著者
菅波 盛雄 川村 禎三 石島 繁 井浦 吉彦 浅見 高明
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.21-31, 1982-10-30 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
9

It is a common knowledge that the motion of the head plays an important role in applying the Judo throwing techniques. It greatly influences the retention of the posture in the process of the applying the techniques, and also affects the making full use of the power which is needed in the throwing.In this study, we regard the motion of the head, the shoulders, and the hip, which affect very much the throwing, as the rotary motion against the median line; and we try to explain in what way the head, the shoulders, and the hip move and how thiw rotary motion affects the motion of the head in the throwing.The following results was obtained.1) It was observed that in the case of well-trained the body had turned round before the head began to turn at the completion of “Taisabaki” (body turning) and the motion of the head was restrained; but in the case of middle-trained and untrained, the head had turned round before the shoulders at the completion of “Taisabaki” (body turning).2) In the phase of “Kake” (attack) of well-trained, the head turned round at a time, and a angle difference could be observed between the head, the shoulders and the hip; i. e. the head had turned first, the followed the shoulders, and the hip: and this angle difference between the head and the body was smaller than the case of middletrained and untrained. Therefore we could say that the head, the shoulders, and the hip co-ordinated well in this case. But in the case of middle-trained and untrained the angle difference which was observed at the completion of “Taisabaki” (body turning)continued, and it became even larger than it was at the completion of “Taisabaki”(body turning). So in the case of middle-trained and untrained, it was observed that only the head turned round too much in the throwing.3) In the case of middle-trained and untrained, it was observed at the phase of “Kake”(attack) that the position of the hip was too high, so therefore the direction of “Hikite”(pulling hand) was not correct, and “Tsurite” (lifting hand) did not work well, so that the motion of the shoulders was restricted. The motion of the shoulders is important to the effective motion of the head. This motion of the shoulders is influenced by the correct position of the hip and the correct direction of “Hikite” (pulling hand)and the correct way of “Tsurite” (lifting hand).
著者
浅見 高明 石島 繁 種谷 明美
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム学会誌
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.35-46, 1983
被引用文献数
3

本研究は、大学競技選手の意識的、機能的・側優位性(利き側)を二種類の研究手段で考察しようとした。その第一は、アンケート調査による方法で、筑波大学体育専門学群の競技選手443名の利き手、利き足、利き体側、利き目の調査をした。第二は、そのうちの男子320名について運動機能テストを実施したものである。調査カードは手・足・体側・目の優位側を50項目についてきくものである。また運動機能テストは、1)握力、2)腕力、3)タッピング、4)針糸通し、5)狙準検査、6)脚力、7)閉眼棒上片足立、8)ステッピング、9)丸鉛筆拾い、10)体捻転の10種目である。そして14種目の競技選手について10項目の運動機能テストの平均値を比較検討した。(1)アンケート調査の結果は次のようである。利き手意識に関する競技者自身の判定は、右手利き者92.3%、左手利き者7.O%であった。利き足については、右足利き者61.6%、片足利き者30.7%であった。利き体側については右体側利き者38.6%、左体側利き者49.0%であった。利き目については右目利き者68.6%、左目利き者29.8%であった。利き手、利き足、利き体側、利き目の組合せをみると、R-R-L-Rが19.7%、R-R-R-Rが18.0%、R-L-L-Rが10.8%、R-R-L-Lが9.2%であった。調査項目のうち、「ボールや小石をける時に使う足」によって器用足を、r走幅跳のふみきり足」によって支持足を判定し、左右足の組合せを作った結果、陸上競技、水泳の選手では器用足、支持足ともに右の者と、器用足は右で支持足は左というように機能の分化した者が半数ずつ居るのに対して、球技、武道、体操競技選手では緒用足は右、支持足は左という者が65%以上を山めていた。(2)連動機能テストの結果は次のようである。握力については、ハンドホール、投擲、水泳選手が右手優位を示した。腕力については投擲、剣道、ハンドボール選手が右手優位を示した。タッピングについては、ハンドボール、投擲、跳躍選手が右手優位を示した。針糸通しについては、投擲、ラグビー、剣道選手が右手優位、狙準検査については、水泳、体操競技、中・長距離選手が右手優位をホした。脚力、閉眼棒上片足立、ステッピング、丸鉛筆拾いについては、スポーツ種目間の平均値の差を分散分析によって検討したところ、グループ内の個人差に起因する変動が大きくて有意水準に達しなかった。つまり、足の機能の差は、スポーツ種目の運動特性をみるためには不十分であったと結論される。体捻転については、柔道、バスケットボール、野球選手が左側優位を示した。
著者
結城 匡啓 阿江 通良 浅見 高明
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.111-121, 1992-05-20 (Released:2016-12-05)
被引用文献数
6

