著者
東 園子 Azuma Sonoko アズマ ソノコ
出版者
大阪大学大学院人間科学研究科 社会学・人間学・人類学研究室
雑誌
年報人間科学 (ISSN:02865149)
巻号頁・発行日
no.27, pp.71-85, 2006-03-31

本稿は、もっぱら男性に対してのみ用いられている「ホモソーシャリティ」という用語を女性にも適用する意義を提示することを通して、「女性のホモソーシャリティ」概念の確立を目指すものである。イヴ・コゾフスキー・セジウィックは、同性間の社会的絆であるホモソーシャル関係を、ホモセクシュアルとの類似と区別という観点から考察することで、近代欧米社会において男性の同性関係を「性的」/「非性的」で区分する認識枠組みを明らかにし、「非性的」な関係から社会を分析する有効性を示した。このような同性間の「非性的」な関係性を表す「ホモソーシャリテイ」概念を女性にも用いることで、女性間の「非性的」な絆が認識困難になっている現状を可視化し、女性や女性が取り結ぶ関係性に強固に結び付けられている「性的なもの」との関係を問い直すことが可能になる。また、フェミニズムにおいては「シスターフッド」や「レズビアン連続体」という女同士の絆を表す用語が存在しているが、「女性のホモソーシャリティ」は、分析慨念としてこの両者とは異なる意義を有している。「女性のホモソーシャリティ」概念は、現在の強制的異性愛を伴う男性中心的な社会を分析する際に有効なだけでなく、そのような社会に枠付けられた女性の関係性のあり方を超えて、新しい女同士の関係を想像する端緒になると考える。
著者
東 園子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, pp.31-45, 2013

Today, it is easy for ordinary people to widely disseminate their message and works over the Internet. Nevertheless, many people still disseminate information by paper media. For example, people known as otaku - fans of Japanese anime, manga, video games, etc. - often create fanzines binding manga and novels they produced themselves. They then sell these fanzines at events in Japan in which fanzines are sold. With the growth of the Internet, otaku also exhibit their works on the web. But many otaku, especially female otaku, still use paper media to publish their works. This paper considers the influences of electric media on paper media and the merits of using paper media as a tool for personal publications, by analyzing ways to use media in creative activities, and it also examines the female otaku's media awareness based on my research and interviews. Originally, fanzines created by otaku have four functions: publishing fan works, informing others about their creative activity, talking about one's favorite works and characters, and interacting with others who share the same interests. Events where trading fanzines takes place also have these four functions. As otaku use online tools for their creative activities, electric media have replaced paper media for informing others about their creative activity and discussing their favorite things. But paper media have advantages in publishing works and interacting with others. Paper media is more suitable for placing manga and treated better than electric media. By selling fanzines at events, otaku can enjoy face-to-face communication with others. They can also directly gauge the reader's response to their works. Works created by fans are provided free of charge on the Internet. On the other hand, fanzines are traded with money. The people I interviewed who create fanzines regard receiving payment for their works as a sign of appreciation for them. But readers enjoy their works without any cost on the web. So, creators of fanzines feel strongly that their readers should accept their works when they publish them by paper media rather than electric media. For these reasons, the creative female otaku I interviewed prefer paper media in this age of the rising Internet.
著者
東 園子
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.91-107,145, 2006-10-31 (Released:2016-03-23)
参考文献数
19

