著者
平山 大作 藤井 範久 小池 関也 阿江 通良
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.225-232, 2010 (Released:2010-05-27)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes on mechanical work of the lower limb joints during baseball pitching in a simulated game. One male college baseball pitcher threw 15 pitches in an inning for 9 innings (135 pitches) in an indoor pitcher's mound with two force platforms. Rest time between innings was 6 minutes. Three-dimensional positions of 47 reflective markers attached to subject were tracked by an optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion System 612, Vicon Motion Systems) with eight cameras (250Hz). For subject 75 fastball pitches (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th innings) were chosen for analysis.As the main results, the hip joint extension absolute and negative work of the stride leg decreased with increasing the number of pitches. The ankle joint extension absolute and negative work of the stride leg increased with increasing the number of pitches. These results suggest that the hip joint extension torque of the stride leg was needed to maintain for higher performance in baseball pitching.
著者
平山 大作 藤井 範久 阿江 通良 小池 関也
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.91-102, 2008 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
6

本研究は, 大学野球投手を対象とし, 投球数の増加にともなうキネティクスの変化について検討することを目的とした. 実験試技は, 2台のフォースプラットフォームを埋設した簡易マウンドからストレートを投球するものであった. 被験者には, 10秒間隔で15球投げることを1イニングとし, イニング間に6分の休息をはさみながら9イニング, 計135球の投球を行わせた. 投球数とそれぞれのパラメータから単回帰分析を行い, 回帰係数の有意性について検定を行った (p<0.05). その結果, 投球数の増加にともない, ①踏込脚の股関節伸展の正仕事, 負仕事, 絶対仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ②投球腕の肩関節内旋の正仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ③投球腕への関節力による力学的エネルギーの流れの減少がみられた. ④投球腕の肩関節水平内転の正仕事および絶対仕事が増加する傾向がみられた. 以上のことから, 踏込脚の股関節伸展の仕事の減少は, 下肢のトレーニングの重要性を示唆するものであり, 投球腕の肩関節水平内転の仕事の増加は, “上肢動作に頼った投球動作” を示すものであると考えられる.
著者
湯 海鵬 阿江 通良
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.73-84, 1994
被引用文献数
2

This study was designed to analyze the jumping forehand smash of elite players based on three-dimensional kinematic data, and to gain insight into the basic badminton smash technique. Jumping smashes of four male elite players were filmed with two high-speed cameras operating at 250Hz with exposure times of 1/1500 and 1/1250 s. Nine jumping smashes were selected for the analysis, and were digitized from the take-off of the jump to the end of the swing in the air. Thirty three-dimensional coordinates for the segment endpoints and racket were computed by a Direct Linear Transformation Method. Small reference poles were fixed to the forearms of the swing arms of the subjects to detect the movements of the radio-ulnar joint and wrist joint. The following six joint angle changes were obtained throughout the smash motion. (a) abduction/adduction angle at the shoulder joint; (b) internal rotation/external rotation angle at the shoulder joint; (c) flexion/extension angle at the elbow joint; (d) pronation/supination angle at the radio-ulnar joint; (e) radial flexion/ulnar flexion angle at the wrist joint; (f) palmar flexion/dorsiflexion angle at the wrist joint. The results showed that internal rotation of the shoulder joint, extension of the elbow joint, and pronation of the radio-ulnar joint seemed to contribute to produce great velocities of the racket head, because the three rotations occurred over the greatest range in the shortest time in the six rotations immediately before contact with the shuttle. Preliminary to the three motions were motions in the opposite direction: external rotation of the shoulder, flexion of the elbow, and supination of the forearm were detected. These motions in the opposite direction would be useful to extend the range of the motion in each joint angle. The results also appeared to be related to intrinsic muscle properties, that greater power can be exerted by the stretching-shortening cycle of the muscles. The time of the last joint rotation starting immediately before contact was in the order of decreasing inertia. Times required for the rotation until contact became shorter in order of occurrence. The faster the rotation was, the later it occurred, and the shorter was the rotation time. This kind of chain and continuous movement of different joints, and different freedom with the same joint, may accelerate the racket head efficiently. The averages of elbow angle and racket angle (the angle between the forearm and racket shaft) were 160.0°and 147.0°at contact, respectively the values may be the suitable choices between the contact height and contact speed in practical play.
著者
森丘 保典 杉田 正明 松尾 彰文 岡田 英孝 阿江 通良 小林 寛道
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.3, pp.414-421, 2000-05-10 (Released:2017-09-27)

