著者
佐々木 昇一
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.39-52, 2017

本論文は、日本の労働市場における男性の学歴や就業形態間の賃金格差、また男女間の賃金格差や女性の労働市場への参入障壁といったジェンダー格差が結婚行動を通じて家計間の階層選別に与える影響について検証することを目的とする。そこで、日本の夫婦の結婚、出産などに関する国内最大規模の個票データを用いて理論仮説を実証的に検証した。その結果、男性の学歴間または就業形態間の賃金格差が大きいほど結婚を通じた家計の階層選別の程度を有意に高める効果を持つことが確認された。また、賃金や雇用に関するジェンダー格差が大卒女性の結婚行動に与える効果については、既婚女性の正規就業率が高いほど結婚を通じた階層選別の程度を緩和させる可能性が示された。 さらに、理論仮説に忠実に就業形態に基づく女性の下方婚についての推計を行った。その結果、非正規就業男性と正規就業女性の所得の上昇が階層選別の程度を緩和する可能性を有することが示された。 これらのことから、結婚を通じた階層選別の程度を緩和するためには、学歴間の賃金格差を縮小させることに加え、就業形態間の賃金格差を縮小させることや結婚後の女性の正規就業率を上昇させるといったジェンダー格差を是正する政策が必要であることが示唆される。
著者
佐々木 昇一
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, pp.79-87, 2010
参考文献数
15

This paper examines the determinants of the reservation wages for marriage by the survey of unmarried women in Japan. Especially, I focus on the effects of the employment status on whether the single women have the reservation wages and on their reservation wages themselves. The estimation results show that women who live with their parents tend to have the reservation wages for marriage. And their income and actual relationship to potential partner significantly affect their reservation wages. However, contrary to the theoretical hypothesis, the reservation wages are significantly influenced both by their present and potential labor supply in the future. It is partly because women such as part-time workers require their potential partner to have higher income as a hedge against their own unstable income. It suggests that we should consider the sum of the couple's expected income because many young couples both participate in the labor market in recent years.
著者
山本 信一 井上 麻央
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, pp.55-64, 2015

Much research has analyzed the relationship between class size and scholastic aptitude. Specifically, studies have focused on whether or not reducing class size contributes to improving children's scholastic aptitude. Not all research shows such an impact, with some studies showing no positive effect. These inconsistent results suggest that other factors besides class size have a major influence on scholastic aptitude. This paper not only focuses on class size but also examines the multicollinearity of select factors considered economically relevant. Data on the percentage of correct answers (by third grade public middle school students, from 2007 to 2010) by prefecture obtained from the National Survey of Scholastic Aptitude and Learning Environment were used as the dependent variable. Results of all panel data models used in the paper showed that students in smaller classes tended to answer a higher percentage of answers correctly as compared to their counterparts in larger classes. Moreover, the results clearly suggested that this effect was more pronounced for applied basic knowledge skills in mathematics. The coefficient for the household learning rate used as an explanatory variable was found to be negative, indicating that prefectures with lower levels of scholastic aptitude among public middle schools tend to have more education-oriented households that invest in education outside of school.
著者
櫻井 秀彦 古田 精一
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.1-12, 2016 (Released:2016-09-30)
参考文献数
33

Improving patient satisfaction is a goal of many pharmacies in Japan. However, it has been shown that in the case of chronic diseases, the outcomes of medical treatment are not always clearly perceivable, and may not necessarily lead to patient satisfaction. Issues such as reduced medication adherence and unused drugs have been indicated. In this study, we simultaneously measured the degree of patient satisfaction and medication adherence, issues which have been handled separately in previous studies. We then investigated influential factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted on out-patients in pharmacy. Patient satisfaction and medication adherence as well as factors considered to affect these parameters were measured with quantitative scales. Path analysis was performed to examine differences in degrees of influence on satisfaction and medication adherence with multiple group analysis of each patient attribute and disease group. The patient satisfaction level was affected by understanding of effect and medical staff. The adherence scale was most affected by burden followed by understanding of effect. Ultimately, in most cases, no correlation was found between patient satisfaction and adherence, and the contributing causes were found to vary, so improving these various vectors would seem to require respectively differing strategies.
著者
根津 永二
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.109-118, 2008

GDP would be considered as one of the most popular measures of affluence in living. Recently, however, relative poverty in affluent society in the advanced countries has been closed up. It is pointed out that relative poverty and income inequality in Japan have been the above the OECD average. The growing use of non-regular workers, the low public spending and the population ageing are responsible for the rise in measured income inequality and relative poverty. Especially, the labor market dualism is most important among these factors. Japan has been under the financial restrictions, so the degree of relative poverty in disposable income levels has been worse (or higher) than the degree of relative poverty in market income levels comparing to OECD average. The second part of this paper, the section 6, deals with the problem of portfolio selection in the imcomplete financial markets. The risk taking behaviors are not necessarily advisable in Japan.
著者
櫻井 秀彦 古田 精一
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.1-12, 2016