This paper looks at female homosocial relationships, that is to say, the social bonds between women, by considering the meaning of the fact that the Takarazuka Revue is performed exclusively by women for fans who are mostly women as well. In male-dominated society where heterosexuality is compulsory, relations between women are either persecuted as homosexual relationships that go against heterosexuality, or they are perceived to be inferior to heterosexual relationships and regarded as trivial. Therefore, it is difficult to find representations of strong female homosocial bonds in society. To enable female homosociality, the influence of heterosexuality must be controlled. In the case of 'Takarazuka', there are two worlds of stories. One world is the stage, where the stories of love between women and men and of male friendship without sexual desire are played by "otoko-yaku" playing male roles and "musume-yaku" playing female roles who neither have sexual bodies. The other world is the backstage sphere open to fans through the media, where friendships within the 'Takarazuka' company are emphasized within the framework of a girls school in which students are exempted from any of the obligations of heterosexuality. So, 'Takarazuka' performers known as 'Takara-siennes' have two faces. First, they are the "otoko-yaku" and "musume-yaku" on stage, and second, they are "students" in the backstage sphere, girls who are indifferent to heterosexuality. By superimposing the backstage sphere on the world on stage, through 'Takara-siennes' who have duplicity, fans of 'Takarazuka' can read the bonds of the performers backstage into heterosexual relations and the relations between the men they play on stage. Therefore, 'Takarazuka' becomes an unusual sphere in which it is possible to have a realistic sense of female homosociality. 'Takarazuka' shows us both the possibility of the representation of female homosociality, and the difficulty of representing it in elsewhere in the contemporary society.
著者
東 園子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, pp.31-45, 2013-07-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
5

Today, it is easy for ordinary people to widely disseminate their message and works over the Internet. Nevertheless, many people still disseminate information by paper media. For example, people known as otaku - fans of Japanese anime, manga, video games, etc. - often create fanzines binding manga and novels they produced themselves. They then sell these fanzines at events in Japan in which fanzines are sold. With the growth of the Internet, otaku also exhibit their works on the web. But many otaku, especially female otaku, still use paper media to publish their works. This paper considers the influences of electric media on paper media and the merits of using paper media as a tool for personal publications, by analyzing ways to use media in creative activities, and it also examines the female otaku's media awareness based on my research and interviews. Originally, fanzines created by otaku have four functions: publishing fan works, informing others about their creative activity, talking about one's favorite works and characters, and interacting with others who share the same interests. Events where trading fanzines takes place also have these four functions. As otaku use online tools for their creative activities, electric media have replaced paper media for informing others about their creative activity and discussing their favorite things. But paper media have advantages in publishing works and interacting with others. Paper media is more suitable for placing manga and treated better than electric media. By selling fanzines at events, otaku can enjoy face-to-face communication with others. They can also directly gauge the reader's response to their works. Works created by fans are provided free of charge on the Internet. On the other hand, fanzines are traded with money. The people I interviewed who create fanzines regard receiving payment for their works as a sign of appreciation for them. But readers enjoy their works without any cost on the web. So, creators of fanzines feel strongly that their readers should accept their works when they publish them by paper media rather than electric media. For these reasons, the creative female otaku I interviewed prefer paper media in this age of the rising Internet.
著者
東 園子
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.91-107,145, 2006

This paper looks at female homosocial relationships, that is to say, the social bonds between women, by considering the meaning of the fact that the Takarazuka Revue is performed exclusively by women for fans who are mostly women as well. In male-dominated society where heterosexuality is compulsory, relations between women are either persecuted as homosexual relationships that go against heterosexuality, or they are perceived to be inferior to heterosexual relationships and regarded as trivial. Therefore, it is difficult to find representations of strong female homosocial bonds in society. To enable female homosociality, the influence of heterosexuality must be controlled. In the case of Takarazuka, there are two worlds of stories. One world is the stage, where the stories of love between women and men and of male friendship without sexual desire are played by "otoko-yaku" playing male roles and "musume-yaku" playing female roles who neither have sexual bodies. The other world is the backstage sphere open to fans through the media, where friendships within the Takarazuka company are emphasized within the framework of a girls school in which students are exempted from any of the obligations of heterosexuality. So, Takarazuka performers known as Takara-siennes have two faces. First, they are the "otoko-yaku" and "musume-yaku" on stage, and second, they are "students" in the backstage sphere, girls who are indifferent to heterosexuality. By superimposing the backstage sphere on the world on stage, through Takara-siennes who have duplicity, fans of Takarazuka can read the bonds of the performers backstage into heterosexual relations and the relations between the men they play on stage. Therefore, Takarazuka becomes an unusual sphere in which it is possible to have a realistic sense of female homosociality. Takarazuka shows us both the possibility of the representation of female homosociality, and the difficulty of representing it in elsewhere in the contemporary society.
著者
谷本 奈穂 東 園子 猪俣 紀子 増田 のぞみ 山中 千恵
出版者
関西大学総合情報学部
雑誌
情報研究 : 関西大学総合情報学部紀要 (ISSN:1341156X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.37-50, 2013-08-10

