著者
李 京銀 高坂 宏一 出嶋 靖志
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.10-18, 2002-01-31 (Released:2011-10-21)
参考文献数
45

The present study examines the Korean sex ratio at birth using Vital Statistics Korea data from 1970 to 1998. Since 1980, in most years, the sex ratio at birth correlated positively with the birth order (p<0.05). The results demonstrate that the ratio has dramatically increased in the past two decades, especially for higher birth orders, with the ratio reaching a maximum of 224.7 and 202.8 in 1994 at the third and fourth birth orders, respectively . Korean society has traditionally held a strong preference for having sons. In the mid-1980s, advanced medical technology for sex predetermination and sex preselection became popular and enabled mothers to try to choose the sex of the baby. The increased sex ratio at birth at higher birth orders is presumably attributed to the technological advances . As a result, the Korean government introduced laws to prohibit using such medical technology . Other factors affecting the recent trends of sex ratio at birth are also discussed, including Korean culture and social trends such as the decline in fertility.
著者
松坂 正
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.5, pp.345-352, 1969 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
13

The influenza vaccine now used is of an aqueous type : it causes many side-effects mainly consisting of influenza-like symptoms on inoculation, and its immune value is kept merely for a short period of time : thus, there are some problems to use the said vaccine . While, the mineral-oil adjuvant vaccine which has been developed from the standpoint of the immune effect is excellent in its effectiveness, but it has also some problems on using practically, as it causes induration including the carcinogenes due to mineral oil. The author examined the results of a metabolizable adjuvant vaccine in a field experiment, as it can be developed according to the success of making sesame oil adjuvant . Treatment of the virus with ether, which is presumed to be developed in future, was also examined. The vaccines examined and compared were five ; that is, an aqueous vaccine (Plain-V), its ether-treated one (ET-Plain-V), two sesame oil vaccines (Meta-V, ET-Meta-V .), and a mineral-oil vaccine (Mine-V). 1. The influenza-like symptoms due to side-effects appeared less with Plain-V, ET-Plain-V and Mine-V. 2. Redness was seen similarly with the five vaccines, but induration was hardly observed with Plain-V, ET-Plain-V, Meta-V, and ET-Meta-V. 3. The HI value was observed : 3 months after inoculation, Meta-V and ET-Meta-V showed the antibody value the same to that of Plain-V one month after inoculation ; thus, the former two exhibited a prolonged effect, which was however inferior to that of Mine-V. 4. The ether-treated vaccine was not so effective as expected in this experiment . Judging from the above results, the sesame-oil adjuvant vaccine can be employed instead of the vaccine now used.
著者
清水 勝嘉
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.87-97, 1976 (Released:2011-02-25)
参考文献数
23

In this paper, trachoma and blindness, leprosy, and parasitosis, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were described. 1. Morbidity rate of trachoma in the beginning of Showa declined as compared with that in the Meiji and Taisho Era. There may be main factors of the declination of morbidity rate that emphasis was laid on the trachoma in physical examination for school children and conscriptee, that preventive measure against trachoma required small expense and that the mass examination for trachoma was simple and easy. Blindness was closely related with trachoma. 2. The goverment organization of the National Leprosarium was proclaimed in 1927 and Leprosy Prevention Law was widely revised in 1931. Since then prevention of leprosy have been made it a principle to isolate the patients in the National Leprosarium. 3. It appeared obvious in the beginning of the Showa Era that higher morbidity rate of parasitosis was 40%-60% in urban and 70%-80% in rural area. Parasitosis Prevention Law was proclaimed in 1931. However, the morbidity rate showed no decreasing tendency. Major countermeasures against parasitosis in those days were the stool examination for paraites, administration of anthelminthic, and popularization of new type of lavatory improved by the Ministry of Home Affaires.
著者
井上 善十郎 遠藤 眞三
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.4, pp.315-339,en1, 1937-11-15 (Released:2010-11-19)
参考文献数
30