Improving patient satisfaction is a goal of many pharmacies in Japan. However, it has been shown that in the case of chronic diseases, the outcomes of medical treatment are not always clearly perceivable, and may not necessarily lead to patient satisfaction. Issues such as reduced medication adherence and unused drugs have been indicated. In this study, we simultaneously measured the degree of patient satisfaction and medication adherence, issues which have been handled separately in previous studies. We then investigated influential factors.A questionnaire survey was conducted on out-patients in pharmacy. Patient satisfaction and medication adherence as well as factors considered to affect these parameters were measured with quantitative scales. Path analysis was performed to examine differences in degrees of influence on satisfaction and medication adherence with multiple group analysis of each patient attribute and disease group.The patient satisfaction level was affected by understanding of effect and medical staff. The adherence scale was most affected by burden followed by understanding of effect. Ultimately, in most cases, no correlation was found between patient satisfaction and adherence, and the contributing causes were found to vary, so improving these various vectors would seem to require respectively differing strategies.
著者
金 東煥
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.11-26, 2013

The present paper examines empirical analysis on how the lock-in effect of capital gains tax raises Korean land prices, based on the theory that the effect deters the efficient land uses. At first, this paper constructs a simple model of land development from agricultural land with reconsidering of capital gains taxation under perfect foresight. Then the tax rate will be changed by simulation to confirm whether it affects the lock-in effect on the Korean land market. As the result, it makes clear that the lock-in effect of capital gains tax deters the efficient land uses of Korea's land, it also affects sudden rises of Korea's land prices.
著者
伊藤 敦
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.15-27, 2014-09-30 (Released:2016-11-30)

As a result of a case survey of Ashiya hospital to verify effectiveness of municipal hospital reform by the in-hospital practice method, two facts are revealed. First, this reform is recognized effective for all of Ashiya hospital, a clinic unit, and patients. Ashiya hospital improved the sickbed occupancy rate, and also remarkably reduced degree of deficit because it was enabled to add up commissions and rent followed by the hospital and clinic cooperation. The clinic unit lowered the initial cost and has many introduced patients, which results in good financial status. The patients reduce the access burden and medical expenses. Secondly, in order to succeed the in-hospital practice, it is recognized that it is indispensable to construct an integrated management structure. However, the current medical system works as an obstructive factor to prevent sharing the entrance, the reception, the waiting room, and so on by a hospital and a clinic unit. The in-hospital practice method is effective, and a flexible system operation needs to be approved in order to develop to other hospitals hereafter.
著者
吉見 憲二 樋口 清秀
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, pp.69-81, 2012

In the present study, it paid attention to the word of mouth marketing guideline that The Word of Mouth Japan Marketing Association had announced on March 12, 2010. And, examined how this guideline had effectiveness. Firstly, the definition and the previous work about the word of mouth marketing were confirmed. After that, picked up the guideline and analyzed cases that work or not. As a result, it reached the conclusion that the effect from the viewpoint of the consumer protection is limited. Finally, it paid attention to the case of penny auction. If stealth marketing is suspected, the guideline had not functioned effectively. As the reason, the guideline has stopped at moral regulation, and it was mentioned that things, such as a punitive clause or a research function, do not exist like U.S. regulation.
著者
青 幹大 村田 治
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.47-63, 2007

Recently, Japanese society has been getting to be a stratified one. This paper concerns with a problem of the income disparity. Especially, we would like to clarify the relation between the higher education and the income disparity. We will investigate the internal rate of return about 55 colleges and show that the differential of the internal rate of return among the colleges does not change from 1972 to 1997. Moreover, we will examine the relation between the internal rate of return and the level of the difficulty of entrance exams and show the positive correlation between two. Additionally, we will investigate the income level of parents and point out the positive correlation between the level of the difficulty of entrance exams and the income level of parents. Finally, from these two positive correlations, we will bring out the negative spiral between the income level and the education level, in other words the negative spiral between the income disparity and the differential of education.
著者
齊藤 由里恵 上村 敏之
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.31-43, 2007