本論は,日本アニメが海外でどのようにして読み取られるかについて,キャラクターの図像に焦点を当てながら考察するものである.具体的にはフランスの学生に対し,キャラクターを10種類提示して出身地を予測させた.その結果,出身地をキャラクターの外見に基づいて判断する場合と,マンガ・アニメに関する知識に基づいて判断する場合があると分かった.日本では「自然主義的リアリズム」と「まんが・アニメ的リアリズム」の二つがあり,その二つが作品の消費形態を規定するとされるが,フランスでも二つの読み取りが行われている(二つのリテラシーがある)ことが確認できた.This paper examines and investigates how Japanese animation is being interpreted in France. To this end, we focus on character iconography interpretation. We presented French students with ten types of characters and asked them to predict the fictional birth places of these characters. The results showed that the students came to their conclusions based on either the appearance of the characters or their knowledge of manga and anime. In Japan, “naturalistic realism” and “manga or anime-istic realism” are thought to define how works of art are consumed, and we identified these two forms of interpretation (literacies) in France.
著者
増田 のぞみ 猪俣 紀子 東 園子 谷本 奈穂 山中 千恵
出版者
甲南女子大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2017-04-01

本研究の目的は、少女マンガ黎明期のジャンル形成過程において作家や編集者がどのような役割を果たしたのかを明らかにすることである。戦後日本のメディア文化をより深く理解するためには、少女マンガという世界的にも稀有なジャンルがどのような作家や雑誌によって作られてきたのか、黎明期の少女マンガの形成過程を多角的に問う必要がある。本研究では、1950年代から1960年代にかけての、「少女マンガ」というジャンルの黎明期とされる時期から活躍を続けるわたなべまさこ、牧美也子、水野英子、花村えい子といった女性のマンガ家たちに焦点を当て、それらの作家たちが少女マンガというジャンルとどのような関わりを持ってきたのかを明らかにすることを目指している。2018年度は、水野英子が呼びかけ人となり、少女マンガ黎明期に活躍した作家や編集者らによる座談会が計4回開催された「少女マンガを語る会」の活動に注目し、この座談会の記録を報告書として後世に残すための作業を進めた。また、少女マンガ黎明期の「少女」イメージに大きな影響を与え、その後は女性週刊誌などを舞台に「劇画」作品を描いた牧美也子を取り上げ、牧の作品と少女マンガジャンルとの関わりを掘り下げる調査を進めた。その内容については、2018年12月に仁愛大学にて行われた中部人間学会大会において、「黎明期少女マンガと牧美也子――「少女」イメージと女性向け「劇画」をめぐって」と題した成果報告を行った(報告者・増田のぞみ)。
著者
谷本 奈穂 東 園子 猪俣 紀子 増田 のぞみ 山中 千恵
出版者
関西大学総合情報学部
雑誌
情報研究 : 関西大学総合情報学部紀要 (ISSN:1341156X)
巻号頁・発行日
no.39, pp.37-50, 2013-08

本論は,日本アニメが海外でどのようにして読み取られるかについて,キャラクターの図像に焦点を当てながら考察するものである.具体的にはフランスの学生に対し,キャラクターを10種類提示して出身地を予測させた.その結果,出身地をキャラクターの外見に基づいて判断する場合と,マンガ・アニメに関する知識に基づいて判断する場合があると分かった.日本では「自然主義的リアリズム」と「まんが・アニメ的リアリズム」の二つがあり,その二つが作品の消費形態を規定するとされるが,フランスでも二つの読み取りが行われている(二つのリテラシーがある)ことが確認できた.This paper examines and investigates how Japanese animation is being interpreted in France. To this end, we focus on character iconography interpretation. We presented French students with ten types of characters and asked them to predict the fictional birth places of these characters. The results showed that the students came to their conclusions based on either the appearance of the characters or their knowledge of manga and anime. In Japan, "naturalistic realism" and "manga or anime-istic realism" are thought to define how works of art are consumed, and we identified these two forms of interpretation (literacies) in France.