This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between features of change in velocity and performance of world class athletes in the men's 400-m hurdle race(400mH).Nine final races of 400mH were videotaped with several video cameras panning from the start to the finish at 60 fields/s.After the time indication had been superimposed on each field of the VTR images, the time at touchdown immediately after hurdling was obtained.Using the flash of the starter's gun recorded on the VTR image, each hurdle touchdown time from the start, and each section thme(from each hurdle to the next)was obtained.The results of regression analysis showed a significantly high correlation (r=0.90, p<0.001)between 400mH performance and mean section velocity from the 5th to the 8th hurdle(H5-8), and a significant correlation(r=-0.61, p<0.05)between 400mH performance and te rate of deceleration in H5-8.These results indicate that in 400mH it is important to avoid decreasing velocity and to maintain a high velocity in H5-8 of the race in order to attain a high performance.
著者
阿江 数通 小池 関也 藤井 範久 阿江 通良 川村 卓 金堀 哲也
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.559-574, 2017 (Released:2017-12-19)
参考文献数
46

The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematic characteristics of the upper body between baseball tee batting and pitched ball batting in order to gain basic knowledge for improvement of batting skill. Ten male collegiate baseball players (age: 20.7±1.1 yr; height: 1.75±0.05 m; body mass: 76.3±7.1 kg; athletic career: 12.7±2.7 yr) participated. They performed 2 kinds of batting: tee batting (TB) and machine-pitch batting (MB) using a pitching machine (approximate ball speed 33.3 m/s), which were set at middle ball height for the strike zone. Three-dimensional coordinate data were acquired with a motion capture system. Kinematic variables such as maximum bat-head speed, swing time, bat angle, joint angles of the upper limbs, and segment angle of the upper trunk were calculated. Differences between TB and MB were analyzed statistically using paired t-test (p<0.05). The maximum bat-head speed was significantly greater in TB than in MB, but swing times divided into 2 phases showed no significant differences between MB and TB. In the first half of the swing, the bat inclination angle was significantly larger in MB than in TB. The joint angles of the barrel-side shoulder abduction, knob-side shoulder adduction and internal rotation were significantly larger in MB than in TB, and those of the barrel-side shoulder internal rotation and individual elbow pronations were significantly larger in TB than in MB. The clockwise rotational angle of the upper trunk was significantly larger in TB than in MB. In the last half of the swing, the joint angles of the barrel-side shoulder abduction, knob-side shoulder flexion and adduction were significantly larger in MB than in TB, and that of the knob-side elbow pronation was significantly larger in TB than in MB. The changes in upper body movement in MB affected the radius of rotation of the bat about the vertical axis to control the bat easily. The movements in the last half of the swing largely resulted from those in the first half of the swing, and did not contribute to timing adjustment. These results indicate that the initial configuration of the bat and upper limbs, and movements at the beginning of the bat swing contribute to the timing adjustment of the bat for a pitched ball. The results of the present study suggest that it could be useful to pay attention to the movement of the bat and upper body in the first half of the swing as TB practice in order to improve timing adjustment.
著者
阿江 通良 湯 海鵬 横井 孝志
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.23-33, 1992-05-20 (Released:2016-12-05)
被引用文献数
131 170

Inertia properties of the body segments such as segment mass, location of the center of mass, and moment of inertia can be measured and predicted in a number of ingenious approaches. They can be classified into a) direct measurements on cadavers, b) indirect measurements on living subjects, and c) mathematical modelling. However, there is little information upon which complete inertial estimates for Japanese people, especially male and female athletes, can be based. The purposes of this study were to determine the mass, center of mass location, and moments of inertia of the body segments for Japanese male and female athletes using a mathematical modelling approach, and to develop a set of regression equations to estimate inertia properties of body segments using simple anthropometric measurements as predictors. Subjects were 215 male and 80 female athletes belonging to various college sport clubs. Each subject, wearing swimming suit and cap, was stereo-photographed in a standing position. Ten body segments including the upper and lower torso were modelled to be a system of elliptical zones 2cm thick based on Jensen and Yokoi et al. Significant prediction equations based on body height, body weight, and segment lengths were then sought, and some prediction strategies were examined. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) Table 2 provides a summary of mass ratios, center of mass location ratios and radius of gyration ratios for males and females. There were many significant differences in body segment parameters between the two sexes. This suggests the need to develop different prediction equations for males and females. 2) Close relationships were noted between segment masses and segment lengths and body weight as predictors for all body segments. Table 5 provides coefficients of multiple regression equations to predict segment masses. 3) No close relationship was noted between independent variables and estimates of the center of mass location. This indicates that the variance in the center of mass location in proportion to the segment length was very small, and that location of centers of mass could be estimated by the mean ratio provided in Table 2. 4) Close relationships were noted between segment moments of inertia and segment lengths (except hand and foot), and body weight as predictors. Tables 6 and 7 provide coefficients of multiple regression equations to predict segment moments of inertia from segment lengths and body weight.
著者
阿江 通良 宮下 憲 飯干 明
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.105-113, 1988
被引用文献数
3

