著者
森脇 睦子 西山 美香
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.4, pp.160-167, 2006-07-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
13

It cannot be overlooked that the outflow of body fluid from cadavers may cause infection.Workers in the funeral industry are therefore at the risk of infection. The purpose of this study isto clarify and set hypothesis on the kind of risks of infection from cadavers. In addition, we investigatewhat problems in relation to infection funeral workers have in their daily work. We investigated six funeral companies from January to March 2004. Data were collected byinterviewing funeral workers about problems in infection prevention, employee's health care andthe possibility of infection from cadavers. Next, we analyzed obtained contents by the KJ Method. We have extracted four categories by the KJ method: 1) the actual situation of funeral workand the adopted measures for infection prevention, 2) the risk of infection, 3) the lack of providinginformation from medical workers and 4) knowledge and approaches concerning the infectionof funeral workers. We suggested the possibility that funeral workers might be exposed to infection through contactto the body fluid from cadavers. Five hypotheses were derived from the results. 1) The bodyfluid from cadavers may be sufficient to infection. 2) Funeral workers have the danger of infectionfrom cadavers. 3) Funeral workers have insufficient knowledge concerning infection from cadavers.4) Providing information on infection to the funeral workers is necessary. 5) Nursesmight not be effectively stopping the body fluid by "mortuary care".
著者
李 京銀 高坂 宏一 出嶋 靖志
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.10-18, 2002-01-31 (Released:2011-10-21)
参考文献数
45

The present study examines the Korean sex ratio at birth using Vital Statistics Korea data from 1970 to 1998. Since 1980, in most years, the sex ratio at birth correlated positively with the birth order (p<0.05). The results demonstrate that the ratio has dramatically increased in the past two decades, especially for higher birth orders, with the ratio reaching a maximum of 224.7 and 202.8 in 1994 at the third and fourth birth orders, respectively . Korean society has traditionally held a strong preference for having sons. In the mid-1980s, advanced medical technology for sex predetermination and sex preselection became popular and enabled mothers to try to choose the sex of the baby. The increased sex ratio at birth at higher birth orders is presumably attributed to the technological advances . As a result, the Korean government introduced laws to prohibit using such medical technology . Other factors affecting the recent trends of sex ratio at birth are also discussed, including Korean culture and social trends such as the decline in fertility.
著者
綿引 信義 西田 茂樹
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.3, pp.139-153, 1996-05-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1 1

This study analyzed sex differentials in life expectancy at birth in Japan from 1920 to 1990, focusing on age structure and causes of death. Calculated life tables and vital statistics were mainly employed for the analysis. The results manifested that the sex differential in life expectancy at birth tended to increase throughout the period. Female/male ratios in life expectancy at birth had remained almost constant from 1960 to 1990 except 1975, though slight increase was observed in the recent decade. The sex differential in age-specific death rate in 0-4 year age group (particularly age 0) explained most of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth before 1947. After 1950, the age group of 60-79 played a major role in the sex differential in life expectancy at birth. It is noteworthy that female mortality exceeded male mortality in age groups of 2-41 before 1930. Consequently, excess of female mortality reduced the sex differential in life expectancy at birth at that period. As for the sex differential in mortality rates by causes of death, tuberculosis, pregnancy and childbirth related disease exerted a great influnece on decrease of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth before 1940. Recently, malignant neoplasm, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and accidents had become leading contributors to the sex differentials in life expectancy at birth.
著者
清水 勝嘉
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.52-66, 1978 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
11

In this paper, maternal and child health, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were described.1) From the Taisho era to the early years of the Showa era, birth rate in Japan was around 30 per 1, 000 population, while death rate was around 20 per 1, 000 population.2) In 1926, the infant death rate had been 13.6 per 100 live births, still birth rate was 55.7 per 1, 000 total births, and maternal mortality rate was 27.1 per 10, 000 total births(live birth and still birth).Maternal care was supported, in part, by the Poor Lave(1929), but govermental services for the maternal care not sufficient by the reason of financial panic.Therefore, maternal and child health had not been improved in those days in Japan.
著者
針生 敏雄
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.86-96,A8, 1960 (Released:2010-11-19)
参考文献数
21

