of authoritarianism, but rather because of flexible interpretation.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
神戸山手大学
雑誌
若手研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2011 (Released:2011-08-05)

本研究は「個人が成功や幸福を得るための資源には限りがある」という考え方の中でも、特に特定の社会での限定説(「対人的定量観」)と主観的幸福感の関連性について検討を行った。その結果「対人的定量観」を持つ者は主観的幸福感が低く、競争的達成動機も高く、不幸の程度を相対的に判断しやすいことが示唆された。この影響はweb上でニュースを判断する実験を通して、他者の不幸を非難する傾向や喜ぶ(シャーデンフロイデ得点)傾向の形でも示された。このような観点から主観的幸福感を維持する過程は、幸福感を高めることに関する負の影響と考えられる。