著者
舞田 敏彦 Toshihiko MAITA 武蔵野大学 Musashino University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.165-184, 2008-06-15

Children's academic achievements differ by social class. Today, many researchers investigate schools that effectively reduce these differences. They have pointed out that in schools that are successful in this endeavor, there are many practices aimed at raising the academic achievements of children from lower classes. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the effects of these practices from the viewpoint of added value. This study aims to compare the actual achievement levels of children of each region with those estimated based on their socio-economic conditions and to clarify the educational conditions in the regions in which the actual levels are higher than expectations. For my method, I analyzed the data of academic achievement tests. I clarified children's achievement levels in 49 cities and wards in the Tokyo metropolitan area and in school districts in Adachi Ward (73 primary school districts, 38 junior high school districts). I examined the relations between the achievement levels and the socio-economic conditions of each region. Using this data, I estimated achievement levels using regression analysis. Regions were then divided into types by comparing the expected levels and actual ones. I named regions whose achievement levels were higher than expected "Effort types." The opposites are named, "Problem types." I then investigated the differences of educational conditions between these two types. It was found that in Effort types, the numbers of children per school, class and teacher are relatively small. School size, class size and teacher's burden are small in these regions. In Problem types, they are relatively large. These differences are significant in the data from school districts in Adachi Ward. Based on the findings, I concluded as follows: 1. The influence of social background on children's academic achievement can be reduced by the improvement of educational conditions such as reducing class size, which is the task of educational administrations. 2. The improvement of educational conditions is less effective for raising the absolute level of academic achievement. It is effective for the reduction of the social determinants of children's academic abilities. 3. Evaluations of schools from the viewpoint of added value are needed.
著者
浜井 浩一 Koichi HAMAI 龍谷大学 Ryukoku University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.143-162, 2007-05-31

Although Japan traditionally enjoyed a reputation for being one of the most crime-free economically advanced countries in the world, since the late 1990s its crime rates have increased and clear up rate have dropped. It now appears that the Japanese public has lost confidence in the effectiveness of the criminal justice system and is more anxious about safety. The Japanese public now believes that young offenders are becoming increasingly violent and that more and more adolescents are committing serious offenses. This view stems from a belief that there has been a breakdown in family life and that as a consequence, young people have become more amoral. In response, the Japanese government is trying to overhaul the national education curriculum, with a major focus on imposing and improving public morality. However, a careful examination of crime statistics shows that the perception of ever-increasing youth crime is groundless. There has been no decline in the age of youngest offenders. On the contrary, the average age of young offenders has risen, partly because the job market for young people, especially those without skills and/or a high school diploma, has become tight. The delinquency rate in Japan used to peak at age of 15 and then drop sharply. Most juvenile delinquents had ceased to offend by the age of 20. There is a large gap between what the public believes about youth offenses and the reality. The measures adopted by the government to prevent youth offenses, mainly focusing on morality, are based on a kind of stereotypical young offender. If the government continues to ignore the real problem, i. e., the shrinking job market for unskilled young people, it will create a self-fulfilling prophecy of future violent offenses by young people.
著者
木村 祐子 Yuko KIMURA お茶の水女子大学大学院 Graduate School Ochanomizu University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.5-24, 2006-12-10

