著者
舞田 敏彦
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.165-184[含 英語文要旨], 2008

Children's academic achievements differ by social class. Today, many researchers investigate schools that effectively reduce these differences. They have pointed out that in schools that are successful in this endeavor, there are many practices aimed at raising the academic achievements of children from lower classes. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the effects of these practices from the viewpoint of added value. This study aims to compare the actual achievement levels of children of each region with those estimated based on their socio-economic conditions and to clarify the educational conditions in the regions in which the actual levels are higher than expectations. For my method, I analyzed the data of academic achievement tests. I clarified children's achievement levels in 49 cities and wards in the Tokyo metropolitan area and in school districts in Adachi Ward (73 primary school districts, 38 junior high school districts). I examined the relations between the achievement levels and the socio-economic conditions of each region. Using this data, I estimated achievement levels using regression analysis. Regions were then divided into types by comparing the expected levels and actual ones. I named regions whose achievement levels were higher than expected "Effort types." The opposites are named, "Problem types." I then investigated the differences of educational conditions between these two types. It was found that in Effort types, the numbers of children per school, class and teacher are relatively small. School size, class size and teacher's burden are small in these regions. In Problem types, they are relatively large. These differences are significant in the data from school districts in Adachi Ward. Based on the findings, I concluded as follows: 1. The influence of social background on children's academic achievement can be reduced by the improvement of educational conditions such as reducing class size, which is the task of educational administrations. 2. The improvement of educational conditions is less effective for raising the absolute level of academic achievement. It is effective for the reduction of the social determinants of children's academic abilities. 3. Evaluations of schools from the viewpoint of added value are needed.
著者
浜井 浩一
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.143-162[含 英語文要旨], 2007

Although Japan traditionally enjoyed a reputation for being one of the most crime-free economically advanced countries in the world, since the late 1990s its crime rates have increased and clear up rate have dropped. It now appears that the Japanese public has lost confidence in the effectiveness of the criminal justice system and is more anxious about safety. The Japanese public now believes that young offenders are becoming increasingly violent and that more and more adolescents are committing serious offenses. This view stems from a belief that there has been a breakdown in family life and that as a consequence, young people have become more amoral. In response, the Japanese government is trying to overhaul the national education curriculum, with a major focus on imposing and improving public morality. However, a careful examination of crime statistics shows that the perception of ever-increasing youth crime is groundless. There has been no decline in the age of youngest offenders. On the contrary, the average age of young offenders has risen, partly because the job market for young people, especially those without skills and/or a high school diploma, has become tight. The delinquency rate in Japan used to peak at age of 15 and then drop sharply. Most juvenile delinquents had ceased to offend by the age of 20. There is a large gap between what the public believes about youth offenses and the reality. The measures adopted by the government to prevent youth offenses, mainly focusing on morality, are based on a kind of stereotypical young offender. If the government continues to ignore the real problem, i. e., the shrinking job market for unskilled young people, it will create a self-fulfilling prophecy of future violent offenses by young people.
著者
牧野 智和
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.129-146, 2006

The purpose of this study is to examine the feelings of "uneasiness" that have become the dominant image where we consider the issue of juvenile crime, and which became the driving force for the enactment of various ordinances. The material used for this examination is reports of the juvenile crimes in the pseudo-environment that mediates the holding of this image, that is, in the mass media. Concretely, the analysis and consideration were done based on reports on juvenile homicides in "Asahi Shimbun" in the postwar period. As a result, the following tendencies in recent years have been extracted as a symptom that people have come to feel uneasiness. 1) The number of juveniles arrested on charges of homicide in recent years is low compared with the peak in the 1950s and 1960s. However, newspaper reports on homicides have become much more numerous since 1997. This made people widely aware of crimes by "ordinary children," and it appears that this is related to the uneasiness people feel that they or their children might be victims of juvenile crime or that their child might become an assailant. 2) In recent years, the malicious nature and cruelty of assailants is often reported along with the tendency to focus on "psychological problems" (kokoro no yami) in the articles. As a result, assailants and their parents and teachers have been subjected to criticism that did not exist in the past. 3) From the same focus on "psychology," references to "child-rearing" and "educational methods" have been made from a professional viewpoint by specialists in psychology. As a result, everyday life, which was once self-evident, has come under questioning. Moreover, the usage of psychological terms in recent years has been used not only to label assailants as abnormal, but also to make parents and teachers reflexively think, "Is your child OK?" It was thought that the rise of uneasiness is related to these psychological references that destroy the self-evidence of everyday life of parents and teachers.
著者
内田 良
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, pp.201-221[含 英語文要旨], 2010