The livelihood assistance allowance is considered the last safety net of the social security system in Japan. The aims are to guarantee a minimum standard of living and independence support for low income families. In recent years there have been some proposals about the livelihood assistance allowance. The number of the cover welfare family has been increasing due to expansion of nonstandard employment and a rise of the unemployment rate. This paper argues for the necessity of reforming the system from a viewpoint of working support. This paper evaluates the livelihood assistance allowance by estimating marginal effective tax rates. The main results of this paper are as follows : (1) Marginal effective tax rates of 100% within a bracket of deduction of earning income and falling ratio of deduction of earning income against the gross income increasing may be obstructed to work. (2) It seems likely that the marginal effective tax rate has exceeded 100% at the connection point of the livelihood assistance allowance and income based taxes disturb the labor by "the border line class" who has low income around the livelihood assistance standard. The reason is because the minimum taxable limit is lower than the livelihood assistance standard.
著者
小林 毅
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, pp.1-10, 2017

本論文では、日本銀行による量的・質的金融緩和政策が株式市場やJ-REIT市場に与えた影響をAR-GARCHモデルを用いて分析している。2010年12月に開始された包括的金融緩和政策において日本銀行は、リスク・プレミアムへの働きかけをするためにETF(上場投資信託)およびJ-REIT(不動産投資信託)等への買入れを開始した。この買入れに関して、TOPIXあるいは東証J-REIT指数の前日終値と比較して当日前場終値が下落した場合に日本銀行は買入れを行うという一定の傾向が観察されている。そして、黒田総裁の就任直後の2013年4月に量的・質的金融緩和政策が開始されて以来、ETFおよびJ-REIT買い入れの頻度が増していることが日本銀行の発表資料より示される。実証分析の結果、包括的金融緩和政策によって多くのJ-REIT個別銘柄のボラティリティは低下したが、量的・質的緩和政策はボラティリティをさらに低下させたことが明らかになった。ただしこれらの政策はJ-REITの日次収益率には影響を与えていないと思われる。一方、株価指数を対象に行った分析では、包括的金融緩和政策および量的・質的緩和政策は株式市場には有意な影響を与えなかったことも示される。
著者
野澤 隆
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.15-32, 2010-09-30 (Released:2016-11-30)
参考文献数
38

The paper examines whether postal savings in Japan before world war II had been small savings or not. This topic has been argued for a long period, but we can not get a clear conclusion. This paper analyzes it concretely through various materials and data. Its main point is a special attention to savings in corporative society. Especially, this paper investigates for which name had been deposited, representative name or individual name. Through clarifying this problem this paper aims to throw some light on the discussion about the so-called "smallness" in postal savings. This paper analyzes three periods separately, (1) before World War I, (2) during World War I and july 1937, (3) until the end of World War II. However, about period (3) our research is very limited because the government compelled people to deposit money in all banking facilities especially in postal savings banks, in this period.
著者
小林 毅
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.15-25, 2014-03-31 (Released:2016-11-30)

This article examines agency problems in the management of Japanese real estate investment trusts (J-REITs). J-REITs, which are externally advised, have potential conflicts of interest and might not trade assets with their sponsors at a fair price. With the use of data on individual properties, we investigate the existence of agency problems in transactions of properties between J-REITs and their sponsors. First, the assets purchased by J-REITs from their sponsors do not exhibit negative abnormal returns on average. Second, analysis on the categories of sponsors shows that properties which foreign sponsors sold to their J-REITs exhibit poor performances. Large domestic real estate firms, however, supply good properties to their J-REITs that yield high returns. Finally, we provide evidence that J-REITs sold their assets to their sponsors at low prices before the financial crisis in September 2008, which results in worse performance of them. This suggests the existence of agency problems.
著者
小宮山 康朗
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22.23, pp.37-53, 2006-03-01 (Released:2016-11-30)

It has been widely believed that GDP is the most reliable indicator to evaluate the progress of the society. These days, the women, participating in the business sector and adding the economic value to GDP, are perceived in a positive way to have contributed to our society by many Japanese research works. On the other hand, such research results tend to regard homemakers as unproductive because these homemakers just stay in their domestic community and do not create any market value. However GDP does not reflect social losses or negative effects caused by business activities against people in community such as, for instance, children's quality of life. At the same time GDP does not count any positive values contributed by, for instance, various unremunerated work of homemakers in their domestic communities, either. This paper considers ways in which the true economic impact of the non-market activities might be more accurately assessed. Alternative measurements are thus presented and utilized herein to analyze the positive economic and social value generated by the above.
著者
久米 功一
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.33-43, 2009-03-31 (Released:2016-11-30)
参考文献数
15

To examine the causality between subjective happiness of individuals and their earnings, we estimate effects of happiness on the earnings by using panel datasets. Specifically, following an empirical method proposed by Graham et al (2004), we used residuals of the happiness regression as unobservable subjective happiness to estimate earnings equations. The empirical results show that the degree of subjective happiness is determined by relative income position and prospect for the future, and that unobservable happiness can be regarded as cognitive biases which have different effects on earnings by gender and income levels. These evidences suggest that we need to pay more attention to prospect, relativity and unobservable happiness in the future happiness research.