Since the later half of the 1990s, lack of adaptability of children to the educational setting has been explained through the new medical category of "developmental disabilities." In this paper, medical intervention is conceived of as "medicalization," and the educational setting is focused on and inspected. In particular, the paper focuses on "developmental disabilities" as a medical diagnosis characterized by uncertainty, situational dependence and feelings of resistance toward labeling, and clarifies how these characteristics are interpreted in the educational setting. Section 1 reviews previous studies that look critically at the elements of medicalization, pointing out the characteristics and problems of "developmental disabilities" as medicalization. (1) The elements of "developmental disabilities" are vague despite the fact that they are medical concepts, and consequently there is a lack of scientific grounds, standardized tests and treatment. This enables interpretation by a diverse range of knowledge. (2) These disabilities function as a form of "risk management." This study dynamically analyzes how these medical diagnoses are interpreted in the educational setting, with the aim to approach the reality of medicalization. Section 2 summarizes the research method which was used in the interview research of nine teachers. Section 3 examines medicalization in children, first from the viewpoint of responsibility and the role and position of children. The viewpoint of medical treatment has made rapid advances through the intervention of institutionalized medicine. Medical labeling exempts parents and teachers from responsibility, based on the assumption that the problem is a "disability." In this way, the children are obliged to play the "sick role." Parents and teachers sometimes display feelings of rejection or resistance toward medical labeling. In addition, uncertainty regarding the cause of the "developmental disability" creates difficulties in medical practice. However, the feelings of rejection and the medical uncertainty can be minimized by medical practice and interpretation in the educational setting.
著者
米村 傳治郎
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
初等教育資料 (ISSN:04465318)
巻号頁・発行日
no.715, pp.42-45, 2000-01
著者
石川 良子 Ryoko ISHIKAWA 東京都立大学大学院 Graduate School of Social Sciences Tokyo Metropolitan University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.25-46, 2006-12-10

The purpose of this paper is to describe and interpret interviews with persons who regard themselves as "hikikomori," and to point out the negative effects, especially for such individuals, caused by the confusion of the concepts of "hikikomori" with "NEETs." "Hikikomori," which refers to youth in a state of social withdrawal, has been noted since the latter half of the 1990s in Japan. In recent years, the concept of "NEETs" has also come to attract attention. "NEETs" refers to young people who are "not in education, employment, or training." The concept of "hikikomori" has been partly incorporated into discussions about "NEETs," and it is commonly said that the two can be discussed in the same context. Moreover, some organizations dealing with "hikikomori" have started to support "NEETs." However the understanding of "hikikomori" that has accumulated may be distorted by the confusion between the two concepts. Moreover, this confusion has a direct effect on individuals who consider themselves to be "hikikomori." Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish the two concepts. Based on this perspective, the author describes and interprets interviews with such individuals, and points out the problems of providing support for "hikikomori" sufferers within the concept of "NEETs." The interviewed revealed the following facts. People who consider themselves to be "hikikomori" see themselves as inferior and withdraw from relationships with others because though they have difficulty working, they worry excessively that "working is the natural state for an adult." Their self-esteem cannot be restored immediately even if they participate in a self-help group. Informants re-construct stories about themselves and their lives and come to see the norm of life-courses in relative terms, and regain self-esteem from this. However, this can lead to a decline in their motivation to start working. Moreover, informants cannot overcome their distrust and fear of society. Therefore, sufferers of "hikikomori" seek a new way of life as they again ask themselves various questions, such as, "why must we work?" "What do I want to do?" "Who am I?" and so on. As they think through these questions, they resolve to make a fresh start. This process of struggle is in essence the process of recovery from "hikikomori." Current measures for "NEETs," are based on the idea that it is more important to start working than to think too much about the meaning of working. However, individuals suffering from "hikikomori" have regained their self-esteem by asking the various questions concerning working and their own lives. Therefore, it is likely that the confusion of the two concepts will not only deprive people suffering from "hikikomori" of the opportunity for recovery but will also lead them to abandon their own efforts voluntarily.
著者
文部省初等教育課
出版者
東洋館出版社
巻号頁・発行日
1950
著者
佐々木 洋成 Yosei SASAKI 東京都立大学大学院 Tokyo Metropolitan University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.303-320, 2006-05-31

