著者
東 園子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.83, pp.31-45, 2013-07-31

Today, it is easy for ordinary people to widely disseminate their message and works over the Internet. Nevertheless, many people still disseminate information by paper media. For example, people known as otaku - fans of Japanese anime, manga, video games, etc. - often create fanzines binding manga and novels they produced themselves. They then sell these fanzines at events in Japan in which fanzines are sold. With the growth of the Internet, otaku also exhibit their works on the web. But many otaku, especially female otaku, still use paper media to publish their works. This paper considers the influences of electric media on paper media and the merits of using paper media as a tool for personal publications, by analyzing ways to use media in creative activities, and it also examines the female otaku's media awareness based on my research and interviews. Originally, fanzines created by otaku have four functions: publishing fan works, informing others about their creative activity, talking about one's favorite works and characters, and interacting with others who share the same interests. Events where trading fanzines takes place also have these four functions. As otaku use online tools for their creative activities, electric media have replaced paper media for informing others about their creative activity and discussing their favorite things. But paper media have advantages in publishing works and interacting with others. Paper media is more suitable for placing manga and treated better than electric media. By selling fanzines at events, otaku can enjoy face-to-face communication with others. They can also directly gauge the reader's response to their works. Works created by fans are provided free of charge on the Internet. On the other hand, fanzines are traded with money. The people I interviewed who create fanzines regard receiving payment for their works as a sign of appreciation for them. But readers enjoy their works without any cost on the web. So, creators of fanzines feel strongly that their readers should accept their works when they publish them by paper media rather than electric media. For these reasons, the creative female otaku I interviewed prefer paper media in this age of the rising Internet.
著者
谷本 奈穂 東 園子 猪俣 紀子 増田 のぞみ 山中 千恵
出版者
関西大学総合情報学部
雑誌
情報研究 : 関西大学総合情報学部紀要 (ISSN:1341156X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.37-50, 2013-08-10

本論は,日本アニメが海外でどのようにして読み取られるかについて,キャラクターの図像に焦点を当てながら考察するものである.具体的にはフランスの学生に対し,キャラクターを10種類提示して出身地を予測させた.その結果,出身地をキャラクターの外見に基づいて判断する場合と,マンガ・アニメに関する知識に基づいて判断する場合があると分かった.日本では「自然主義的リアリズム」と「まんが・アニメ的リアリズム」の二つがあり,その二つが作品の消費形態を規定するとされるが,フランスでも二つの読み取りが行われている(二つのリテラシーがある)ことが確認できた.This paper examines and investigates how Japanese animation is being interpreted in France. To this end, we focus on character iconography interpretation. We presented French students with ten types of characters and asked them to predict the fictional birth places of these characters. The results showed that the students came to their conclusions based on either the appearance of the characters or their knowledge of manga and anime. In Japan, “naturalistic realism” and “manga or anime-istic realism” are thought to define how works of art are consumed, and we identified these two forms of interpretation (literacies) in France.
著者
東 園子
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.91-107,145, 2006

This paper looks at female homosocial relationships, that is to say, the social bonds between women, by considering the meaning of the fact that the Takarazuka Revue is performed exclusively by women for fans who are mostly women as well. In male-dominated society where heterosexuality is compulsory, relations between women are either persecuted as homosexual relationships that go against heterosexuality, or they are perceived to be inferior to heterosexual relationships and regarded as trivial. Therefore, it is difficult to find representations of strong female homosocial bonds in society. To enable female homosociality, the influence of heterosexuality must be controlled. In the case of Takarazuka, there are two worlds of stories. One world is the stage, where the stories of love between women and men and of male friendship without sexual desire are played by "otoko-yaku" playing male roles and "musume-yaku" playing female roles who neither have sexual bodies. The other world is the backstage sphere open to fans through the media, where friendships within the Takarazuka company are emphasized within the framework of a girls school in which students are exempted from any of the obligations of heterosexuality. So, Takarazuka performers known as Takara-siennes have two faces. First, they are the "otoko-yaku" and "musume-yaku" on stage, and second, they are "students" in the backstage sphere, girls who are indifferent to heterosexuality. By superimposing the backstage sphere on the world on stage, through Takara-siennes who have duplicity, fans of Takarazuka can read the bonds of the performers backstage into heterosexual relations and the relations between the men they play on stage. Therefore, Takarazuka becomes an unusual sphere in which it is possible to have a realistic sense of female homosociality. Takarazuka shows us both the possibility of the representation of female homosociality, and the difficulty of representing it in elsewhere in the contemporary society.
著者
谷本 奈穂 東 園子 猪俣 紀子 増田 のぞみ 山中 千恵
出版者
関西大学総合情報学部
雑誌
情報研究 : 関西大学総合情報学部紀要 (ISSN:1341156X)
巻号頁・発行日
no.39, pp.37-50, 2013-08

本論は,日本アニメが海外でどのようにして読み取られるかについて,キャラクターの図像に焦点を当てながら考察するものである.具体的にはフランスの学生に対し,キャラクターを10種類提示して出身地を予測させた.その結果,出身地をキャラクターの外見に基づいて判断する場合と,マンガ・アニメに関する知識に基づいて判断する場合があると分かった.日本では「自然主義的リアリズム」と「まんが・アニメ的リアリズム」の二つがあり,その二つが作品の消費形態を規定するとされるが,フランスでも二つの読み取りが行われている(二つのリテラシーがある)ことが確認できた.This paper examines and investigates how Japanese animation is being interpreted in France. To this end, we focus on character iconography interpretation. We presented French students with ten types of characters and asked them to predict the fictional birth places of these characters. The results showed that the students came to their conclusions based on either the appearance of the characters or their knowledge of manga and anime. In Japan, "naturalistic realism" and "manga or anime-istic realism" are thought to define how works of art are consumed, and we identified these two forms of interpretation (literacies) in France.
著者
谷本 奈穂 東 園子 猪俣 紀子 AZUMA Sonoko 猪俣 紀子 INOMATA Noriko 増田 のぞみ MASUDA Nozomi 山中 千恵 YAMANAKA Chie
出版者
関西大学総合情報学部
雑誌
情報研究 : 関西大学総合情報学部紀要 (ISSN:1341156X)
巻号頁・発行日
no.39, pp.37-50, 2013-08

本論は,日本アニメが海外でどのようにして読み取られるかについて,キャラクターの図像に焦点を当てながら考察するものである.具体的にはフランスの学生に対し,キャラクターを10種類提示して出身地を予測させた.その結果,出身地をキャラクターの外見に基づいて判断する場合と,マンガ・アニメに関する知識に基づいて判断する場合があると分かった.日本では「自然主義的リアリズム」と「まんが・アニメ的リアリズム」の二つがあり,その二つが作品の消費形態を規定するとされるが,フランスでも二つの読み取りが行われている(二つのリテラシーがある)ことが確認できた.This paper examines and investigates how Japanese animation is being interpreted in France. To this end, we focus on character iconography interpretation. We presented French students with ten types of characters and asked them to predict the fictional birth places of these characters. The results showed that the students came to their conclusions based on either the appearance of the characters or their knowledge of manga and anime. In Japan, "naturalistic realism" and "manga or anime-istic realism" are thought to define how works of art are consumed, and we identified these two forms of interpretation (literacies) in France.