仙台市内の小中学校をその所在する地域によつて中央部・中間部・周辺部等の地区に分け,又家庭の生活程度によつて上・中・下の3層に区分して11才(小学校6学年)及び14才(中学校3学年)の児童生徒について,身長・体重・胸囲の身体発育,走力・跳力・投力・懸垂力等の運動能力及び知能指数について比較検討した.1)地域別比較においては,発育殊に身長発育は一般に市中央部に優れ,周辺部に劣る傾向を示している.体重はほぼ身長発育に伴うが,14才女に於ては周辺部が優れている.胸囲は男女とも概して周辺部に大である傾向を示す.2)地域別にみた児童生徒の走・跳・投力等の運動能力は中央部と周辺部に優れ,中間部地区比劣る傾向を示す.14才男女,殊に女に於ては周辺部が特に優れている.3)知能指数は中央部児童生徒に優れ,周辺部児童生徒に劣るが,特に14才男女に於て其の差が顕著である.4)生活程度別児童生徒の身長・体重・胸囲の身体発育は概して生活程度上位群に良く,下位群に劣るが,その差は特に身長発育に顕著である.身長・体重・胸囲の身体発育の生活程度上位・中位・下位群間における差は女11才に於ては明かであるが女14才では明かでなくなる.5)生活程度別にみた児童生徒の走・跳・投力等の運動能力も概して生活程度上位群に良く,下位群に劣る傾向を示すが,身体発育に於ける程顕著ではない.6)生活程度別にみた上位・中位・下位群の児童生徒の知能指数は上位群に優れ,下位群に劣る.此の傾向は女より男に顕著である.
著者
渡部 幹夫
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.6, pp.243-252, 2007-11-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
32

Vaccination is of great value to us. Protection from inoculation is more than the prevention of infectious disease. It is a political theme of the worldwide security pact. However, there were fear and anxiety for vaccination in the world, particularly in Japan. Japan constituted the Preventive Vaccination Law in 1948 under Allied Powers occupation. It was very enforceable law unlike any other in the world. Its broad coverage of vaccination was made up by the policy of GHQ. The law obliged Japanese people to get inoculations with domestic vaccine. It seems hat many vaccination accidents that occurred later in Japan were caused by the poor vaccine production system. The risks of vaccinations were already mentioned in GHQ documents, but it was not regarded as important in the Preventive Vaccination Law of Japan. It also caused many problems with vaccinations. GHQ/5CAP PHW improved many problems in Japanese public sanitation in postwar years, but it is also true that they left some problems for the later in Japan. The Preventive Vaccination Law continued into effect without changing its legal force after the end of the occupation, and caused smallpox vaccination evils. The forced attitude, which is military medical in the Preventive Vaccination Law, was finally over in the legal revision in 1994. These historic facts are considered a possible reason of some Japanese vaccinations avoidance.
著者
清水 勝嘉
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.87-97, 1976 (Released:2011-02-25)
参考文献数
23

In this paper, trachoma and blindness, leprosy, and parasitosis, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were described. 1. Morbidity rate of trachoma in the beginning of Showa declined as compared with that in the Meiji and Taisho Era. There may be main factors of the declination of morbidity rate that emphasis was laid on the trachoma in physical examination for school children and conscriptee, that preventive measure against trachoma required small expense and that the mass examination for trachoma was simple and easy. Blindness was closely related with trachoma. 2. The goverment organization of the National Leprosarium was proclaimed in 1927 and Leprosy Prevention Law was widely revised in 1931. Since then prevention of leprosy have been made it a principle to isolate the patients in the National Leprosarium. 3. It appeared obvious in the beginning of the Showa Era that higher morbidity rate of parasitosis was 40%-60% in urban and 70%-80% in rural area. Parasitosis Prevention Law was proclaimed in 1931. However, the morbidity rate showed no decreasing tendency. Major countermeasures against parasitosis in those days were the stool examination for paraites, administration of anthelminthic, and popularization of new type of lavatory improved by the Ministry of Home Affaires.
著者
松坂 正
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.5, pp.345-352, 1969 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
13