本調査は日本學術振興會第八小委員會の昭和十一年度に於ける研究の一部分にして、同年六月二十日現在の樺太アイヌの人口につき考察せるものにして、最も信を置くに足るものと信ず。本調査に關しては樺太長官始め、各方面の盡力に依る事多大にして、本機會に於て深甚の謝意を表するものである。
著者
本多 正喜 城田 陽子 金子 鈴 高橋 滋
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.115-123, 1995 (Released:2011-02-25)
参考文献数
14

We studied 388 cases who have consulted by telephone twice or more, and were selected from records kept at the Gunma Prefectural Mental Health Center since its opening (1986) until March 1993. For many cases, such series of consultations ended after no more than four calls, but 19 cases have lasted over several years or over a hundred calls. The most frequent type was related to mental illness of various sourts; the second most frequent concerned problems of children. Among the first type, many cases had visited psychiatric hospitals or clinics, increasing percentage wise as they passed the stages of their condition; first, anxiety overhaving fallen mentally ill; second, dissatisfaction or doubt about psychiatric treatment; third, anxiety over rehabilitation. Many cases felt completely at a loss over difficulties in finding solutions to their problems even after consulting with mental hospitals, clinics, or other counseling facilities. Cases continually used telephone for a sense of ease and/or familiarity with counselors of the Center. It was suggested that these continuing telephone consultations followed public relations that the Center's services were available without charge, and especially that they were so easily accessible by telephone.
著者
秋山 房雄 武藤 志真子 中根 孝子 渡辺 久子
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1-2, pp.1-12, 1977 (Released:2012-02-17)
参考文献数
23

This is the second part of the study on famines, epidemics, socio-economic conditions, and combinations of these before the Meiji era. The great famine in the Tenmei period (1781-88) was discussed. The development of land, advance in commerce and alterations in agricultural policy were closely related to the disaster of famines. During the Tenmei famine, about a half a million people died in Oou district where the weather had been cold and the local government system was misguided. Although three fouth of deaths were caused by malignant influenza, death rate varied considerably from sex, age, social class, feudal clan and characteristics of area such as fishing village, farm village, city, etc. The severity of famine seemed to deter mine the severity of epidemics of diseases.
著者
松山 恒明
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.61-67, 1972 (Released:2011-10-21)
参考文献数
14

Since the 1920's, there has been a slow fluctuating upward trend in primary sex ratio (ratio of males to females at birth) in Japan. The factors :concerned with the rise of sex ratio have been analyzed by using the vital statistics and other data for the period from 1947-1969. There is no evidence indicating that the age of the mother or the birth order are contributing factors causing an increase in the ratio. The recent decrease in still birth rate suggests a possible relation with the increase of the sex ratio at birth. Provided that the ratio of the number of still births to that of live births were the same in the periods of 1955-64 and of 1965-69, the extent to which the sex ratio at birth in 1955-64 would be modified was calculated. By this calculation, the modified sex ratio at birth in 1955-64 was 106.2, in contrast the actual value was 105.8. The correlation between the sex ratio at birth and some social indices by prefectures has been examined in the respective periods of 1960-64 and 1965-69. For both periods, signifi cant correlation coefficients were obtained between the sex ratio at birth and the rate of hospitalization at delivery. Only in 1960-64, social indices as the percentage of employed persons in primary indust ries to total employees, the "MYNRYOKU" index (synthetic index of socioeconomic indices) and the percentage of women workers to total employees were significantly correlated with the sex ratio at birth by prefectures.
著者
小川 正行 永田 稔 辻 達彦
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.4, pp.153-161, 1979 (Released:2011-02-25)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
1 1

