著者
半沢 真帆
出版者
一般社団法人 日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.36.015, (Released:2020-11-30)
参考文献数
54
被引用文献数
2

Direct observations of the behavior of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in many populations have been recorded over the decades. However, novel behaviors continue to be reported. Here, I report a novel social behavior “rump-rump contact” among males of one group in Yakushima, a behavior that has not been reported in any macaque species. Eight cases of this behavior were observed in 87 observation-days between August and October 2018. They were classified into two types: the RR type, where the rumps of the two individuals symmetrically touched each other, and the RT type, where the rump of one individual was in touch with the lateral torso of the other. At the same time as this behavior, the two individuals clasped the other's body and touched the other's hindquarter by wagging tails. The contexts in which this behavior was observed suggests that it helps in regulating social tension, as might be the case in bonobos where the RR type is known. However, it is likely that this behavior in the two species is not entirely comparable, as no genital contacts with thrust was observed in the Japanese macaques as part of this behavior. In the macaque, it is possible that this behavior was derived from “presenting” because it was seen just before this behavior, and the same action of clasping the other's body was seen at the same time as this behavior. This is a highly novel behavior in that, wagging tails may be a kind of tactile communication, which has never been reported in nonhuman primates. Additionally, it is valuable that this behavior previously known only in bonobos and chimpanzees was also observed in the Japanese macaques, which have very different phylogenetic relationships and social systems. Further studies may reveal the affinitive relationships that goes beyond the strict dominance relationship between males.
著者
山崎 彩夏 武田 庄平 鳥居 映太 鈴木 創三 清水 美香 黒鳥 英俊
出版者
一般社団法人 日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.59-66, 2010-06-20 (Released:2010-07-01)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
2 2

Geophagy (soil-eating) is one of the well-known behaviours in many primate species, but the factors influencing this behaviour have been less known. In the captive environment of Tama Zoological Park, 2 female Borneo orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) showed geophagic behaviour that was restricted to a particular site in the naturalistic outdoor enclosure. We compared the properties of the soil at this site with those of soils from 7 other different sites in the enclosure to determine the differences between the soils. To this end, we examined the landform, vegetation type, the physical and chemical characteristics of the soils at these sites. The enclosure was situated on the hillside of secondary woodland comprising Fagaceae sp. with a gently sloping ridge on the east side and valley bottoms on the west side. The site at which the animals exhibited geophagic behaviour was located at the lowest area of the valley bottoms. We found that this area was thinly covered by a herbaceous layer with Gramineae sp., and most of ground surface was bare. The soil eaten by orangutans had a low density and was highly friable, soft, and wet. Chemical analysis revealed that the soil in the enclosure had a high Ca content (70-80%) and that soils at some points in the enclosure, including the soil at the site of geophagic behaviour, had high Fe and Mg contents. The site of geophagic behaviour was located at the bottom of the valley; therefore, soil ingredients may have accumulated easily in this soil. However, we could not find any definitive chemical factors to explain the geophagic behaviour of orangutans. One possible explanation is that since the site was bare with highly friable, soft, and wet soil, the orangutans would have been able to easily eat the soil from that site.
著者
早川 卓志
出版者
一般社団法人 日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.65-78, 2018-06-20 (Released:2018-08-22)
参考文献数
102
被引用文献数
1

Genetic investigation of wild primates are crucial to understand kinship, population diversity, phylogeographic patterns, and heritable factors of phenotypes. Traditional DNA technology using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing have restricted the genome-wide analysis of primates, particularly due to the low quality and low quantity of noninvasive DNA samples obtained from wild individuals. Following the post-genome era, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have provided a new paradigm in primate studies. NGS has enabled the genome-wide analysis of primate DNA using noninvasive samples, such as feces. Metabarcoding and metagenomics analyses using fecal samples provide information on food items and commensal microorganisms of the host animal. Here, I review a history of DNA sequencing technologies and examples of NGS studies in wild primates. Further, I discuss the effectiveness of NGS application to noninvasive samples.
著者
長尾 充徳 釜鳴 宏枝 山本 裕己 高井 進 田中 正之
出版者
一般社団法人 日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.30.017, (Released:2014-09-08)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
4 1