The influenza vaccine now used is of an aqueous type : it causes many side-effects mainly consisting of influenza-like symptoms on inoculation, and its immune value is kept merely for a short period of time : thus, there are some problems to use the said vaccine . While, the mineral-oil adjuvant vaccine which has been developed from the standpoint of the immune effect is excellent in its effectiveness, but it has also some problems on using practically, as it causes induration including the carcinogenes due to mineral oil. The author examined the results of a metabolizable adjuvant vaccine in a field experiment, as it can be developed according to the success of making sesame oil adjuvant . Treatment of the virus with ether, which is presumed to be developed in future, was also examined. The vaccines examined and compared were five ; that is, an aqueous vaccine (Plain-V), its ether-treated one (ET-Plain-V), two sesame oil vaccines (Meta-V, ET-Meta-V .), and a mineral-oil vaccine (Mine-V). 1. The influenza-like symptoms due to side-effects appeared less with Plain-V, ET-Plain-V and Mine-V. 2. Redness was seen similarly with the five vaccines, but induration was hardly observed with Plain-V, ET-Plain-V, Meta-V, and ET-Meta-V. 3. The HI value was observed : 3 months after inoculation, Meta-V and ET-Meta-V showed the antibody value the same to that of Plain-V one month after inoculation ; thus, the former two exhibited a prolonged effect, which was however inferior to that of Mine-V. 4. The ether-treated vaccine was not so effective as expected in this experiment . Judging from the above results, the sesame-oil adjuvant vaccine can be employed instead of the vaccine now used.
著者
井上 善十郎 遠藤 眞三
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.4, pp.315-339,en1, 1937-11-15 (Released:2010-11-19)
参考文献数
30

本調査は日本學術振興會第八小委員會の昭和十一年度に於ける研究の一部分にして、同年六月二十日現在の樺太アイヌの人口につき考察せるものにして、最も信を置くに足るものと信ず。本調査に關しては樺太長官始め、各方面の盡力に依る事多大にして、本機會に於て深甚の謝意を表するものである。
著者
秋山 房雄 武藤 志真子 中根 孝子 渡辺 久子
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1-2, pp.1-12, 1977 (Released:2012-02-17)
参考文献数
23

This is the second part of the study on famines, epidemics, socio-economic conditions, and combinations of these before the Meiji era. The great famine in the Tenmei period (1781-88) was discussed. The development of land, advance in commerce and alterations in agricultural policy were closely related to the disaster of famines. During the Tenmei famine, about a half a million people died in Oou district where the weather had been cold and the local government system was misguided. Although three fouth of deaths were caused by malignant influenza, death rate varied considerably from sex, age, social class, feudal clan and characteristics of area such as fishing village, farm village, city, etc. The severity of famine seemed to deter mine the severity of epidemics of diseases.
著者
松山 恒明
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.61-67, 1972 (Released:2011-10-21)
参考文献数
14