This paper examines trends in regional gaps in higher educational opportunities after the High Growth Period and the effects of structural factors. In the 1970s, educational policies were put in place with the aim to promote equal opportunity. Currently, regional gaps in higher educational opportunity are increasing. The purpose of this paper is to provide basic findings and knowledge on present conditions to contribute to the debate on educational opportunities. As an index of educational opportunity, we use capacity and college and university entrance rates. The findings are as follows: (1) in the 1975-1990 period, under the educational policy that aimed to spread education, gaps decreased in both indices of educational opportunity; (2) however, this decrease was the result of shrinking gaps in the three large metropolises of Tokyo Nagoya and Osaka, and educational opportunities were not necessarily expanding in the regions with the least educational opportunities; (3) after 1990, regional gaps began to increase again, due to rises in the three metropolises; (4) today, there are noticeable gaps not only among males but also among females by region; (5) the effects of socioeconomic conditions and school conditions on educational opportunities are increasing year by year. Today's regional inequalities are nearly equal to those in the 1970s when the educational policies were adopted, there is a possibility that equality of opportunities for education may become a political issue.
著者
耳塚 寛明 Hiroaki MIMIZUKA お茶の水女子大学 Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences The Ochanomizu University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.23-39, 2007-05-31

The measurement of children's academic achievements and the explanation of differences between social classes should not be dismissed by sociologists of education. Although inequality is a major theme of the field, the sociology of education has lacked empirical evidence on the structure of disparities in academic achievements. This is partly due to the difficulties involved in collecting sufficient data on academic achievement through schools. In and after 2002, studies were begun on the relationship between academic achievement and social class in Japan. At the time, schools were being heavily criticized within the context of the debate over falling children's academic achievements. Some significant surveys were administered at that time, though they were small in number. However, they left some important issue to be solved. The first is that analyses of the determinants of academic achievement are inadequate for clarifying what factors will diminish class differences in achievement. The second concerns the reliability and validity of the variables collected. In particular, variables on the economic conditions of households are lacking. Finally, the surveys were conducted only in large cities. This paper examines the factors that affect children's academic achievements, and the extent of the effect of such factors, through an analysis of the data of the Japan Education Longitudinal Study 2003 (JELS2003). JELS2003 was conducted in two areas: one a middle-sized city within the capital metropolitan areas, and the other a small local city. It also contains variables about the economic conditions of households. The major findings of the paper are as follows. 1. In the small local city, the differences of academic achievement between social classes were relatively small. 2. In the middle-sized city within the metropolitan area, children's academic achievements were affected by the level of monthly educational expenses, level of educational expectations of the child, and income level of the family. Inequalities in children's academic achievements in our society should be grasped in the context of the substitution of "parentocracy" for meritocracy.
著者
古田 和久 Kazuhisa FURUTA 大阪大学大学院 Graduate School Osaka University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.207-225, 2007-05-31

This paper examines the impact of social class and a variety of attitudes regarding society and education on attitudes toward educational expenditures. In Japan, the rapid rise of educational participation rates has been strongly supported by household expenditures. The scale of private funding is very large in comparison with other countries, and not only high income parents, but also low income ones, make expenditures for their children's education. Therefore, the following question arises: what motivates Japanese people to give education to their children? Previous research on economics and the sociology of education has focused on investment and consumption. However, considering that the motives for educational expenditures are complex and are influenced by a variety of characteristics of parents, including attitudes on society and education, this paper investigates attitudes toward educational expense using data from the 2003 National Survey on Work and Daily Life. In order to identify significant patterns in many variables, decision tree analysis is used as a data mining techniques. Following a brief introduction of decision tree analysis, the technique is applied to delineate the key features that distinguish between people who are eager to pay their children's educational expenses and those who are not. First, the data indicate that many people believe that parents should pay for nearly all of their children's educational costs. Second, decision tree analysis reveals that the most important factor influencing the payment of educational expenses is not the benefit of education, but rather the recognition of educational inequality in contemporary Japanese higher education. People who perceive educational opportunities as being equal are more willing to pay for their children, because they believe that there is stiff competition for educational credentials. Third, investment and consumption are important factors for people who believe there is educational inequality. As a result, the motive for making educational expenditures depends on attitudes toward society and education. On the other hand, the group that showed most strongly negative attitude is people who believe that educational opportunities are closed by family income and that their own subjective social status is low, and that education does not play a central role for achieving high income and social status. This finding suggests that at present, educational costs are very heavy, and that if the burden of tuition fee and other educational expenses clearly brings an awareness of educational inequalities according to family income, many people will perceive education as being meaningless for them.