著者
森脇 睦子 西山 美香
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.4, pp.160-167, 2006-07-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
13

It cannot be overlooked that the outflow of body fluid from cadavers may cause infection.Workers in the funeral industry are therefore at the risk of infection. The purpose of this study isto clarify and set hypothesis on the kind of risks of infection from cadavers. In addition, we investigatewhat problems in relation to infection funeral workers have in their daily work. We investigated six funeral companies from January to March 2004. Data were collected byinterviewing funeral workers about problems in infection prevention, employee's health care andthe possibility of infection from cadavers. Next, we analyzed obtained contents by the KJ Method. We have extracted four categories by the KJ method: 1) the actual situation of funeral workand the adopted measures for infection prevention, 2) the risk of infection, 3) the lack of providinginformation from medical workers and 4) knowledge and approaches concerning the infectionof funeral workers. We suggested the possibility that funeral workers might be exposed to infection through contactto the body fluid from cadavers. Five hypotheses were derived from the results. 1) The bodyfluid from cadavers may be sufficient to infection. 2) Funeral workers have the danger of infectionfrom cadavers. 3) Funeral workers have insufficient knowledge concerning infection from cadavers.4) Providing information on infection to the funeral workers is necessary. 5) Nursesmight not be effectively stopping the body fluid by "mortuary care".
著者
清水 勝嘉
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.72-86, 1976

In this papes, administrative orpanization for public health, tuberculosis control and prevention of venereal disease, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were discribed. 1. In those days, public health administration had been centrlized to the Health Bureau and Social Bureau of the Ministry of Home Affairs, and they gave their instructions to the Public Health Section of the Prefectural Police Department. Countermeasures for the chronic infectious diseases were the most imoprtant problems at that time. 2. The mortality from tuberculosis in Japan was two or three times higher than that of Western countris, and there were poor and insufficient preventive facilites in all over the country. It was epock making in 1932 that the Health Guidance Clinic were established in every prefectures in order to prevent against tuberculosis by the subsides offered from NHK (Nihon Hoso Kyokai), but not by the national budget. 3. Licenced and unlicened prostitute, geisha, waitress and barmaid had been the major contagion source of venreal disease. Legal inspection system for the syphilis was forcibly applied only to the licenced prostitutes, but the others took the medical check only when they were arrested. Since 1928, when the original Venereal Disease Prevention Law enforced, all prostitures, streetwalkers, geishas, barmaids and waitresses have forcibly taken medical check for the venereal disease.
著者
守山 正樹 柏崎 浩 鈴木 継美
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.1, pp.22-32, 1980 (Released:2011-10-21)
参考文献数
110
被引用文献数
2 3

In Japan, the decline in the age at menarche after the Second World War has been repeatedly reported, but the observed period in the reports has not been long enough to evaluate the secular trend of it. More than a hundred reports of age at menarche of Japanese have been published from the year of 1886. More than half of these populations in the reports consisted of students or young workers, some of whom had not attained menarche at the survey, and the menarcheal ages were represented by the arithmetric mean for the menarche attained girls. Thus, ages at menarche of these reports have biases toward younger menarcheal ages which depend on the proportion of non-menstruating girls. The authors aimed to correct these biased menarcheal ages on the assumption that (1) menarcheal ages of a population distributes normally when all of the girls are menstruating; (2) when some girls are not menstruating, the distribution is censored sample of normal distribution. After eliminating these biases of historical sources, the trend of the menarcheal age in Japan (from the late 19th century to the present) was analysed.
著者
李 京銀 高坂 宏一 出嶋 靖志
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.10-18, 2002-01-31 (Released:2011-10-21)
参考文献数
45