Since the 1920's, there has been a slow fluctuating upward trend in primary sex ratio (ratio of males to females at birth) in Japan. The factors :concerned with the rise of sex ratio have been analyzed by using the vital statistics and other data for the period from 1947-1969. There is no evidence indicating that the age of the mother or the birth order are contributing factors causing an increase in the ratio. The recent decrease in still birth rate suggests a possible relation with the increase of the sex ratio at birth. Provided that the ratio of the number of still births to that of live births were the same in the periods of 1955-64 and of 1965-69, the extent to which the sex ratio at birth in 1955-64 would be modified was calculated. By this calculation, the modified sex ratio at birth in 1955-64 was 106.2, in contrast the actual value was 105.8. The correlation between the sex ratio at birth and some social indices by prefectures has been examined in the respective periods of 1960-64 and 1965-69. For both periods, signifi cant correlation coefficients were obtained between the sex ratio at birth and the rate of hospitalization at delivery. Only in 1960-64, social indices as the percentage of employed persons in primary indust ries to total employees, the "MYNRYOKU" index (synthetic index of socioeconomic indices) and the percentage of women workers to total employees were significantly correlated with the sex ratio at birth by prefectures.
著者
Liu ASATO Keiko TOMORI Kiyoko HIGASHIMORI Sumie SHINJO Sumiko KINJO Shigeru YAMAMOTO
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.4, pp.219-236, 1995-07-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
80

Okinawa prefecture, consisting of the Ryukyu Islands in the southern part of Japan archiperago, is located in the subtropics. From ancient time, Okinawa had developed trading networks with China, Korea and many Southeast Asian countries and had received cultural influence from them. As the results, it is said that the foods consumed by, and food habits of, Okinawans, have been more similar to those in such countries than in Japan. The life span of Japanese has recently become longest in the world, and it has been longer in Okinawa than in any other prefectures. In this respect, special attention has been drawn to the historical aspects of Okinawan food habits. In the literature so far, however, typical foods, recipes and food habits in specific historical periods were documented but their compiled description throughout the history was lacking. This paper aims at a comprehensive description of the various events from the ancient time to the present to demonstrate their interrelation in a chronicle. Major a pects treated are introduction of foods, food production systems, food-processing, trades, marketing activities, food consumptions, religious roles of food services, and famines caused by natural and man-made disasters in relation to food habits.
著者
針生 敏雄
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.284-299,A21, 1960 (Released:2010-11-19)
参考文献数
11

仙台市内小・中学校児童・生徒について,その発育(身長・体重・胸囲)と運動能力(走・跳・投・懸垂力)・知能(I.Q.)との関係を検討した.I.身長・体重・胸囲各々について,之を大・中・小の3群に分けて,運動能力・知能を比較すると,11才の男女・14才男に於ては身長についても,体重についても,胸囲についても其の大・中・小群の順に走・跳・投力は何れも劣るが,懸垂力は11才男女では逆順を示し,14才男では走・跳・投力と同様に正順を示す.然しその大・中群間には有意差を認めない.14才の女に於ては,11才男女及び14才男と趣を異にし,身長と走力の関係のみ正順で,跳力は明かに逆順を示し,投力も大体逆順関係である.而して体重・胸囲に於ては走・跳・投力何れも其の関係が乱れて有意差を示さない.懸垂力は,身長に於ては一定の関係を示さないが,体重・胸囲に於ては大なる群ほど劣り,明かに逆順を示す.I.Q.については,身長では11才・14才男女総て身長の大なる群ほど優れている.然し女の大・中群間の差のみは11才・14才ともに有意と云い得ない.体重では,身長の場合と全く同様であるが,この場合は男11才の中・小群の差及び女11才・14才の大・中群の差には有意性が見られない.胸囲では,一定の傾向を認め得ないが,11才では男女とも大群が概して優れ,14才では男女とも小群が他群より明かに劣つている.II.発育と運動能力・知能との関係を,出生月令及び身長又は体重因子の影響を除外した第2次の相関係数について検討した.走力は身長に対し11才・14才,男女総て正相関を示し,殊に14才の女に於て相関の程度が強い.体重に対しては11才では男女とも明かな相関は見られず,14才では男は正相関,女は負相関を示す.胸囲に対しては11才男では正相関,14才女では負相関を見るが,11才女と14才男では相関々係を証明し得なかつた.跳力は身長に対し11才の男女と14才の女では正相関を示すが,14才の男では低い負の相関を示す.体重に対しては11才・14才の男のみ正相関を示し,11才の女では何らの相関を見ず,14才の女では負相関が見られる.而して14才男の正相関は特に顕著であつた.胸囲に対しては14才男に於て正相関が見られるのみである.投力は身長に対して11才の男女・14才の男女総て極めて低いが正相関があるものの様である.体重に対しては男に於てのみ正相関を示し,女では相関を認め難い.胸囲に対しても体重に於けると同様に男に於てのみ正相関を見る.懸垂力は身長に対し11才の男女及び14才の女に於ては相当の正相関を示すが,14才の男に於ては相関が見られない.体重に対しては身長の場合とは逆に11才の男女及び14才の女に於て相当程度の負相関を示すが,14才の男では低い正相関が見られる.胸囲に対しては体重の場合と大体同様に11才の男女及び14才の女では負相関が見られるが,その程度は体重の場合より極めて低い.而して14才の男では体重に於けると同様に低いながら正相関が見られる.I.Q.については,I.Q.そのものが既に月令的考慮が加えられているので零次の相関そのまゝであるが,身長に対しては11才の男女・14才の男女総て正相関を示す.体重に対しては14才女を除き総て低いながら正相関を示す.胸囲に対しては14才男のみ明かに正相関を示すが,14才女では0.12±0.050(P<0.05)の正相関であり,11才では男女ともに相関を見ない.最後に極めて概括的な結論を試みるならば同一生年月の者でも身体発育の良好な者は一般に其の運動能力及び知能の発達も良い傾向が認められる.然し此の傾向は発育完成に近ずくと低下するものゝ様である.
著者
佐々木 鶴二
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.5-6, pp.343-391,en1, 1935-12-20 (Released:2010-11-19)