A device for underwater weighing by utilizing a swimming pool was tentatively made, and with it, the weights in water of 111 male students were measured. And from the thus obtained weights in water, the body density was calculated to be compared, for its justification, with those already reported by other workers in the literature. This study aimed at the examination of the body composition of boys in the developing stage. And the points to pay attention in this case were discussed. The principal findings were as follows: 1) The body density obtained by this method from the above mentioned subjects was 1.0724 ± 0.0092 (mean ± standard deviation). This approximately agrees with 1.07, the normal (general) value for the Japanese adolescent males, estimated from the reports in the literature. 2) The residual volume (RV), an important factor determining the body density needs to be measured exactly. The maximal expiratory level which affects RV, is relatively easy to determine in case of the underwater weighing thanks to water pressure. When elementary school children are the subjects of weighing, however, sufficient attention must be paid to avoid danger, because breething needs to be arrested during a time from the attainment of the maximal expiratory level until the end of the weighing. 3) The underwater weighing can be made within 5 seconds after the attainment of the maximal expiratory level of the subject. The body weights in water of the subjects of the present study averaged 3.03±0.578kg (range, 4.25 to 1.60kg.).
著者
島田 彰夫
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.5, pp.229-235, 1990-09-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1

Longitudinal study of visual acuity (VA) from 6 to 17 years old have been carried out using the medical examination records of the graduates of a high school in Akita City in 1978 and 1988. The study subjects were completed their elementary and junior high school in Akita City and their numbers were 114 out of 236 male graduates in 1978 (78M), 54 out of 79 females (78F), 150 out of 322 male graduates in 1988 (88M) and 67 out of 115 females (88F). VA of decimal notation have been changed to visus logarithmus and then the mean values were caliculated. The highest values of mean-VA of each group were 1.21 at 8 years old(y) of 78M, 1.18 at 9y of 78F, 1 .17 at 7y of 88M and 1.15 at 8y of 88F, and their mean-VAs were fallen to about 0.4 at their 17y and the speed of decline of mean-VAs of 88M and 88F were faster than those of 78M and 78F . The cases of the lower vision at 17y showed earlier decline of VA. Stability of VA which showed the same VA more than continuous 3 years were 1.5+ and it seems that the normal VA of Japanese is 1.5 or more. Lower facial mascular strength that comes from the softness of foodstaff s makes trouble to control the mascules participate to lens . It would be a major cause of decline of VA.
著者
古謝 安子 宇座 美代子 玉城 隆雄 小笹 美子 船附 美奈子
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.2, pp.35-46, 2003-03-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1 1

Questionnaire study on the concern of 245 inhabitants regarding funeral practices and sur vey on the situation of old people's hospitalization in the isolated islands of Zamami village with out crematorium were carried out in 2000. The relationship of funerary practice and care of old people are discussed. 1. Traditionally the funeral practice involves burial of the dead followed by exhumatio: after several years whence the bones are cleaned by their relatives. All people died in the is lands have been practiced in the islands from 1990 to 1999. 2. Concern of the respondents for the funeral practice is influenced by experience of bone cleansing. Most of the respondents over 50 years old who have experienced bone-cleansing, sup port cremation. About 40% of the respondents below 50 years old who have little experience, support free of the funeral practice. About 90% of inhabitants choose to have cremation after their death. 3. Among the patients over 65 years old from islands without crematorium who were hos pitalized in 4 hospitals in mainland Okinawa, those over 90 years hospitalized for terminal care constituted the high number, accounting for 23.1% from Zamami. The non existence of the crematorium facility and concern of the inhabitants seem to exert considerable influence on the lives of old people in isolated small islands.
著者
新城 正紀 有泉 誠 等々力 英美 恩河 尚清 金城 英子
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.6, pp.362-373, 1997-11-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
21