The purposes of this study were to analyze energy flows between lower limb segments during a cycle of sprinting and to clarify the characteristics of two different running motions, starting dash and sprinting at a constant speed, by comparing their energy flows. Three male sprinters dashed 20m and ran 100m giving their full effort. They were filmed at the 1-step and 5-step points after the start and at the 80m mark of the 100m sprint with a motion-picture camera. Ground reaction force data were simultaneously sampled at 500Hz. Digitized x and y coordinates of the body marks were smoothed by a digital filter cutting off at 8Hz for the start dash and 10Hz for sprinting. A 14-segment link modelling was used to compute linear and angular kinematics, joint forces, and net muscle moments. Joint force and muscle moment powers (abbreviated JP and MP) were computed as defined by Robertson and Winter (1980). Analysis and comparison of energy flow in a starting dash and sprinting at a constant speed revealed that: 1) Magnitude of energy flow by JP was much greater than that of MP in sprinting, while the difference in power level of JP and MP was less 1 step after the start. 2) In the early recovery period of sprinting, energy in the lower limb flowed from the trunk toward the foot, and it flowed in the reverse direction in the late recovery period. In the support period, the muscles at the ankle and knee joints absorbed most of the energy. Energy flowed from the trunk and thigh to the shank in the first half of the support period, and from the foot to the shank and from the trunk to the shank through the thigh in the second half. 3) In the recovery period of the starting dash energy flowed in the same manner as in sprinting. However, in the support period, the energy flowed from the foot to the thigh and the trunk. Notable was energy flow from the opposite thigh (i.e., the recovery thigh) to the trunk. From the viewpoint of energy flow patterns in the lower limb, a starting dash may be characterized as the running motion that accumulates as much mechanical energy in the trunk as possible through the generation of energy by the knee joint muscles and the transfer of energy to the trunk from the leg, especially the opposite leg at the support stage. Sprinting at constant speed may be characterized as the running motion to redistribute the energy between the body segments and the trunk with the minimum loss of energy.
著者
伊藤 章 小林 寛道 阿江 通良 飯干 明 藤井 範久 榎本 靖士 深代 千之 杉田 正明
出版者
大阪体育大学
雑誌
基盤研究(A)
巻号頁・発行日
2006

第11回世界陸上競技選手権大会(大阪,2007)に出場した各種種目の世界一流選手と日本選手の動作分析とタイム分析をおこなった.これらの分析結果とこれまで蓄積してきたデータとを比較し,今回出場した世界一流選手たちの技術の特徴を明らかにするとともに,日本選手の技術の長所や改善すべき点を洗い出すことが出来た.多くのデータを収集できた種目に関しては,記録との相関関係をもとに普遍的ともいえる合理的技術を示すことが出来た.
著者
平山 大作 藤井 範久 阿江 通良 小池 関也
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.91-102, 2008

