著者
佐々木 昇一
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.39-52, 2017

本論文は、日本の労働市場における男性の学歴や就業形態間の賃金格差、また男女間の賃金格差や女性の労働市場への参入障壁といったジェンダー格差が結婚行動を通じて家計間の階層選別に与える影響について検証することを目的とする。そこで、日本の夫婦の結婚、出産などに関する国内最大規模の個票データを用いて理論仮説を実証的に検証した。その結果、男性の学歴間または就業形態間の賃金格差が大きいほど結婚を通じた家計の階層選別の程度を有意に高める効果を持つことが確認された。また、賃金や雇用に関するジェンダー格差が大卒女性の結婚行動に与える効果については、既婚女性の正規就業率が高いほど結婚を通じた階層選別の程度を緩和させる可能性が示された。 さらに、理論仮説に忠実に就業形態に基づく女性の下方婚についての推計を行った。その結果、非正規就業男性と正規就業女性の所得の上昇が階層選別の程度を緩和する可能性を有することが示された。 これらのことから、結婚を通じた階層選別の程度を緩和するためには、学歴間の賃金格差を縮小させることに加え、就業形態間の賃金格差を縮小させることや結婚後の女性の正規就業率を上昇させるといったジェンダー格差を是正する政策が必要であることが示唆される。
著者
小林 毅
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.15-25, 2014-03-31 (Released:2016-11-30)

This article examines agency problems in the management of Japanese real estate investment trusts (J-REITs). J-REITs, which are externally advised, have potential conflicts of interest and might not trade assets with their sponsors at a fair price. With the use of data on individual properties, we investigate the existence of agency problems in transactions of properties between J-REITs and their sponsors. First, the assets purchased by J-REITs from their sponsors do not exhibit negative abnormal returns on average. Second, analysis on the categories of sponsors shows that properties which foreign sponsors sold to their J-REITs exhibit poor performances. Large domestic real estate firms, however, supply good properties to their J-REITs that yield high returns. Finally, we provide evidence that J-REITs sold their assets to their sponsors at low prices before the financial crisis in September 2008, which results in worse performance of them. This suggests the existence of agency problems.
著者
佐々木 昇一
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, pp.79-87, 2010
参考文献数
15

This paper examines the determinants of the reservation wages for marriage by the survey of unmarried women in Japan. Especially, I focus on the effects of the employment status on whether the single women have the reservation wages and on their reservation wages themselves. The estimation results show that women who live with their parents tend to have the reservation wages for marriage. And their income and actual relationship to potential partner significantly affect their reservation wages. However, contrary to the theoretical hypothesis, the reservation wages are significantly influenced both by their present and potential labor supply in the future. It is partly because women such as part-time workers require their potential partner to have higher income as a hedge against their own unstable income. It suggests that we should consider the sum of the couple's expected income because many young couples both participate in the labor market in recent years.
著者
佐野 美智子
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.1-15, 2009-03-31 (Released:2016-11-30)
参考文献数
44

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the link between income and subjective satisfaction with one's financial situation. It is hypothesized that a household's financial situation has a direct effect on financial satisfaction as well as indirect effects mediated by evaluation of its financial situation, which is based on the comparison with the others and one's own past, aspiration level and consumption level. Structural equation modeling of data was used to test the causal model. The data come from the survey conducted in both Tokyo and Osaka metropolitan area of Japan (n=529). Married samples of both young age bracket 20-39 and middle age bracket 40-59 were used. The results reveal that relative evaluation of its financial situation is the most important for financial satisfaction among the young. On the other hand, among middle ager, financial situation in absolute term is the most important. The present survey results also show that there are more people who often compare their own financial situation with their friends among the young than other age bracket. Income disparity among the young has widened in late 1990s but satisfaction disparity has not widened so much, because relative income has more effect on satisfaction. Even if income disparity in absolute term had widened, the young would not be less satisfied if their friends as reference group had been in the same situation.
著者
青 幹大 村田 治
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.47-63, 2007-03-30 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
2

