著者
上野 将敬
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.34.002, (Released:2018-06-27)
参考文献数
75

Group-living primates often perform complex social behaviors. Traditionally, observational and experimental studies have provided important insights into the social behaviors of primates; however, these studies have limitations regarding unambiguous causality. The use of artificial stimuli can aid in understanding the mechanisms of animal behavior. A robot, which can perform some behavior sequences automatically or by remote control, serves as a new method to study the response of an animal to the stimulus of the same or other species. One of the advantages of using a robot is that researchers can change the appearance and behavior in line with their purpose. In addition, using a robot can help investigate the influence of more than one individual on another individual's behaviors. Although it is advantageous to use robots in the study of animal behaviors, it entails various challenges. This paper reviews the studies on animal behavior that used robots as stimuli and discusses the contribution of using robots in primate behavior study in the future.
著者
平松 千尋
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.85-98, 2010-12-20 (Released:2011-02-01)
参考文献数
65
被引用文献数
4 1

Primates are unique among placental mammals in having trichromatic color vision, while most mammals possess dichromatic color vision. It has been hypothesized that the adaptive significance of trichromacy in primates is to detect reddish ripe fruits against a dappled foliage background. However, a behavioral advantage of trichromacy for fruit foraging has not been demonstrated in wild populations. The present paper reviews color vision status and utility of color vision in various primate species and describes recent advances in examining the significance of trichromacy. New World monkeys, which express high intraspecific color vision diversity due to an allelic polymorphism of the X-linked opsin gene, provide the excellent model to explore the significance of trichromacy for frugivory. The comparison of fruit foraging efficiency between dichromatic and trichromatic individuals in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) inhabiting a Costa Rican dry forest did not reveal any trichromat advantage. This result is explained via the luminance contrast between fruits and background leaves, which cues the detection and selection of edible ripe fruits when fruits are viewed from close distances. In addition, sniffing behavior toward fruits was negatively correlated with luminance and blue-yellow contrasts, suggesting that monkeys use olfactory cues when vision alone is insufficient to select edible fruits. These results suggest that an advantage of trichromacy is not salient under natural conditions where many sensory cues are available. To understand the significance of trichromacy, it is necessary to evaluate how trichromacy benefits fruit detection over long distances. It is also important to observe various social feeding behaviors to examine alternate hypotheses, such as mutual benefit of association.
著者
辻 大和
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.109-126, 2012-12-20 (Released:2013-01-24)
参考文献数
130
被引用文献数
4 3

In this review I introduce the literature concerning variations in the feeding ecology of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), for which many Japanese primatologists have collected data for more than 60 years. Specifically, I review 1) temporal, 2) spatial, and 3) inter-individual variations in the feeding ecology of the macaques. Food resources of the macaques in habitats exhibit temporal shifts (in short-term, seasonal change, and inter-annual change), which consequently affect feeding-related behavior, such as ranging patterns, activity budgets, and degree of crop-raiding. On the other hand, temporal changes in feeding sometimes affect inter-specific relationships. Food environment differs regionally, which is attributed to forest productivity and flora, and/or physical conditions such as temperature and snowfall. The feeding ecology differs even between neighboring troops inhabiting different forest structures. A troop of macaques consists of males and females of different ages and social ranks whose nutritional demands vary. Such inter-individual variation within group affects their feeding ecology, which consequently affects population parameters through competition over food resources. Variation in food habits would affect other ecological phenomena, such as seed dispersal and plant community structure. Finally, I discuss several challenges facing future studies of the feeding ecology of Japanese macaques.
著者
上野 将敬
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.21-34, 2017-06-20 (Released:2017-07-27)
参考文献数
105

Group-living primates are likely to spend a substantial amount of time grooming and resting with a small number of other group members. Such close and enduring relationships are regarded as affiliative. The properties of affiliative relationships are not fully understood and no consensus exists on how to quantitatively describe them. In this review, I explain the primate behaviors that are related to affiliative relationships and examine the means for using these behaviors to measure the relationship. Traditionally, affiliative relationships are defined by the frequency of proximity and grooming. Individuals with frequent proximity and grooming tend to perform altruistic behaviors for their partners without immediate return from them, groom each other in a reciprocal manner in the long-term, show distress and reconcile after agonistic interactions, and synchronize their behaviors with those of their partners. Thus, in addition to measuring the frequencies of proximity and grooming, these behavioral tendencies might be used as indices of affiliative relationships. Similarly, other questions concerning affiliative relationships remain unexplained. Some studies show that affiliative relationships increase reproductive success, but the mechanisms leading to fitness outcomes remain unclear. Although typically in primates, related individuals tend to form affiliative relationships, such relationships are also formed with unrelated individuals. Affiliative relationships could mitigate the negative effects of competition among individuals in large social groups and ensure that the individuals that form the relationship receive benefits from each other (e.g., agonistic support and collective mobbing). It is also unclear whether the affiliated relationships of nonhuman primates are equivalent to those of humans. Further research is necessary to elucidate similarities or differences in affiliative relationships between human and nonhuman primates.
著者
船橋 新太郎
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.85-96, 2006 (Released:2007-03-13)
参考文献数
38