Many researchers have attempted to measure the change in velocity of the center of gravity (CG) for speed skaters in stroking. However, there have been some difficulties in measuring the velocity change in speed skating; they include the very long stride length (about 10m) and the three-dimensional behavior of the skater's CG. The purposes of this study were to investigate the push-off technique for top-level Japanese speed skaters and the change in velocity during the push-off phase using 3D cinematography, and then to examine acceleration theory during the push-off phase in speed skating. Skaters participating in the 500m race of the All Japan student championship (1989) were videotaped (60 fields/s) by 10 VTR cameras over 20m at the crossing zone of the back straightaway. Twenty-two male skaters were selected as subjects and classified into two groups on the basis of the performance of the competition. 3D coordinates of the segment endpoints were obtained on five sub-areas (each 4m in length) using a DLT method. Displacement and velocity of the CG and the angles of the hip, knee and ankle joint were calculated. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) Push-off movement for the top group skaters placed the CG further forward than that of the second group. 2) The vector derived from the push-off movement for the top group skaters was directed forward, and accelerated the CG of the skaters effectively. 3) Increase in the velocity in skating direction for all subjects seemed to contribute more than expected to the acceleration of the CG. It has been proposed that acceleration in speed skating occurs by push-off of the leg in a direction perpendicular to the gliding direction of the skate, since the force applied to the opposite direction of gliding cannot contribute to acceleration of the CG due to very small frictional force. However, this theory cannot thoroughly explain the findings obtained for the top skaters in this investigation. Therefore, the acceleration theory should be modified to reflect the fact that the CG of the skater during speed skating is accelerated not only by the push-off perpendicular to the gliding direction but also by an increase in velocity vector in a gliding direction.
著者
木塚 朝博 浅見 高明 谷井 克則
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.173-183, 1994-08-10 (Released:2016-12-05)
参考文献数
25

Previous studies showed that three reflex EMG responses were recorded from the stretched muscle, when the wrist flexors were stretched by sudden angular displacements of the wrist joint in the extension direction. The first response, with short latency is called the M1 component and is thought to be a monosynaptic spinal reflex. The second and third responses, with long latency, are labelled M2 and M3 components and are assumed to be transcortical reflexes. It has been reported, however, that the M3 component is not reliable in occurrence. The amplitudes of reflex components are known to be modified by voluntary movement. Premotor time (PMT) in the reaction time movement is not studied in relation to aspects of the reflex EMG responses including long latency components. The present study was performed in order to investigate whether the PMT under conditions of stretch stimulus (SS-PMT) differs from that under conditions of light stimulus (LS-PMT) and touch stimulus (TS-PMT), and how the PMTs are related to the aspects of the appearance of the reflex EMG responses. Nineteen healthy males, ranging in age from 21 to 28, participated in this study. The DC torque motor was used to evoke the reflex EMG activities of the wrist flexors. The results are summarized as follows: 1) In all subjects SS-PMT was significantly shorter than TS- and LS-PMT. The results suggest that input from the muscle spindle to cerebral cortex shortened the PMT. 2) The short and long latency reflex components appeared preceding the voluntary EMG burst. The latency of M1, M2, and M3 was 19.1ms, 49.2ms, and 71.7ms, respectively. 3) The subjects were classified into three groups (A, B, C) according to the presence or absence of reflex components (M1, M2, M3) and these EMG amplitudes. SS-, TS- and LS-PMTs in group A were significantly shorter than the PMTs in group B, and each PMT in group B was significantly shorter than in the group C. 4) In group A the amplitude of M2 was significantly higher than the M1 amplitude. The M3 component was not identified, since the M2 component was followed by voluntary EMG burst. In group B the M2 amplitude was significantly higher than the M1, and the M3 amplitude appearing before the voluntary EMG burst was significantly smaller than the M2 amplitude. In group C the amplitudes of M1, M2, and M3 were larger in that order. These results suggest that the PMT is related to the presence or absence of the long latency components and those amplitudes.
著者
菅波 盛雄 川村 禎三 石島 繁 井浦 吉彦 浅見 高明
出版者
Japanese Academy of Budo
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.21-31, 1982