The present study examines the Korean sex ratio at birth using Vital Statistics Korea data from 1970 to 1998. Since 1980, in most years, the sex ratio at birth correlated positively with the birth order (p<0.05). The results demonstrate that the ratio has dramatically increased in the past two decades, especially for higher birth orders, with the ratio reaching a maximum of 224.7 and 202.8 in 1994 at the third and fourth birth orders, respectively . Korean society has traditionally held a strong preference for having sons. In the mid-1980s, advanced medical technology for sex predetermination and sex preselection became popular and enabled mothers to try to choose the sex of the baby. The increased sex ratio at birth at higher birth orders is presumably attributed to the technological advances . As a result, the Korean government introduced laws to prohibit using such medical technology . Other factors affecting the recent trends of sex ratio at birth are also discussed, including Korean culture and social trends such as the decline in fertility.
著者
石橋 俊實 太田 清之 中川 秀三 近藤 宗一 内村 訪之 秋元 波留夫
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.4, pp.237-294, 1942-08-31 (Released:2010-11-19)

本研究は日本學術振興會第8小委員會に提出したものの一部である (内村)
著者
綿引 信義 西田 茂樹
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.3, pp.139-153, 1996-05-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1 1

This study analyzed sex differentials in life expectancy at birth in Japan from 1920 to 1990, focusing on age structure and causes of death. Calculated life tables and vital statistics were mainly employed for the analysis. The results manifested that the sex differential in life expectancy at birth tended to increase throughout the period. Female/male ratios in life expectancy at birth had remained almost constant from 1960 to 1990 except 1975, though slight increase was observed in the recent decade. The sex differential in age-specific death rate in 0-4 year age group (particularly age 0) explained most of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth before 1947. After 1950, the age group of 60-79 played a major role in the sex differential in life expectancy at birth. It is noteworthy that female mortality exceeded male mortality in age groups of 2-41 before 1930. Consequently, excess of female mortality reduced the sex differential in life expectancy at birth at that period. As for the sex differential in mortality rates by causes of death, tuberculosis, pregnancy and childbirth related disease exerted a great influnece on decrease of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth before 1940. Recently, malignant neoplasm, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and accidents had become leading contributors to the sex differentials in life expectancy at birth.
著者
濱松 由莉
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.1, pp.12-16, 2014 (Released:2014-03-28)
参考文献数
10

After the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, about 40,000 people out-migrated from the disaster-stricken areas of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. More females than males out-migrated, probably because females tended to fear the potential health hazards of radioactive leakage. In this study, we evaluated the impact of these migrations following the disaster on the sex ratio of the working-age population of all prefectures in Japan. We used the vital statistics in 2012 and 2010 as parameters that were and were not affected by the disaster, respectively. We estimated the future demographic structure using the demographic indices in 2010 and 2012. This analysis revealed that this disaster-induced migration will decrease and increase the sex ratio in the eastern and western parts of Japan, respectively, in 2032. In the disaster-stricken areas, the percentage of males increased in Miyagi and the percentage of females decreased in Fukushima, resulting in an increased sex ratio in both prefectures. Sex-specific migration after the disaster could result in geographical disparity of the sex ratio in Japan.
著者
小林 正子 竹本 泰一郎 田原 靖昭 田川 宜昌 東郷 正美
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衞生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.6, pp.309-316, 1995-11-30
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
12
著者
清水 勝嘉
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.52-66, 1978 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
11

In this paper, maternal and child health, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were described.1) From the Taisho era to the early years of the Showa era, birth rate in Japan was around 30 per 1, 000 population, while death rate was around 20 per 1, 000 population.2) In 1926, the infant death rate had been 13.6 per 100 live births, still birth rate was 55.7 per 1, 000 total births, and maternal mortality rate was 27.1 per 10, 000 total births(live birth and still birth).Maternal care was supported, in part, by the Poor Lave(1929), but govermental services for the maternal care not sufficient by the reason of financial panic.Therefore, maternal and child health had not been improved in those days in Japan.
著者
針生 敏雄
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.86-96,A8, 1960 (Released:2010-11-19)
参考文献数
21