<p>本研究は, 大学野球投手を対象とし, 投球数の増加にともなうキネティクスの変化について検討することを目的とした. 実験試技は, 2台のフォースプラットフォームを埋設した簡易マウンドからストレートを投球するものであった. 被験者には, 10秒間隔で15球投げることを1イニングとし, イニング間に6分の休息をはさみながら9イニング, 計135球の投球を行わせた. 投球数とそれぞれのパラメータから単回帰分析を行い, 回帰係数の有意性について検定を行った (p<0.05). その結果, 投球数の増加にともない, ①踏込脚の股関節伸展の正仕事, 負仕事, 絶対仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ②投球腕の肩関節内旋の正仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ③投球腕への関節力による力学的エネルギーの流れの減少がみられた. ④投球腕の肩関節水平内転の正仕事および絶対仕事が増加する傾向がみられた. 以上のことから, 踏込脚の股関節伸展の仕事の減少は, 下肢のトレーニングの重要性を示唆するものであり, 投球腕の肩関節水平内転の仕事の増加は, "上肢動作に頼った投球動作" を示すものであると考えられる.</p>
著者
小林 育斗 阿江 通良 加藤 謙一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, pp.158_2, 2017

<p> 本研究では、小学生の投動作をクラスター分析によって類型化するとともに、標準動作モデルを用いた投動作の練習を実施し、その効果を投動作の類型別に検討して、指導のための知見を得ることを目的とした。投動作の類型化では、6年生女子40名のソフトボール投げを3次元動作分析し、投球腕の関節角度などについて標準動作モデルからの動作逸脱度の指標(zスコア)を求め、これを変数としてクラスター分析を行った。投動作の練習では、6年生女子15名に対し、投動作の標準動作モデルの提示や画像遅延表示システムを用いた小学生自身の動作の観察を含む投練習を計4回(各40分)行わせた。練習期間の前後において投動作を3次元動作分析した。投練習によって、女子全体では投距離とボール初速度は有意に増加した。標準動作モデルからの逸脱が大きい類型では、体幹の側屈や前方回転が改善され、肩関節まわりの力学的仕事が増大し、投距離とボール初速度が増加した。このことから、本研究で用いた方法(目標とすべき動作との比較や修正)は、特に標準動作モデルからの逸脱が大きい小学生に投動作の改善と投能力の向上をもたらすと言える。</p>
著者
宮西 智久 宮永 豊 福林 徹 馬見塚 尚孝 藤井 範久 阿江 通良 功力 靖雄 岡田 守彦
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.5, pp.583-595, 1999-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
2 2

This study was designed to clarify the causes of throwing injuries of the elbow and shoulder joints in baseball. Five varsity-skilled baseball players without pain in the elbow and shoulder joints were subjects for this study. They were fixed to a chair and asked to throw a baseball using three different throwing arm movements (T0, T45, and T90) . These movements were filmed using three-dimensional DLT videography. Linked rigid-body segment inverse dynamics were then employed to determine resultant joint force and torque at the elbow and shoulder joints. Peak varus torque at the elbow joint for T90 was less than for the other movements during the acceleration phase. In the follow-through phase, however, a large anterior shear force (70 N) at the elbow, for elbow extension, was present for T90. These results indicate that T90 was a high risk movement which leads to extension injuries rather than medial tension injuries. After the ball release, a large superior shear force (118 N) at the shoulder joint was present in all movements. This superior force may result from the subacromial impingement syndrome, except for critical zones of impingement caused by the different throwing arm movements. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of throwing arm injuries are closely related to differences in throwing arm movements.
著者
小林 育斗 加藤 謙一 阿江 通良
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, pp.216_1, 2019

<p> 本研究では小学生男子の投動作をクラスター分析によってパターン分けし、そのバイオメカニクス的特徴を明らかにして、指導のための基礎的知見を得ることを目的とした。対象者は国公立小学校2校の男子とし、1年生18名、2年生13名、3年生16名、4年生13名、5年生18名、6年生16名、計94名のソフトボール投げを3次元動作分析し、投球腕の関節角度、体幹の部分角度などを算出した。さらに、関節角度および部分角度を変数としてクラスター分析をおこない、各群の平均的な動作を構築した。各学年の投距離では、1年生は7.4±2.6m、2年生は13.0±6.6m、3年生は14.6±3.9m、4年生は18.9±7.4m、5年生は17.2±4.5m、6年生は28.3±7.7mであった。動作パターンに分けられた各群をみると、平均投距離が大きい群ほど高学年児が多く存在する傾向にあり、平均投距離が小さい群では体幹の水平回転の動作範囲が小さい、リリース直前での肩の水平内転が大きいなどの特徴がみられた。また、平均投距離が小さい群には、低学年児だけでなく高学年児も存在した。このことから、小学生の投動作を指導する際には、児童の学年とともに動きのパターンも考慮する必要がある。</p>