本稿の目的は,「リスク」の理論と分析手法を用いて,学校管理下における各種事故の「実在」,とくに事故の発生確率を比較することから,学校安全に関する今日的な「認知」のあり方を批判的に検討し,エビデンスにもとづいた学校安全施策を提唱することである。今日,学校安全の名のもと不審者対策に多くの資源が投入されている。いっぽう,学校における多種多様な事故を広く見渡して,事故の発生件数や確率を調べようとする試みは少ない。そこで本稿では多義的なリスク概念を手がかりに,次のように分析を進めた。まず社会学のリスク論から,リスクは社会的に構築されるという視点を得た。事故は「認知」に左右される。次に自然科学の方法から,事故の「実在」に注目して各種死亡事故の発生確率を算出した。その結果不審者犯罪よりも発生確率が高い事故が多くあることが明らかとなった。学校事故の特殊性は,管理するという「決定」に,多くの主体(国,自治体学校,保護者,地域住民)が容易に関与できる点である。このとき,「決定」はリスクをめぐるコミュニケーションを活性化させ,リスクに対する人びとの認知を敏感にさせていく。本稿が提唱したいのは,危機感が増幅し始めた早い段階においてエビデンスが参照されることである。事故を管理しようとする意志が多くの主体に増幅していく前に,「決定」の大きな権力を有する教育行政が,エビデンスにもとづいた「決定」をなすべきである。
著者
木村 祐子 Yuko KIMURA お茶の水女子大学大学院 Graduate School Ochanomizu University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.5-24, 2006-12-10

Since the later half of the 1990s, lack of adaptability of children to the educational setting has been explained through the new medical category of "developmental disabilities." In this paper, medical intervention is conceived of as "medicalization," and the educational setting is focused on and inspected. In particular, the paper focuses on "developmental disabilities" as a medical diagnosis characterized by uncertainty, situational dependence and feelings of resistance toward labeling, and clarifies how these characteristics are interpreted in the educational setting. Section 1 reviews previous studies that look critically at the elements of medicalization, pointing out the characteristics and problems of "developmental disabilities" as medicalization. (1) The elements of "developmental disabilities" are vague despite the fact that they are medical concepts, and consequently there is a lack of scientific grounds, standardized tests and treatment. This enables interpretation by a diverse range of knowledge. (2) These disabilities function as a form of "risk management." This study dynamically analyzes how these medical diagnoses are interpreted in the educational setting, with the aim to approach the reality of medicalization. Section 2 summarizes the research method which was used in the interview research of nine teachers. Section 3 examines medicalization in children, first from the viewpoint of responsibility and the role and position of children. The viewpoint of medical treatment has made rapid advances through the intervention of institutionalized medicine. Medical labeling exempts parents and teachers from responsibility, based on the assumption that the problem is a "disability." In this way, the children are obliged to play the "sick role." Parents and teachers sometimes display feelings of rejection or resistance toward medical labeling. In addition, uncertainty regarding the cause of the "developmental disability" creates difficulties in medical practice. However, the feelings of rejection and the medical uncertainty can be minimized by medical practice and interpretation in the educational setting.
著者
山田 哲也 長谷川 裕
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, pp.39-58[含 英語文要旨], 2010

学校への不信を背景に導入された近年の教員政策は,(1)教員の権威のゆらぎと,(2)職場同僚関係の変化を促す方向で展開してきた。本論文は,教員文化論の視角から質問紙調査データを分析し,(1)(2)を含む教員世界の変化の中で,教員の職業上のアイデンティティ(教職アイデンティティ)とその確保戦略としての教員文化がどうあるのかの把握を試みた。分析で明らかになった知見は以下の3点である。第一に,国際比較データを分析すると,いずれの国でも教職アイデンティティに教員としての成功感覚に裏打ちされた「安定」層と,教職上の困難による教育行為・教職観の揺らぎを意味する「攪乱」層の二層があることが明らかになった。第二に,他国とは異なり,日本の教員は上記の二層のそれぞれと結びつくことがらを相対的に切り離されたものと捉え,教職上の諸困難に直面する際にその一定部分を自分自身では対処不可能と見なすことで「安定」の動揺を回避する「二元化戦略」によって教職アイデンティティを維持していた。第三に,異なる時期に実施した調査結果を比較したところ,上記の教員世界の変化が,献身的教師像と求心的な関係構造が結びつくことで教職アイデンティティを維持していた従来の教員文化が衰退するなかで生じていることが示唆された。これらの知見を踏まえ,論文の末尾では,教員世界の個別化・自閉化や現状追認志向を回避するためには教員世界の外部に学校を開くことが重要であり,そのためにも不信を基調とした教員政策を再考する必要があると結論づけた。
著者
大滝 世津子
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.105-125, 2006