The purpose of this paper is to describe the early introduction protocols in a hand-reared Gorilla infant (Gorilla gorilla) that was introduced to biological parents at Kyoto City Zoo. The introduction process was initiated when the infant was one year old. In Dec. 21, 2011, an infant gorilla was born at Kyoto City Zoo. The infant is the first one who has captive-born parents, and the fourth generation of gorillas in Japan. The mother successfully held the infant, but could not give her milk enough to feed the infant. The baby showed dehydration and weakened. For the purpose of saving its life, we separated the infant from the mother and began to rear it. To avoid harmful influence of hand-rearing, we planned to reintroduce the hand-reared infant to its parents on the basis of successful cases in European and American zoos. We separated the processes of reintroduction into five steps, each of which had no time-limit, but totaled one, or one and half years. We started to show the infant to the parents when the infant was two months old. In the beginning, each of the parents showed a gentle attitude, and then started to directly contact with their infant. Habituation with the physical environment and the parents was going smoothly under careful observation. We returned the infant to its mother successfully at 10.5 months of age. Then, in its 11.5 months of age, we reintroduced the mother and the infant to the adult male (i.e., the father of the infant). Finally, the parents and the infant live together peacefully now. We thought of the processes of reintroduction and found one of the most important factors was that separation was attributed by not giving up nursing, but insufficiency of milk. Another factor may be that separation period was short enough to induce a sense of responsibility as a mother.
著者
半谷 吾郎 好廣 眞一 YANG Danhe WONG Christopher Chai Thiam 岡 桃子 楊木 萌 佐藤 侑太郎 大坪 卓 櫻井 貴之 川田 美風 F. FAHRI SIWAN Elangkumaran Sagtia HAVERCAMP Kristin 余田 修助 GU Ningxin LOKHANDWALA Seema Sheesh 中野 勝光 瀧 雄渡 七五三木 環 本郷 峻 澤田 晶子 本田 剛章 栗原 洋介
出版者
一般社団法人 日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.36.014, (Released:2020-11-30)
参考文献数
23

We studied the island-wide distribution of wild Japanese macaques in Yakushima (Macaca fuscata yakui) in May 2017 and 2018. We walked 165.4 km along roads and recorded the location of 842 macaque feces. We divided the roads into segments 50 m in length (N=3308) and analyzed the effect of the areas of farms and villages or conifer plantations around the segments and also the presence of hunting for pest control on the presence or absence of feces. We divided the island into three areas based on population trend changes over the past two decades: north and east (hunting present, population decreasing); south (hunting present, no change) and west (hunting absent, no change). According to conditional autoregressive models incorporating spatial autocorrelation, only farms and villages affected the presence of feces negatively in the island-wide data set. The effect of hunting on the presence of feces was present only in the north and east and the effect of conifer plantations was present only in the west. Qualitative comparisons of the census records from the 1990s with the more recent census indicated that feces were no longer found in the private land near the northern villages of Yakushima, where macaques were previously often detected in the 1990s. In other areas, such as near the southern villages or in the highlands, macaques were detected both in the 1990s and in 2017-2018. Our results further strengthen the possibility that the macaques have largely disappeared around the villages in the northern and eastern areas. Since the damage of crops by macaques has recently reduced considerably, we recommend reducing hunting pressure in the north and east areas and putting more effort into alternative measures such as the use of electric fences.
著者
落合 知美 綿貫 宏史朗 鵜殿 俊史 森村 成樹 平田 聡 友永 雅己 伊谷 原一 松沢 哲郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.19-29, 2015-06-20 (Released:2015-08-07)
参考文献数
70
被引用文献数
1 2

The Great Ape Information Network has collated and archived information on captive chimpanzees within Japan since 2002. As of July 1st, 2014, a total of 323 chimpanzees were housed within 52 facilities across Japan, all registered in the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA) studbook. JAZA has recorded information on captive chimpanzees within Japan since the 1980s. However, for individuals unregistered and/or deceased prior to this period, JAZA holds scant information. There are very few surviving reports on living conditions and husbandry of such individuals, particularly for the years preceding the Second World War (WWII) (up to 1945). Here we present the first detailed history of captive chimpanzees in Japan before WWII, following a systematic investigation of disparate records. The first record of any live chimpanzee within Japan was a chimpanzee accompanying an Italian travelling circus in 1921. The history of resident captive chimpanzees in Japan began in 1927 when a chimpanzee, imported into Japan by a visitor, was exhibited in Osaka zoo. In the 1930s, many chimpanzee infants were imported to Japanese zoos until in 1941 imports were halted because of WWII. By the end of WWII, there was only one single chimpanzee still alive within Japan, “Bamboo”, housed in Nagoya. In 1951, importation of wild chimpanzees into Japan resumed. In total, we identified 28 individuals housed within Japan before 1945, none listed previously in the JAZA studbook. Of these 28 individuals: 6 entered Japan as pets and/or circus animals, 21 were imported to zoos, and one was stillborn in zoo. Of the 21 zoo-housed individuals, 7 died within one year and 9 of the remaining 14 were dead within 5 years of arriving in Japan. Four individuals are recorded to have lived 7-8 years. Only one male individual, the aforementioned “Bamboo”, lived notably longer, to about 14 years.
著者
中川 尚史 中道 正之 山田 一憲
出版者
一般社団法人 日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.111-125, 2011 (Released:2012-01-19)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
6 6

