- 和洋女子大学紀要 = The journal of Wayo Women's University (ISSN:18846351)
- vol.60, pp.1-11, 2019-03-31
In France, from the age of Enlightenment to the early 19th century, scientific-technical images and their graphical arrangements became a device for recognizing, describing, and thinking about the world. Along with the illustrated plates and image tableaux in scientific books, dictionaries, and encyclopedias, architectural imagery came to function as a means of classification, comparison, description of history, and designing buildings. It was during this period that a turn occurred in architectural theory: a shift from the neo-classical concept of architectural character to the rationalist or eclecticist notion of building types. Two architectural treatises by Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand, Recueil et parallèle des édifices de tout genre … (1799–1801) and Précis des leçons d’architecture … (1802–1805), marked a characteristic point in this turn. In Recueil , a juxtaposition of the buildings from various ages and areas in a tableau enabled a typology based on the comparison of formal structures by freeing architecture from the historical and regional contexts and from aesthetic judgment. In Précis , arranging several architectural elements on a grid provides an algorithm of designing buildings for the architects as engineers, not as artists. This essay clarifies the peculiarity and the significance of Durand’s graphical system in the context of intellectual history.