Analyzing the records kept in Koza Public Health Center, this study aimed to elucidate tuberculosis (TB) control in Okinwa after World War II. The records included each patient's registration year, name, sex, date of birth, address, occupation, disease classification, treatment classification, bacterial tests, type of chemotherapy, surgical history, length of chemotherapy and ambulatory treatment. Pulmonary TB cases, 5, 289 in total, were the subjects of the present analyses . Based on the date of registration, the patients were assigned to phase I(1952-1961) or phase II (1962-1971), since the treatments changed from the concomitant use of 2 medications (isoniazid and pyrazinamide) in the former to that of 3 medications (streptomycin in addition to the above 2) in the latter . From the viewpoint of public health, medical care for TB patients was markedly improved from phase I to phase II, as exemplified by the decrease in the mean medication period from 3.9 years to 3.1 years and the decrease in the mean control period from 4 .8 years to 4J years. It is concluded that the home therapy system which was introduced to TB contorl in Okinawa in the postwar period to cope with insufficient medical resources, particularly in health centers, functioned effectively.
著者
Liu ASATO Keiko TOMORI Kiyoko HIGASHIMORI Sumie SHINJO Sumiko KINJO Shigeru YAMAMOTO
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.4, pp.219-236, 1995-07-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
80

Okinawa prefecture, consisting of the Ryukyu Islands in the southern part of Japan archiperago, is located in the subtropics. From ancient time, Okinawa had developed trading networks with China, Korea and many Southeast Asian countries and had received cultural influence from them. As the results, it is said that the foods consumed by, and food habits of, Okinawans, have been more similar to those in such countries than in Japan. The life span of Japanese has recently become longest in the world, and it has been longer in Okinawa than in any other prefectures. In this respect, special attention has been drawn to the historical aspects of Okinawan food habits. In the literature so far, however, typical foods, recipes and food habits in specific historical periods were documented but their compiled description throughout the history was lacking. This paper aims at a comprehensive description of the various events from the ancient time to the present to demonstrate their interrelation in a chronicle. Major a pects treated are introduction of foods, food production systems, food-processing, trades, marketing activities, food consumptions, religious roles of food services, and famines caused by natural and man-made disasters in relation to food habits.
著者
豊川 裕之 加藤 知己 佐伯 圭一郎 矢ケ崎 信子 岸田 謙一 李 廷秀
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.4, pp.192-200, 1987
被引用文献数
1

A-mode式超音波皮脂厚計(TATT TH-500)を用いて,日本人の皮下脂肪厚の性・年齢別度数分布を作成するために,今回は小学生(1~6年生)の皮脂厚の計測を行なった.1986年5月から7月にかけて東京都にある4つの某小学校の児童1925人(男子:984人,女子941人)を対象にして,4部位の皮脂厚を計測した.主な結果は以下の通りである. (1)小学生の全学年(7~12歳)において,いずれの部位でも女子の皮脂厚の方が男子よりも厚い傾向が認められた. (2)小学生における4部位(biceps,triceps,subscapular,suplailiac)の皮脂厚は,年齢に伴い概ね漸増する傾向が示唆された. (3)超音波皮脂厚計を用いて,4部位における小学生の皮脂厚の度数分布を作成した. (4)部位別皮下脂肪厚と身長,体重,Kaup指数との関連を,年齢の影響を除去して男女別にそれぞれ全例について検討したところ,以下に示す結果が得られた. 1)身長と各部位別皮下脂肪厚及びこれらの合計値との間には男女ともに正の相関(0.2~0.3)が認められた. 2)男女ともに,体重が重いほど各部位別皮脂厚値及びこれらの合計が大きいという関係が認められた. 3)Kaup指数が体重,比体重,Rohrer指数よりも皮脂厚値と最も強い正の相関が認められた.
著者
西田 茂樹 木村 正文
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.3, pp.129-139, 1994-05-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
22