I have principally studied juvenile delinquents who were taken into reformatories; and the causes of their errors which were fund chiefly in their heredity and environment. The various results of my investigatim lespecting their heredity revealed that there were many insane or feeble-minded persons, Erni confirmed criminals among their cloae relatives. They seem to have inherited many defects from their parents, such as congenital weak character and mental degeneration. Especially, syphilis hereditaria was proved in 19.9% by means of Wasserman's reaction. The result of mental test proved none of very supe for and supeiior: only 3.1% were high average, 16.9 % were average, 42.1% low average, 27.8 % were inferior, and 9.8 % were very inferior. These figures show us that there are very few of the high intellcctual among them, but they are generally inferior in that respect.The study of their environment shows that many of them came from poor families. The most remarkable fact 13 that many of them are orphans. Those who are not in orphanage hold totally only 30.5%. Only a few were brought up by their parents, and the rest were separate from thcm by death or other circumstances. Those who were separated from their parents at an early age were generally found to talce a poorer course in inverse proportion to their ages. Only 8.6% had good friends, the rest had none or only vicious ones. Thus we can easily judge that they are greatly tempted by vicious companions. Their school recorie were generally poorerthan the; r Inte ligence quotient. This is perhaps due to their family conditions and individualities. Among the delinquents there were also many who were suffering from urinal incoltinance in sleep; those who were not suffering from it over five years of age, were only 32.6%. As for their blood groups, they agreed w th those of the Japanese in general, and no Sfseciality was found about them. If there were any relation between the blood groups and their dispositions, as is insisted upon by some scholars, there must be to some extent any Peculiarity in blood groups of juvenile delinquents but thies was not to find.With regard to the immediate causes of their crimes, the needs of money to spend on sweets and to visit cinemas, were the most general; the temptation of vicious friends, idleness, and degeneration came next in number; and some of them were also found to be delinquent after having been brought up in an indulgent way, or with excessive reproaches. As for the order of their birth, it seems that first born children were in the majority, but comparatively few were found among the eldests and the youngests when there were more than two in a family; and many were found in children who were in the middle among childerns of the same paren
著者
中尾 寛子 志村 正子 青山 英康 三浦 悌二
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.4, pp.159-168, 1989 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1 1