仙台市内の小中学校をその所在する地域によつて中央部・中間部・周辺部等の地区に分け,又家庭の生活程度によつて上・中・下の3層に区分して11才(小学校6学年)及び14才(中学校3学年)の児童生徒について,身長・体重・胸囲の身体発育,走力・跳力・投力・懸垂力等の運動能力及び知能指数について比較検討した.1)地域別比較においては,発育殊に身長発育は一般に市中央部に優れ,周辺部に劣る傾向を示している.体重はほぼ身長発育に伴うが,14才女に於ては周辺部が優れている.胸囲は男女とも概して周辺部に大である傾向を示す.2)地域別にみた児童生徒の走・跳・投力等の運動能力は中央部と周辺部に優れ,中間部地区比劣る傾向を示す.14才男女,殊に女に於ては周辺部が特に優れている.3)知能指数は中央部児童生徒に優れ,周辺部児童生徒に劣るが,特に14才男女に於て其の差が顕著である.4)生活程度別児童生徒の身長・体重・胸囲の身体発育は概して生活程度上位群に良く,下位群に劣るが,その差は特に身長発育に顕著である.身長・体重・胸囲の身体発育の生活程度上位・中位・下位群間における差は女11才に於ては明かであるが女14才では明かでなくなる.5)生活程度別にみた児童生徒の走・跳・投力等の運動能力も概して生活程度上位群に良く,下位群に劣る傾向を示すが,身体発育に於ける程顕著ではない.6)生活程度別にみた上位・中位・下位群の児童生徒の知能指数は上位群に優れ,下位群に劣る.此の傾向は女より男に顕著である.
著者
南条 善治
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.4, pp.122-127, 1966 (Released:2011-02-25)
参考文献数
14

Generation life table can be constructed by following a cohort of, say, 100, 000 persons from the moment of birth through successive calendar years, recording, in each year of life, the actual number of survivors, until all have been accounted for by death . In order to construct the generation life tables, it is necessary to make use of the data of death rates for the period of more than 100 years. But in the pre-census years, the death reports were incomplete and the populations were domicile, and not census enumeration. Hence these early life tables by the Bureau of Statistics before the census are quite unreliable. Therefore Matsuura and Mizushima attempted to reform these pre-census life tables. We used the estimated values of q0-q100 on the basis of these reformed life tables and many reliable life tables, so that we constructed the generation life tables of persons born in 1895. The tables shown here seem more reasonable and appropriate than those which have been known until the present day.
著者
渡部 幹夫
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.6, pp.243-252, 2007-11-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
32

Vaccination is of great value to us. Protection from inoculation is more than the prevention of infectious disease. It is a political theme of the worldwide security pact. However, there were fear and anxiety for vaccination in the world, particularly in Japan. Japan constituted the Preventive Vaccination Law in 1948 under Allied Powers occupation. It was very enforceable law unlike any other in the world. Its broad coverage of vaccination was made up by the policy of GHQ. The law obliged Japanese people to get inoculations with domestic vaccine. It seems hat many vaccination accidents that occurred later in Japan were caused by the poor vaccine production system. The risks of vaccinations were already mentioned in GHQ documents, but it was not regarded as important in the Preventive Vaccination Law of Japan. It also caused many problems with vaccinations. GHQ/5CAP PHW improved many problems in Japanese public sanitation in postwar years, but it is also true that they left some problems for the later in Japan. The Preventive Vaccination Law continued into effect without changing its legal force after the end of the occupation, and caused smallpox vaccination evils. The forced attitude, which is military medical in the Preventive Vaccination Law, was finally over in the legal revision in 1994. These historic facts are considered a possible reason of some Japanese vaccinations avoidance.
著者
川上 光雄
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.48-49, 1948-03-30 (Released:2010-11-19)
著者
阿部 千春
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.3, pp.109-119, 2010 (Released:2010-07-23)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1

Causes of child-murders/parent-suicides in Japan have been changed along with the socio-economic transitions in modern Japan. Objective of the study was to clarify the actual situations and causes of child-murders/mother-suicides, namely concrete ideas to be based when public services for maternal and child well-being is examined.Four hundred fifty eight incidents of child-murders/suicides by parent (s) or grandparent (s) extracted from newspaper articles during 1998 to 2007, and child-murders/mother-suicides were analysed mainly. Out of total 458 incidents, 300 incidents (65.5%) were child-murders/mother-suicides. The average age of the mothers in 2007 (36.5 years old) was older than that in 1998 (33.4). Main causes of mothers were anxieties of child-care, economic problems, and troubles in family. Anxieties of child-care had the highest rate. Relatively less economic problems and more anxieties of child-care were found among mothers' causes than those of fathers.Evidently, anxieties of child-care, continuously increased during the latter half of 1900s, became a main cause of recent child-murders/mother-suicides, while the causes differed by age and more diversified in older age groups. Effective supports of child-care have to respond to various needs of mothers.
著者
古屋 芳雄
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.4, pp.57-58, 1947-03-30 (Released:2010-11-19)
著者
清水 勝嘉
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.87-97, 1976 (Released:2011-02-25)
参考文献数
23