Recently, Japanese society has been getting to be a stratified one. This paper concerns with a problem of the income disparity. Especially, we would like to clarify the relation between the higher education and the income disparity. We will investigate the internal rate of return about 55 colleges and show that the differential of the internal rate of return among the colleges does not change from 1972 to 1997. Moreover, we will examine the relation between the internal rate of return and the level of the difficulty of entrance exams and show the positive correlation between two. Additionally, we will investigate the income level of parents and point out the positive correlation between the level of the difficulty of entrance exams and the income level of parents. Finally, from these two positive correlations, we will bring out the negative spiral between the income level and the education level, in other words the negative spiral between the income disparity and the differential of education.
著者
山本 信一 井上 麻央
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, pp.55-64, 2015

Much research has analyzed the relationship between class size and scholastic aptitude. Specifically, studies have focused on whether or not reducing class size contributes to improving children's scholastic aptitude. Not all research shows such an impact, with some studies showing no positive effect. These inconsistent results suggest that other factors besides class size have a major influence on scholastic aptitude. This paper not only focuses on class size but also examines the multicollinearity of select factors considered economically relevant. Data on the percentage of correct answers (by third grade public middle school students, from 2007 to 2010) by prefecture obtained from the National Survey of Scholastic Aptitude and Learning Environment were used as the dependent variable. Results of all panel data models used in the paper showed that students in smaller classes tended to answer a higher percentage of answers correctly as compared to their counterparts in larger classes. Moreover, the results clearly suggested that this effect was more pronounced for applied basic knowledge skills in mathematics. The coefficient for the household learning rate used as an explanatory variable was found to be negative, indicating that prefectures with lower levels of scholastic aptitude among public middle schools tend to have more education-oriented households that invest in education outside of school.
著者
櫻井 秀彦
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.1-14, 2019 (Released:2019-09-30)
参考文献数
45

わが国では、近年特に医薬分業制度に対する様々な指摘がなされている。しかし、分業制度の利用者である患者の評価を基にこの制度について詳しく検証した報告は見受けられない。本研究では、Web調査にて処方医療機関と薬局の評価と継続利用意志、並びに服薬継続意志と分業制度の評価について測定し、これらの関連性を探った。 外来の慢性疾患患者1,952人のデータでサービス評価要素、総合満足、継続意志と分業評価に順に影響する構造方程式モデルを検討した。 結果は、薬局の方が医療機関と比べて過程品質要素(プロセス評価)からの総合満足への影響度が高かった。総合満足間では薬局から医療機関への影響のみ有意であった。また、継続利用意志では医療機関と薬局の双方向の影響が有意であった。更に、服薬継続意志には医療機関、薬局の順で総合満足が影響したが、影響度は低かった。分業評価には医療機関総合満足度より薬局総合満足の影響度が極めて高かった。 以上、薬局が処方医療機関の評価を補完し、継続意志や分業評価では双方が影響するなど、患者には潜在的に分業制度の機能が認識されていることが示された。分業評価には薬局評価の過程品質も強く関連することが示された。しかし、服薬継続意志については影響度の高い変数がないことから、患者由来の要因等、他の影響要因を探る必要性も示唆された。
著者
櫻井 秀彦 古田 精一
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.1-12, 2016 (Released:2016-09-30)
参考文献数
33

Improving patient satisfaction is a goal of many pharmacies in Japan. However, it has been shown that in the case of chronic diseases, the outcomes of medical treatment are not always clearly perceivable, and may not necessarily lead to patient satisfaction. Issues such as reduced medication adherence and unused drugs have been indicated. In this study, we simultaneously measured the degree of patient satisfaction and medication adherence, issues which have been handled separately in previous studies. We then investigated influential factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted on out-patients in pharmacy. Patient satisfaction and medication adherence as well as factors considered to affect these parameters were measured with quantitative scales. Path analysis was performed to examine differences in degrees of influence on satisfaction and medication adherence with multiple group analysis of each patient attribute and disease group. The patient satisfaction level was affected by understanding of effect and medical staff. The adherence scale was most affected by burden followed by understanding of effect. Ultimately, in most cases, no correlation was found between patient satisfaction and adherence, and the contributing causes were found to vary, so improving these various vectors would seem to require respectively differing strategies.
著者
李 青雅 古郡 鞆子
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.85-95, 2012-09-30 (Released:2016-11-30)