Questionnaire on infrequently-observed behaviors (IOBs) in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were given to primatologists. This survey aimed to provide basic information on the degree of rarity of each behavior. The questionnaire consisted of questions for respondents themselves, (e.g., name, research carrier, daily observation time), focal group (name of group and local population, captive, provisioned free-ranging, crop-raiding or purely wild), and IOBs. Experience of direct observation of 36 candidates of IOBs was also requested to answer by yes, no, or impossible to answer because of ambiguous memory or unawareness of its behavior. In total, 39 answer sheets were obtained from 32 respondents. The top 10 IOBs and the number of those answering "yes" in parenthesis are as follows: mating interruption by juveniles (1), simultaneously nursing different-aged offspring (1), tool-use (1), single mount ejaculation (2), transporting the older offspring (2), nursing the older offspring (2), simultaneously transporting different-aged offspring (3), pulling the hair of female chin as a courtship behavior by male (4), twin birth (4), and (diurnal) birth (6). Some of IOBs, such as mating interruption by juveniles, seem to be due to ambiguous memory or unawareness of its behavior. Apparent inter-population differences in the percentage of respondents answering "yes" to the all the respondents giving definite answers were found in some behaviors, such as embrace-rocking behaviors, mating behaviors in birth season, stone-handling, and feeding on vertebrates. Some of them, like the latter two, seem to have something to do with provisioning. With the modification of three categories by Nakamichi et al. (2009), we proposed the following five categories of IOBs: I) behaviors which are difficult to be observed despite its common occurrence; II) behaviors which rarely occur in every population: III) behaviors which rarely occur in some populations, but frequently occur in the others; IV) behaviors which are difficult to identify and memorize despite its common occurrence; V) behaviors which rarely occur during the most of the time but temporally occur.
著者
寺本 研 森 森裕介 長野 邦寿 早坂 郁夫 沓掛 展之 池田 功毅 長谷川 寿一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.33-43, 2007 (Released:2009-01-01)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
6 4

Chimpanzees are a naturally highly sociable species. Therefore, it is desirable to keep captive individuals in a social group. Although the dyadic introduction method has been commonly used to form social groups, it has not always been successful. In the present study, we tested a new method to create three all-male groups, two of which consisted of .ve individuals, and one of nine individuals. This method requires three stages. First, male dyads were put into neighboring cages in which the individuals could see each other. Tentative social rank was determined by observing the males' behaviors in these dyadic encounters. Next, they were moved to an unfamiliar environment and housed individually. Several days later, they were introduced one by one to an outside enclosure. Three allmale groups have been maintained so far, suggesting that group formation was successful. The occurrence of severe injury was considerably lower than that seen commonly in multi-male multi-female groups. Moreover, signi.cant effects of the group formation on male behavior (e.g., increased number of active social behaviors and decreased abnormal behaviors) were observed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our new method of forming all-male chimpanzee groups.
著者
西江 仁徳
出版者
一般社団法人 日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.73-90, 2008-12-20 (Released:2009-08-11)
参考文献数
45
被引用文献数
5 5

‘ The metaphor of transmission’ (cognition-transmission model), which is a root metaphor of contemporary primatology, was reconsidered and deconstructed by referring to other academic domains such as anthropology, communication study, psychology and cognitive science. Instead, I introduced another epistemological standpoint, action-practice model, based on the ‘ situated action’ approach, in order to expand the perspective of contemporary ‘ cultural primatology’ and to understand the relationship comprehensively between primate culture and sociality. From this standpoint, I analyzed social interactions along ant-fishing among wild chimpanzees at Mahale, Tanzania. Some situated characters of their social practice, such as attitude depending on others’ actions, moderate exploring proposition to others, and direct reaction to such propositions, were considered to be important to realize such social situation of ant-fishing as a cultural practice of chimpanzees.