ADHD is one of the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorders and could be explained as a prefrontal dysfunction. Studies suggest that ADHD is related to deficits of dopamine-related functions, because methylphenidate, which is a dopamine transporter inhibitor, is the most effective medication for the treatment of ADHD. The prefrontal cortex is the cortical area where the most strong dopamine innervation is observed. Local acute injection of dopamine-related drugs to the prefrontal cortex produces modulation of task-related activity and behavioral deficits in cognitive task performances. Thus, the dysfunction of dopamine-related modulation in the prefrontal cortex could be a possible candidate of biological causes of ADHD. To prove this idea, in the future we are going to inject 6-OHDA into infant monkeys' prefrontal cortex to disturb dopamine functions chronically and compare its behavior with normal monkeys.
著者
伊谷 原一 松沢 哲郎 山極 壽一
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.31-35, 2016-06-20 (Released:2016-08-05)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
2
著者
友永 雅己
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.265-272, 2009-03-31 (Released:2010-06-17)
参考文献数
61
被引用文献数
1 1
著者
松原 幹 阿部 知暁
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.305-311, 1999 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1 1
著者
小川 秀司
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.143-158, 2010-12-20 (Released:2011-02-01)
参考文献数
31

I studied huddling groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in the Arashiyama E troop at the “Arashiyama Monkey Park Iwatayama” in Kyoto, central Japan. Japanese macaques made physical contact with other individuals and formed huddling groups when air temperatures were low. The 99-101 adult females and 26-36 adult males in the study troop formed 345 huddling groups during 42 scan samplings in the winter of 2001, and 376 huddling groups during 52 scan samplings in the winter of 2002. The average size of huddling groups was 2.34 (range: 2-7) individuals in 2001, and 2.31 (range: 2-6) individuals in 2002. There was no huddling group of two males. Females more frequently huddled with females than with males. Two maternal kin related females huddled more frequently than unrelated females did. Mother-daughter pairs huddled most frequently. Two individuals usually huddled ventrally-ventrally, ventrally-laterally, and ventrally-dorsally. The distribution of huddling group sizes shows that the approaching individuals did not choose a particular size of huddling. However, the approaching individuals chose locations where they simultaneously contacted with two individuals 1.5 times more frequently than locations where they contacted with only one individual. This choice made the shape of huddling groups triangular and diamond-shaped more frequently than expected. By decision making of each individual, specific patterns emerged in the shape, composition, and position of each individual in huddling groups. As well as huddling behaviors, two and more primate individuals were involved in various social interactions. During the interactions, primates make their decision based on complex cognitive mechanisms and non-linear functions, compete and cooperate with the same opponents in their troop, and predict and manipulate the opponent’s behavior. These traits in social interactions among primates might make their society more complex and interesting.
著者
青木 孝平 辻 大和 川口 幸男
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.137-145, 2014-06-20 (Released:2014-08-02)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

Using long-term behavioral data recorded between1950 and 2010, we studied cases of change in the alpha individual and its social background in a captive troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) housed in Ueno Zoological Gardens, Tokyo, Japan. During this period, nine alpha males and four alpha females were recorded. Among the alpha males, three were juveniles. All alpha males except for one continued to keep their position until they died or were removed from the group. Alpha females, on the other hand, lost their position when they were in estrus/pregnant/nursing, after which time they continued to stay in the group. Unlike cases in free-ranging populations, captive male Japanese macaques are included in the social hierarchy of their natal group, and dominance relationship between males and females were unclear. Under such conditions, dominant females and their juveniles can become alpha individual when the former alpha disappears and/or there are no dominant male(s) present. Appearance of female/juvenile alpha individuals in the Ueno Zoo troop seems to be one of the bi-products of a captive environment and in order to keep social relationships of captive animals similar to those of free-ranging populations, artificial transfer (removal/introduction) of adult males should be considered.
著者
山本 真也
出版者
日本霊長類学会
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.95-109, 2011-12-20 (Released:2012-01-19)
参考文献数
68
被引用文献数
2 1

How did humans evolve to such an altruistic and cooperative animal? This review paper discusses the primate origin of altruism and cooperation from the viewpoints of cognitive mechanisms and adaptation to social systems. Our previous studies have revealed three characteristics of chimpanzees' altruistic helping behavior: 1) helping upon request, but seldom voluntarily; 2) understanding others' goals by visually assessing the situations; and 3) understanding of others' goals does not automatically lead to voluntary helping. It is suggested that the mechanism in chimpanzees' helping is different from that in human helping, which is often solicited by only witnessing others in trouble. This difference in spontaneity in helping might be a result of their different social systems. In human societies, where indirect reciprocity works, individuals who behave altruistically can gain good reputations. In such societies, voluntary helping is favored and rewarded. Meanwhile, institutions and social sanctions exist in human societies: selfish individuals can be punished by third-party group members. This system also maintains altruism and cooperation. In contrast, there has been no empirical evidence for existence of reputation and social sanction in chimpanzees, which might explain their lack of voluntary helping. Instead of indirect reciprocity, fission-fusion dynamics might be an alternative system for maintaining altruism and cooperation in chimpanzee societies. It is possible that an ecological environment influences a social system, which in turn determines behavior and its mechanism. This emphasizes the importance of empirical studies with broad perspectives. Comparative studies with humans, chimpanzees and bonobos both in the wild and under experimental conditions are expected to deepen our understanding of the evolution of altruism and cooperation, and accordingly to reveal multiple dimensions of human evolution from the viewpoints of cognition, behavior, society, and ecology.