In this paper, trachoma and blindness, leprosy, and parasitosis, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were described. 1. Morbidity rate of trachoma in the beginning of Showa declined as compared with that in the Meiji and Taisho Era. There may be main factors of the declination of morbidity rate that emphasis was laid on the trachoma in physical examination for school children and conscriptee, that preventive measure against trachoma required small expense and that the mass examination for trachoma was simple and easy. Blindness was closely related with trachoma. 2. The goverment organization of the National Leprosarium was proclaimed in 1927 and Leprosy Prevention Law was widely revised in 1931. Since then prevention of leprosy have been made it a principle to isolate the patients in the National Leprosarium. 3. It appeared obvious in the beginning of the Showa Era that higher morbidity rate of parasitosis was 40%-60% in urban and 70%-80% in rural area. Parasitosis Prevention Law was proclaimed in 1931. However, the morbidity rate showed no decreasing tendency. Major countermeasures against parasitosis in those days were the stool examination for paraites, administration of anthelminthic, and popularization of new type of lavatory improved by the Ministry of Home Affaires.
著者
松坂 正
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.5, pp.345-352, 1969 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
13

The influenza vaccine now used is of an aqueous type : it causes many side-effects mainly consisting of influenza-like symptoms on inoculation, and its immune value is kept merely for a short period of time : thus, there are some problems to use the said vaccine . While, the mineral-oil adjuvant vaccine which has been developed from the standpoint of the immune effect is excellent in its effectiveness, but it has also some problems on using practically, as it causes induration including the carcinogenes due to mineral oil. The author examined the results of a metabolizable adjuvant vaccine in a field experiment, as it can be developed according to the success of making sesame oil adjuvant . Treatment of the virus with ether, which is presumed to be developed in future, was also examined. The vaccines examined and compared were five ; that is, an aqueous vaccine (Plain-V), its ether-treated one (ET-Plain-V), two sesame oil vaccines (Meta-V, ET-Meta-V .), and a mineral-oil vaccine (Mine-V). 1. The influenza-like symptoms due to side-effects appeared less with Plain-V, ET-Plain-V and Mine-V. 2. Redness was seen similarly with the five vaccines, but induration was hardly observed with Plain-V, ET-Plain-V, Meta-V, and ET-Meta-V. 3. The HI value was observed : 3 months after inoculation, Meta-V and ET-Meta-V showed the antibody value the same to that of Plain-V one month after inoculation ; thus, the former two exhibited a prolonged effect, which was however inferior to that of Mine-V. 4. The ether-treated vaccine was not so effective as expected in this experiment . Judging from the above results, the sesame-oil adjuvant vaccine can be employed instead of the vaccine now used.
著者
弓桁 亮介 角田 直也 堀川 浩之
出版者
日本民族衛生学会
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.3, pp.75-81, 2015 (Released:2015-07-10)
参考文献数
23

The purpose of this study was to clarify the part difference of change of body fat in Japanese young women. Subjects were 142 healthy female university students who were living in a dormitory. In particular, 21 subjects who showed the remarkable increased percentage of total body fat were grouped as the increase group. 24 subjects who showed the remarkable decreased percentage of total body fat were grouped as the decrease group. Body weight, total and regional body fat and muscle volume were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis method. Each item was measured for two times in June and December.The difference of change in the percentage of body fat of a trunk showed the highest value in parts of the body. The difference of change in the percentage of body fat of an arm was higher than that of a leg.From these results, the part difference existed to a change of the body fat. It was suggested that the part in which body fat tends to increase is the part in which it tends to decreases.