It is a common knowledge that the motion of the head plays an important role in applying the Judo throwing techniques. It greatly influences the retention of the posture in the process of the applying the techniques, and also affects the making full use of the power which is needed in the throwing.<br>In this study, we regard the motion of the head, the shoulders, and the hip, which affect very much the throwing, as the rotary motion against the median line; and we try to explain in what way the head, the shoulders, and the hip move and how thiw rotary motion affects the motion of the head in the throwing.<br>The following results was obtained.<br>1) It was observed that in the case of well-trained the body had turned round before the head began to turn at the completion of &ldquo;Taisabaki&rdquo; (body turning) and the motion of the head was restrained; but in the case of middle-trained and untrained, the head had turned round before the shoulders at the completion of &ldquo;Taisabaki&rdquo; (body turning).<br>2) In the phase of &ldquo;Kake&rdquo; (attack) of well-trained, the head turned round at a time, and a angle difference could be observed between the head, the shoulders and the hip; i. e. the head had turned first, the followed the shoulders, and the hip: and this angle difference between the head and the body was smaller than the case of middletrained and untrained. Therefore we could say that the head, the shoulders, and the hip co-ordinated well in this case. But in the case of middle-trained and untrained the angle difference which was observed at the completion of &ldquo;Taisabaki&rdquo; (body turning)continued, and it became even larger than it was at the completion of &ldquo;Taisabaki&rdquo;(body turning). So in the case of middle-trained and untrained, it was observed that only the head turned round too much in the throwing.<br>3) In the case of middle-trained and untrained, it was observed at the phase of &ldquo;Kake&rdquo;(attack) that the position of the hip was too high, so therefore the direction of &ldquo;Hikite&rdquo;(pulling hand) was not correct, and &ldquo;Tsurite&rdquo; (lifting hand) did not work well, so that the motion of the shoulders was restricted. The motion of the shoulders is important to the effective motion of the head. This motion of the shoulders is influenced by the correct position of the hip and the correct direction of &ldquo;Hikite&rdquo; (pulling hand)and the correct way of &ldquo;Tsurite&rdquo; (lifting hand).
著者
坂東 隆男 浅見 高明 川村 禎三
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.27-36, 1984-02-29 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
34

The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics and relationship between somatotype and standing posture in Judoists and Kendoists. In this study the 245 male athletes from 15 sports events at the University of Tsukuba were classified as to their body type by the Heath Carter somatotype method. And measurement was taken of the spine curvatures, the difference of bi-acromion height, the weight distribution between right and left foot and the location of center of gravity in anterior posterior axis of foot.The results were as follows:1. The characteristics in somatotype of Judoists showed large mesomorphic and endomorphic components. The somatotype of Kendoists showed resemblance to that of Soccer and Tennis player.2. The intensified dorsal curvature was one of the characteristics in Judoists' posture. Kendoists had a tendency to be inclined backward in head and neck position.3. Judoists who showed endomorphic mesomorph type had a tendency to be inclined backward in their upper bodies. And Kendoists who showed ectomorphic mesomorph type had a tendency to shift their weight forward.
著者
浅見 高明
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム学会誌 (ISSN:02850885)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.41-42, 1988-05-01