The prevalence of obesity has become a serious, worldwide public health problem. Its main cause is in the change of lifestyle having been brought by technological innovations in the fields of food production and processing, distribution systems, computer and information technologies, means of transportation, etc. Obesity raises problems in health care, medical spending, labor market, quality of life, and other areas. Using a panel data in Japan and analyzing effects of overweight and obesity on physical and mental health, we found the following: 1) obesity influences physical and mental health negatively; 2) the effect appears more on physical health than mental health; 3) men tend to be affected physically more than mentally and women mentally more than physically; and 4) the effects of overweight and obesity are noticeable more on workers than non-workers and more on employees than self-employed. Obesity is a problem of dietary habit on one hand and that of social structures on the other. There are many actual and foreseeable problems to be solved to prevent obesity and cope with obesity-related issues. Physical and mental health problem dealt with in this paper is one of them when the number of overweight especially for men in Japan shows a steady growth.
著者
久米 功一 鶴 光太郎 戸田 淳仁
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.25-38, 2017 (Released:2017-09-30)
参考文献数
11

本稿では、正社員の多様な働き方が進展している現状に鑑みて、限定的な働き方が労働者に与える厚生について検討した。とくに、制度上の区分ではなく、働き方の実態に着目して分析した。限定的な働き方をしている正社員のスキル形成と満足度の視点から、これらの関係を構造的・立体的に捉えることを試みた。具体的には、限定的な働き方とスキルが仕事・生活満足度に与える影響について金銭的価値から評価した。 その結果、満足度の観点からみると、残業があることやスキルアップの機会がないことが、仕事満足度も生活満足度も損ねていた。生活満足度アプローチから、満足度を損ねる働き方の所得補償額を試算すると、正社員のスキル向上機会がないことで失われる仕事満足度、生活満足度の経済的価値はそれぞれ1,233.3円/時(平均時給の72.4%)、808円/時(同47.4%)と、残業に対する補償額の2~3倍と大きかった。女性正社員は、男性正社員に比べて、残業や転勤・配置転換、ラインに組み込まれていることが、生活満足度を損ねて、その大きさは、時給の約6割程度に相当していた
著者
根津 永二
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.109-118, 2008

GDP would be considered as one of the most popular measures of affluence in living. Recently, however, relative poverty in affluent society in the advanced countries has been closed up. It is pointed out that relative poverty and income inequality in Japan have been the above the OECD average. The growing use of non-regular workers, the low public spending and the population ageing are responsible for the rise in measured income inequality and relative poverty. Especially, the labor market dualism is most important among these factors. Japan has been under the financial restrictions, so the degree of relative poverty in disposable income levels has been worse (or higher) than the degree of relative poverty in market income levels comparing to OECD average. The second part of this paper, the section 6, deals with the problem of portfolio selection in the imcomplete financial markets. The risk taking behaviors are not necessarily advisable in Japan.
著者
金 東煥
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.11-26, 2013

The present paper examines empirical analysis on how the lock-in effect of capital gains tax raises Korean land prices, based on the theory that the effect deters the efficient land uses. At first, this paper constructs a simple model of land development from agricultural land with reconsidering of capital gains taxation under perfect foresight. Then the tax rate will be changed by simulation to confirm whether it affects the lock-in effect on the Korean land market. As the result, it makes clear that the lock-in effect of capital gains tax deters the efficient land uses of Korea's land, it also affects sudden rises of Korea's land prices.
著者
何 芳
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.129-146, 2018 (Released:2018-09-30)
参考文献数
15

本稿は、厚生労働省「21世紀成年者縦断調査」の個票データを用いて、女性の稼得能力と結婚選択との関係について分析を行った。分析では、学歴などの同じ属性のグループ内の賃金格差が存在することに配慮し、パネル固定効果モデルで推定した対数賃金率を稼得能力の代理変数として用いた。さらに、結婚選択と稼得能力の内生性をコントロールするため、結婚意欲をコントロールした。結果の頑健性の確認のため、OLSで推定した対数賃金率、対数年間労働所得、パネル固定効果モデルで推定した対数年間労働所得が結婚選択に与える影響についても分析し、パネル固定効果モデルで推定した対数賃金率を用いた場合の推定結果との比較を行った。 稼得能力が結婚選択に与える影響については、Cox比例ハザードモデルを利用した。以上の分析の結果、女性の稼得能力が高いほど、結婚する確率が高くなっていることが確認された。また、推定した対数賃金率と年齢階級ダミーの交差項で、稼得能力が与える結婚選択の年齢階級による効果の違いを確認した結果、稼得能力が与える結婚選択へのプラスの効果は、大学・大学院卒女性にとって年齢の上昇に伴い逓減していることが確認された。
著者
南地 伸昭
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.43-57, 2005-03-30 (Released:2016-11-30)