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the formation of groups in kindergarten and the process of gender identification by children through their kindergarten life. In the field of sociology of education in Japan, there have been some studies on the process of gender identification. However, they have focused on the intensification process of gender categories, but tended to ignore the trigger that leads children to recognize their own "correct" gender, and how they do so. The author observed this process at a private kindergarten in Kanagawa, Japan, from April to October 2005. The author observed 31 children, aged from three to four years old, in two classes. The author carried out a pseudo-experiment in this kindergarten. In this experiment, the criteria of gender identification was conceptualized by using the discussion of "appel" (roll call) following the theory of Althusser. In other words, the observer counted the number of children who responded when the kindergarten teachers called out to them using the category of onnanoko (girls) or otokonoko (boys), and recorded the results periodically. It was found that once a homogeneous sexual group was formed in a class, the children's gender identification process was accelerated. In addition, the time of gender identification influenced by the peer group differed between the two classes. The latter finding shows that the process of gender identification is not only dependent on the child's own development process, or the home environment, but is also dependent on the kindergarten's peer group activities.
著者
米村 傳治郎
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
初等教育資料 (ISSN:04465318)
巻号頁・発行日
no.715, pp.42-45, 2000-01
著者
石川 良子 Ryoko ISHIKAWA 東京都立大学大学院 Graduate School of Social Sciences Tokyo Metropolitan University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.25-46, 2006-12-10

The purpose of this paper is to describe and interpret interviews with persons who regard themselves as "hikikomori," and to point out the negative effects, especially for such individuals, caused by the confusion of the concepts of "hikikomori" with "NEETs." "Hikikomori," which refers to youth in a state of social withdrawal, has been noted since the latter half of the 1990s in Japan. In recent years, the concept of "NEETs" has also come to attract attention. "NEETs" refers to young people who are "not in education, employment, or training." The concept of "hikikomori" has been partly incorporated into discussions about "NEETs," and it is commonly said that the two can be discussed in the same context. Moreover, some organizations dealing with "hikikomori" have started to support "NEETs." However the understanding of "hikikomori" that has accumulated may be distorted by the confusion between the two concepts. Moreover, this confusion has a direct effect on individuals who consider themselves to be "hikikomori." Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish the two concepts. Based on this perspective, the author describes and interprets interviews with such individuals, and points out the problems of providing support for "hikikomori" sufferers within the concept of "NEETs." The interviewed revealed the following facts. People who consider themselves to be "hikikomori" see themselves as inferior and withdraw from relationships with others because though they have difficulty working, they worry excessively that "working is the natural state for an adult." Their self-esteem cannot be restored immediately even if they participate in a self-help group. Informants re-construct stories about themselves and their lives and come to see the norm of life-courses in relative terms, and regain self-esteem from this. However, this can lead to a decline in their motivation to start working. Moreover, informants cannot overcome their distrust and fear of society. Therefore, sufferers of "hikikomori" seek a new way of life as they again ask themselves various questions, such as, "why must we work?" "What do I want to do?" "Who am I?" and so on. As they think through these questions, they resolve to make a fresh start. This process of struggle is in essence the process of recovery from "hikikomori." Current measures for "NEETs," are based on the idea that it is more important to start working than to think too much about the meaning of working. However, individuals suffering from "hikikomori" have regained their self-esteem by asking the various questions concerning working and their own lives. Therefore, it is likely that the confusion of the two concepts will not only deprive people suffering from "hikikomori" of the opportunity for recovery but will also lead them to abandon their own efforts voluntarily.
著者
文部省初等教育課
出版者
東洋館出版社
巻号頁・発行日
1950
著者
佐々木 洋成 Yosei SASAKI 東京都立大学大学院 Tokyo Metropolitan University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.303-320, 2006-05-31

This paper examines trends in regional gaps in higher educational opportunities after the High Growth Period and the effects of structural factors. In the 1970s, educational policies were put in place with the aim to promote equal opportunity. Currently, regional gaps in higher educational opportunity are increasing. The purpose of this paper is to provide basic findings and knowledge on present conditions to contribute to the debate on educational opportunities. As an index of educational opportunity, we use capacity and college and university entrance rates. The findings are as follows: (1) in the 1975-1990 period, under the educational policy that aimed to spread education, gaps decreased in both indices of educational opportunity; (2) however, this decrease was the result of shrinking gaps in the three large metropolises of Tokyo Nagoya and Osaka, and educational opportunities were not necessarily expanding in the regions with the least educational opportunities; (3) after 1990, regional gaps began to increase again, due to rises in the three metropolises; (4) today, there are noticeable gaps not only among males but also among females by region; (5) the effects of socioeconomic conditions and school conditions on educational opportunities are increasing year by year. Today's regional inequalities are nearly equal to those in the 1970s when the educational policies were adopted, there is a possibility that equality of opportunities for education may become a political issue.
著者
潮木 守一
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.7-25[含 英語文要旨], 2008