The relationships between the eruption order of the first permanent teeth on children in a kindergarten, way of feeding at infancy, and taste at the present time were examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of their daily consuming foods including at their infancy on the changes in the eruption order of the first permanent teeth from the first permanent molar (M1) to the central permanent incisor (I1). One hundred and fourty-nine children (82 boys and 67 girls) whose first permanent tooth was mandibular I1 (I-type children) were compared with 111 children (48 boys and 63 girls) whose first permanent tooth was mandibular M1(M-type children) on their ways of feeding at infancy and their taste at the present time. Results were as follows: 1) In both sexes, the evident relationship was observed between the eruption order of the first permanent teeth and the ways of feeding in infancy. M-type children were breast fed for longer time than I-type children. In the discriminant analysis, breast feeding was related to the M-type eruption, and bottle feeding was related to the I-type eruption. 2) Weaning was started earlier in M-type children than in I-type children. The rate of the children who began weaning earlier than 4-months old was significantly higher in M-type children than in I-type children. 3) The M-type children liked fruits and fish more than I-type children. 4) These results suggest that elevated sucking and chewing frequency by breast feeding and early start of weaning at infancy influenced the eruption order of the first permanent teeth as well as the growth of the mandible.
著者
附田 鎭厦
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.5-6, pp.133-145,A11, 1955 (Released:2010-11-19)
参考文献数
16

1950年から1952年間における現存日本人成人男女(満20才~60才)の頭部形質を全国的資料に基つき,環境別並びに地方別分類研究の結果,次の如き成績をえた.1)頭長は農村,山村,漁村へと都市から遠ざかるにつれて大を示し,町は短い.頭幅はこれに反し,町が最も広く,農,山,漁村は,概して狹い.従つて,町は最も短頭型を呈し,農,山,漁村は,比較して順次長頭に傾いている.頭高も概して町が高く,農山村は低い.2)近畿地方人は,頭長短く,頭幅並びに頭高大にして,最も短頭且つ高頭型を示し,これを遠ざかる東北,北陸,九州地方人は比較して長頭且つ低頭である.その中間に位置する中国,四国,関東地方人は,頭径においても,その中間を占め,比較的短頭型に属する.3)これらを10年乃至20年前の先人の成績に比較すると,その間多少の異変はあるが.頭長において約1.5mm内外の短縮が認められ,頭幅,頭高においては若干の伸長はあるが大差がない.4)対馬島民の頭形は島村漁民でありながら町型に類似しており,九州地方に近接していながら,近畿地方人に近似した頭型を示している.これは特異な現象で所謂,種族差を表示せるものと認められる.5)頭部三径の分布偏差は,頭高が最も大を示し,頭幅が最も小である.而してそのいづれの項目に於ても,環境差よりも地方差の方が大である.6)頭径並びに頭形が文化環境或は知的能力とも密接な関係がある.広頭並びに高頭は,文化圏により親近性を有し,狹頭且つ低頭は,より文化に遠ざかつていることは略々推定される.7)アジア諸民族との比較においては,頭長はその平均値において,中間より稍々大を示しており,他の各径は略々中等位にあるが,その分布幅は広く,いづれの種族とも相交錯しておる.比較を試みるならば,近畿地方人は朝鮮人に最も類似しており,中国,四国,関東の諸地方人は,中国人に近似し,東北,北陸,九州の末端地方はアイヌ人のそれに近いということができる.
著者
新城 正紀 有泉 誠 等々力 英美 恩河 尚清 金城 英子
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.6, pp.362-373, 1997-11-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
21