The purpose of this study is a re-evaluation of population dynamics, especially of marriage, divorce, and stillbirth by legitimacy, in Japan before the World War II. Formerly we reported results of similar analysis for the period between 1872 and 1898 and for the period 1899 and 1919. In this study, we have investigated the successive period from 1920 to 1940. Marriage rates over this period were estimated to be around 60 to 80 per 1, 000 unmarried women over age 15 and showed a decrease until the mid-1930's . Divorce rates were estimated to be around three to five per 1, 000 married women and showed a clear decrease since 1920. Illegitimate birth rates also showed a clear decrease from 27 to eight per 1, 000 unmarried women over age 15 in the study period. Ratios of illegitimate births to all births also showed a clear decrease. It was considered that these trends of marriage, divorce and birth by legitimacy were affected by the new appeared custom of registration of marriage which was the retardation of registration of marriage until the first baby was born. Illegitimate stillbirth rates were much higher than those of the legitimate in the study period. Illegitimate stillbirth rates showed a decline until 1927 and then turned to a increase. Legitimate stillbirth rates showed a decline in all study period but annual rates of decreasing were going to smaller since 1928. It was suspected that these trends of stillbirth were made by the phenomenon that some deaths of infant were registered as stillbirth.
著者
瀧澤 利行
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.5, pp.202-212, 1991 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
20

The aim of this article is to study the development of the health and the ethnic perspective of the Japan Association of Hygiene. From the middle of the Meiji period, public hygiene promotion activities directed at the general public were assumed by the Japan Association of Hygiene which was established in 1883. The key officers of this Association, which was supported by the government, were composed of staff from the Hygiene Bureauof the Ministry of Home Affairs, professors of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Tokyo, and key members of Army and Navy medical staff. The Association carried out a variety of activities, including a general meeting once a year and regular meetings once a month where various kinds of lectures were given on matters relating to health and hygiene. Regional association were also organized in prefectures and regional cities, and hospitals and theatres were used for meeting places for presenting slide shows and for organizing hygiene discussion groups. These activities, aimed at promoting awareness of health and hygiene among the people in the Meiji era, were something completely unique. Fundamented to the thinking in the association were two factors; westernization of lifeand the preservation of traditional customs in daily life. The latter became the basis for the concept of ethnic hygiene in Japan.
著者
金 潤信
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3-4, pp.91-102, 1977 (Released:2012-02-17)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1

The main purpose of this study was laid on vital statistics concerning basic factors of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces including changes in population growth of the Korean population in Japan. An analysis, one of series of demographic-ecological studies on Vital Statistics from 1965 to 1975 issued by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan was undertaken in order to study the recent trends of the Korean population in Japan and compare it with the Japanese population. The major findings are summarized as follows. 1) The Korean population in Japan has been slightly increasing yearly, and the average annual growth rate was 1.05 percent per year from 1965 to 1975.The ratio of total dependent population has decreased from 57.1 percent in 1965 to 50.8 percent in 1975, but it is expected to show a little increase in the near future. 2) Trends in crude birth rate and crude death rate from 1965 to 1975 have steadily declined, while natural increase rate was higher than that of Japanese.The crude birth rate and crude death rate of the Korean population in Japan in 1965 were 21.7 and 5.7 per 1, 000 population, in 1975, 17.9 and 4.7 per 1, 000 population, respectively, whereas the corrected death rate was rather higher than the Japanese. More interestingly, it is concluded that the Japanese folk superstition of Hinoe-Uma in 1966 seemed to be a factor influencing the crude birth rate, stillbirth rate of Koreans in Japan, whereas the extraordinary passing phenomenon was not showed in Korea. 3) The infant death rate has declined very rapidly from 15.8 in 1965 to 8.2 per 1, 000 live births in 1975 and stillbirth rate was also declined from 56.3 in 1965 to 40.5 per 1, 000 total births in 1975. 4) Major cause of death have remarkably changed due to the efficient public health services. Malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, heart disease were for the three leading causes of death of the Korean population in Japan in 1975. Specific death rates by major causes of death of Koreans in Japan for liver cirrhosis, accidents, suicide, and pan-tuberculosis were higher 38.0, 38.5, 22.4, and 12.8 per 100, 000 population in 1975 than that of the Japanese, respectively. 5) Marriages of Koreans in Japan have increased and the crude marriage rate was 9.8 in .1965 and 11.2 per 1, 000 population in 1975, slightly higher than that of Japanese . It is more considered that the intermarriages of the Korean-Japanese bridegroom or bride have increased and it will overwhelm the level of Korean-Korean marriages in a few years, and general divorce rates have tended to increase following the Japanese.
著者
馮 巧蓮 堀口 逸子 清水 隆司 羊 利敏 丸井 英二
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.1, pp.3-13, 2007-01-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
1