At 1954, Professor Yoshihiro SHIMIZU of Tokyo University emphasized that the Educational Population Study could be a major topic in the field of the sociology of education. He was well informed regarding contemporary research trends in French sociology, and was very aware of the importance of the Population Study. Since then, several students in the sociology of education have engaged themselves in the study of educational populations. Governments have compiled statistics on education like student population, number of teachers and educational expenditure. In some countries these statistical data can be traced back to the middle of the 19th century. The first scholar who attempted a systematic analysis of such governmental educational statistics was Friedrich Edding in Germany. In 1957, he published International Trends in Educational Expenditures. In this book he compared trends of educational expenditures in several countries since the middle of the 19th century. From this time-series comparative study he drew the conclusion that countries which had attained a similar level of economic development should have similar sizes of educational systems and similar sizes of investment in education. In 1961, he presented a keynote paper to the OECD conference on "Economic Growth and the Investment in Education" along with Svennilson and Elvin, pointing out the existence of a strong correlation between the enrolment ratio and per capita GNP of OECD member countries. At the same time, they examined the ratio of educational expenditures to GNP, and they broke down 5 components which determine the ratio of educational expenditure among GNP, like proportion of school age population among total population, enrollment ratio, ratio of average teacher salary against GNP p.c. and per-teacher student ratio. This formulation has made possible international comparison of those educational indicators. Furthermore this formulation has made possible the simulation of educational expenditure allocation. This simulation model is now used by various international cooperation agencies to make clear trade-off relationship between various educational indicators. Stimulated with these research trends overseas, several Japanese students of educational population has started to analyze the trends of Japanese educational population based on modified models which have been developed in oversea countries. The author, who studied with Friedrich Edding since 1968, forecasted required numbers of high school and educational expenditure necessary for this expansion in 1974. Since then, various research outputs have been produced in the field of educational population studies. One major task facing this field of study is to extend the research perspective beyond the borders of one country. With globalization, movements of educational populations should no longer be confined within one country's borders. A second task is to encourage follow-up studies to ensure the quality of research outcomes in the field of educational population studies. Japanese scholars of sociology of education produce a large research output every year. However, most lack connections with the outputs of their colleagues. Outside people are much interested with those research outcomes, but most of the outcomes are not verified objectively by colleagues. Therefore, outside people are skeptical about whether these findings of particular experts are reliable because of the lack of follow-up studies. Recently, there have been strong opinions in factor of "Evidence-based policy." To put this into reality, we need to vitalize the cross-check studies, follow-up studies on research output done by our colleague researchers in the field of educational population studies.
著者
中島 葉子
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.247-267[含 英語文要旨], 2007

The aim of this paper is to examine relations between Japanese and foreigners in terms of educational support in communities from the perspective of the maintenance and change of relations. The paper clarifies the relationship by analyzing the gaze and interactions between undergraduate students and the newcomer children to whom they provide educational support. Previous research has discussed the educational problems of newcomers in the context of Japanese school culture. However, in order to focus on the relationship between Japanese and foreigners and to explain the maintenance and changing of the power of majority, it is necessary to study not only the school but also the relations in the community. In addition, some practical research focuses on educational support activities for newcomers, but is based on experiences rather than a theoretical background, and tends to find that support activities by NPOs have the potential to revolutionize the social system. However, some argue that relations between the majority and minority can be asymmetrical in the context of voluntary support. Therefore, this paper analyzes qualitative data, examining whether asymmetrical power relations between Japanese and newcomers are built or not within support activities in a community by an NPO, and how the relations are maintained or changed. The author interviewed and observed three undergraduate students participating in an NPO that provides educational supports for newcomer children. The following findings are obtained. First, the undergraduates had asymmetrical relations with the newcomer children, as they problematized the children's behavior. However, opportunities stemming from conflicts with the children led to the dissolution of the asymmetrical relations over "problems," as the undergraduates asked "questions" to understand the children. Second, while asymmetrical relations were maintained over "support," there was also a change in the relations with the children and parents. When the focus of narration is the worth of support activities rather than relations with newcomers, the categories of "Japanese who support foreigners" and "foreigners who are supported by Japanese" are fixed, and the asymmetrical relations are maintained. On the other hand, when a person has personal relationships with newcomers, and renarrates the problems and needs of newcomers as his/her "own problems," the asymmetrical relations change. If Japanese supporters consider the relations between themselves to be more important than those with newcomers, they become blind to their asymmetrical relationship and conceal it under the story of "support." This leads to a paradox of support under which relations are fixed as long as Japanese support newcomers. However, if Japanese re-narrate the needs of newcomers as their "own problems," they can free themselves from the asymmetry and create alternative relations with newcomers Previous research failed to sufficiently examine the power relations in support activities. Only looking at the positive side of support by NPOs, however, can blind one to the asymmetrical relations in support. Simply providing support for minorities does not free one from power relations. Research on relations between Japanese and foreigners in support activities in communities should be continued.