Analyzing the records kept in Koza Public Health Center, this study aimed to elucidate tuberculosis (TB) control in Okinwa after World War II. The records included each patient's registration year, name, sex, date of birth, address, occupation, disease classification, treatment classification, bacterial tests, type of chemotherapy, surgical history, length of chemotherapy and ambulatory treatment. Pulmonary TB cases, 5, 289 in total, were the subjects of the present analyses . Based on the date of registration, the patients were assigned to phase I(1952-1961) or phase II (1962-1971), since the treatments changed from the concomitant use of 2 medications (isoniazid and pyrazinamide) in the former to that of 3 medications (streptomycin in addition to the above 2) in the latter . From the viewpoint of public health, medical care for TB patients was markedly improved from phase I to phase II, as exemplified by the decrease in the mean medication period from 3.9 years to 3.1 years and the decrease in the mean control period from 4 .8 years to 4J years. It is concluded that the home therapy system which was introduced to TB contorl in Okinawa in the postwar period to cope with insufficient medical resources, particularly in health centers, functioned effectively.
著者
西田 茂樹 木村 正文
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.4, pp.224-234, 1992-07-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
21

The purpose of this study is re-evaluation of population dynamics, especially of marriage, divorce, and birth and stillbirth by legitimacy, in Japan before the first population Census. Formerly we reported results of similar analysis for the period between 1872 and 1898. In this study, we have investigated the successive period from 1899 to 1919 which is the preceding year of the first Census. The marriage rates over this period were estimated to be around 50 to 60 per 1, 000 unmarried women over age 15. These figures are very low in comparison with those of the period after 1920. The official statistics of population before 1920 was based on "the Koseki (family registration system)" in contrary to the census after 1920. This difference may contribute the lower marriage rates for the period of this study. The divorce rates were estimated to be 6.0 to 8.4 per 1, 000 married women and showed a clear decrease since 1899. The illegitimate birth was found to be very frequent in the study period. It was estimated that one out of fifty unmarried women beared one child per annum. But the ratio of illegitimate births to all birth had showed a decline since 1912. The sex ratio of illegitimate birth was found to be lower than that of legitimate birth. The illegitimate stillbirth rates were around two and a half times higher than those of the legimate. It is considered that the enactment of the Civil Law in 1898 had contributable influence on these trends of marriage, divorce and the legitimacy of child.
著者
本多 正喜 城田 陽子 金子 鈴 高橋 滋
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.115-123, 1995 (Released:2011-02-25)
参考文献数
14

We studied 388 cases who have consulted by telephone twice or more, and were selected from records kept at the Gunma Prefectural Mental Health Center since its opening (1986) until March 1993. For many cases, such series of consultations ended after no more than four calls, but 19 cases have lasted over several years or over a hundred calls. The most frequent type was related to mental illness of various sourts; the second most frequent concerned problems of children. Among the first type, many cases had visited psychiatric hospitals or clinics, increasing percentage wise as they passed the stages of their condition; first, anxiety overhaving fallen mentally ill; second, dissatisfaction or doubt about psychiatric treatment; third, anxiety over rehabilitation. Many cases felt completely at a loss over difficulties in finding solutions to their problems even after consulting with mental hospitals, clinics, or other counseling facilities. Cases continually used telephone for a sense of ease and/or familiarity with counselors of the Center. It was suggested that these continuing telephone consultations followed public relations that the Center's services were available without charge, and especially that they were so easily accessible by telephone.
著者
後藤 京子 杉本 侃
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.53-64, 1996-03-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

The Japan Poison Information Center (JPIC) received 205, 199 inquiries from citizens and medical personnel for 5 years from April, 1989 to March, 1995. And, the number of inquiries concerning with suicide in those was 5, 778. In July 1993, the book named the Suicidal Manual were published in Japan and since then, the inquiries concerning with suicide attempts have increased. So, I analyzed these data about implicated products and contrasted the data received before the publication of the manual to the data received after that on purpose to make clear the affection of the Suicidal Manual. In regard to the substance that was selected in suicide attempts cases, teen-ager and the twenties tend to use medicines, especially over-the-counter drugs and older people tend to use agricultural chemicals. After the book was published, the number of inquiries about some over-the-counter drugs that were shown as appropriate way for easy and painless death in the book had increased. So, it is very important to give the young people the information of drug toxicity and appropriate management of drugs to decrease the influence of the book.