To date, there have been only few studies which investigated the situation of care for the elderly and caregiver burden in China. We performed a structural interview with 172 frail elderly and their caregivers, in pairs, in Shenyang City, China, after explaining the purpose of our study and obtaining consent. The interview was comprised of the Chinese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Inter view (ZBI) questionnaire, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) questionnaire and questions on the char acteristics of the elderly and his/her caregiver. Responses from 150 elderly-caregiver pairs (87%), sufficient for analysis, were collected. Caregivers with high burden were defined as those who scored 51 points or more out of 88 points (66l or higher) on the ZBI. There were significant differences in ADL of frail elderly, caregiver's age, average number of hours of caregiving per day and elderly-caregiver relationship between caregivers with and without high burden from x 2 analysis. Using a multi variate logistic regression, we found that caregiver burden was associated with ADL of frail elderly, caregiver's age and elderly-caregiver relationship. The results of this study showed that ADL of frail elderly, caregiver's age, average daily hours of care provided and relationship between elderly and their caregivers affect burden among caregivers in China.
著者
後藤 京子 杉本 侃
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.53-64, 1996-03-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

The Japan Poison Information Center (JPIC) received 205, 199 inquiries from citizens and medical personnel for 5 years from April, 1989 to March, 1995. And, the number of inquiries concerning with suicide in those was 5, 778. In July 1993, the book named the Suicidal Manual were published in Japan and since then, the inquiries concerning with suicide attempts have increased. So, I analyzed these data about implicated products and contrasted the data received before the publication of the manual to the data received after that on purpose to make clear the affection of the Suicidal Manual. In regard to the substance that was selected in suicide attempts cases, teen-ager and the twenties tend to use medicines, especially over-the-counter drugs and older people tend to use agricultural chemicals. After the book was published, the number of inquiries about some over-the-counter drugs that were shown as appropriate way for easy and painless death in the book had increased. So, it is very important to give the young people the information of drug toxicity and appropriate management of drugs to decrease the influence of the book.
著者
西田 茂樹 木村 正文
出版者
The Japanese Society of Health and Human Ecology
雑誌
民族衛生 (ISSN:03689395)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.4, pp.224-234, 1992-07-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
21

The purpose of this study is re-evaluation of population dynamics, especially of marriage, divorce, and birth and stillbirth by legitimacy, in Japan before the first population Census. Formerly we reported results of similar analysis for the period between 1872 and 1898. In this study, we have investigated the successive period from 1899 to 1919 which is the preceding year of the first Census. The marriage rates over this period were estimated to be around 50 to 60 per 1, 000 unmarried women over age 15. These figures are very low in comparison with those of the period after 1920. The official statistics of population before 1920 was based on "the Koseki (family registration system)" in contrary to the census after 1920. This difference may contribute the lower marriage rates for the period of this study. The divorce rates were estimated to be 6.0 to 8.4 per 1, 000 married women and showed a clear decrease since 1899. The illegitimate birth was found to be very frequent in the study period. It was estimated that one out of fifty unmarried women beared one child per annum. But the ratio of illegitimate births to all birth had showed a decline since 1912. The sex ratio of illegitimate birth was found to be lower than that of legitimate birth. The illegitimate stillbirth rates were around two and a half times higher than those of the legimate. It is considered that the enactment of the Civil Law in 1898 had contributable influence on these trends of marriage, divorce and the legitimacy of child.