In the Meiji era, the new government established small-scale banks nationwide, aiming to encourage community industries through making regional finance smooth, having adopted the small banking principle of the United States National Banks. These small-scale banks had a common feature that the local potentate, a "shizoku", a merchant, a landowner, an industrial person, and municipalities positively participated in establishing banks. Moreover, they have coexisted with community by supporting the creation and the development of regional commerce and industry through making regional finance smooth. Such historical details agree with today's situation in which regional financial institutions nationwide grapple with a variety of management problems along "Action Program concerning enhancement of Relationship Banking Functions" aiming to rebuild regional businesses and to activate communities. Because regional financial institutions share the fate with the community, their most important mission, according to the various characteristics of each regional economy, is to attempt the activation of the regional economy by the establishment and the development of the local industry.
著者
神野 真敏
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.77-86, 2008

In a signaling theory, learning ability and productivity are often considered to be similar and a clear difference between them is not assumed. This paper shows that an assumption of the difference between them makes it clear that a correlation between them is important for one's educational background to signalize one's ability. This paper also discusses the problems associated with liquidity constraints when students signalize one's own ability.
著者
櫻井 秀彦 古田 精一
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.1-12, 2016

Improving patient satisfaction is a goal of many pharmacies in Japan. However, it has been shown that in the case of chronic diseases, the outcomes of medical treatment are not always clearly perceivable, and may not necessarily lead to patient satisfaction. Issues such as reduced medication adherence and unused drugs have been indicated. In this study, we simultaneously measured the degree of patient satisfaction and medication adherence, issues which have been handled separately in previous studies. We then investigated influential factors.A questionnaire survey was conducted on out-patients in pharmacy. Patient satisfaction and medication adherence as well as factors considered to affect these parameters were measured with quantitative scales. Path analysis was performed to examine differences in degrees of influence on satisfaction and medication adherence with multiple group analysis of each patient attribute and disease group.The patient satisfaction level was affected by understanding of effect and medical staff. The adherence scale was most affected by burden followed by understanding of effect. Ultimately, in most cases, no correlation was found between patient satisfaction and adherence, and the contributing causes were found to vary, so improving these various vectors would seem to require respectively differing strategies.
著者
伊藤 敦
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.15-27, 2014-09-30 (Released:2016-11-30)

As a result of a case survey of Ashiya hospital to verify effectiveness of municipal hospital reform by the in-hospital practice method, two facts are revealed. First, this reform is recognized effective for all of Ashiya hospital, a clinic unit, and patients. Ashiya hospital improved the sickbed occupancy rate, and also remarkably reduced degree of deficit because it was enabled to add up commissions and rent followed by the hospital and clinic cooperation. The clinic unit lowered the initial cost and has many introduced patients, which results in good financial status. The patients reduce the access burden and medical expenses. Secondly, in order to succeed the in-hospital practice, it is recognized that it is indispensable to construct an integrated management structure. However, the current medical system works as an obstructive factor to prevent sharing the entrance, the reception, the waiting room, and so on by a hospital and a clinic unit. The in-hospital practice method is effective, and a flexible system operation needs to be approved in order to develop to other hospitals hereafter.
著者
上村 一樹
出版者
生活経済学会
雑誌
生活経済学研究 (ISSN:13417347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.73-84, 2012

In this paper, I investigate the effect of health condition on labor hour and labor supply. Particularly, as previous Japanese studies exclusively focus on the elderly people (over forty five), I focus on youth and middle age (from twenty to forty four). I use Keio Household Panel Survey (KHPS) and empirical results are summarized as follows. Firstly, in case of both genders, there seems no effect of health on labor hour. In case of male, this is not consistent with previous studies which focus on elderly male. This is perhaps because loss from disemployment is larger for younger people than elder people and thus they cannot change their labor hour even if their health condition becomes a little worse. Secondly, as for both genders, there is also no empirical evidence for effect of health on whether they work ornot. As youth and middle age rely on labor income, this also seems plausible.