著者
中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.27-30, 1992-08-31 (Released:2016-11-12)

The "intelligence" of sixty kinds of animals was rated by university students (N=117) using a 100-point scale. Although the results generally corresponded with the so-called "phylogenetic scale" from "amoeba" to "chimpanzee," several interesting points were observed. First, "Japanese monkey" was rated higher than "orangutan" and "gorilla." Second, "dog" and "dolphin" were rated as high as the Primates. Third, mimic birds and social insects were rated higher than other birds and insects, respectively. Finally, a kind of fish ("shark") was rated higher than a mammal ("mole").
著者
中島 定彦 遠座 奈々子
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.163-177, 2017-03-31 (Released:2017-06-07)
参考文献数
193
被引用文献数
1

This article reviews recent literature on basic animal research and theories of reemergence phenomena of formerly established and then extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responses. Four types of response reemergence phenomena are discussed; renewal of responses by changing contexts, spontaneous recovery of responses after the passage of time, reinstatement of responses after re-exposure to the biologically significant stimulus (i.e., unconditioned stimulus, US), and reacquisition of responses by re-pairing of the cue (i.e., conditioned stimulus, CS) and the US. Preventive measures against these reemergence phenomena and their clinical implications for relapse of anxiety symptoms (i.e., return of fear) are also discussed to bridge basic and applied disciplines of psychology.
著者
遠座 奈々子 中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.243-252, 2018-03-31 (Released:2018-06-16)
参考文献数
77

Exposure is a well-known efficient therapeutic technique for anxiety disorders or irrational fear. The present article reviews the behavioral mechanisms of fear reduction in exposure-based therapies including simple exposure and systematic desensitization. The traditional and current theories of associative learning of Pavlovian conditioning, extinction, and response reemergence are applicable to acquisition, treatment, and relapse of fear. Despite recent transactions between basic animal research and human clinical studies on simple exposure therapy, little attention is paid to the counterconditioning process in systematic desensitization. By focusing on theoretical and experimental studies with animals and their implications for clinical settings, we propose further collaboration between basic and clinical studies.
著者
陳 香純 神田 幸司 上野 友香 友永 雅己 中島 定彦
出版者
日本家畜管理学会
雑誌
日本家畜管理学会誌・応用動物行動学会誌 (ISSN:18802133)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.87-94, 2015-06-25 (Released:2017-02-06)

水族館で飼育されている2頭の雌のバンドウイルカの吐き戻し行動に及ぼす遊具導入の効果について、環境エンリッチメントの視点と行動変容法の一つである単一事例計画法を用いて検討した。特別な処置を施さないベースライン期(A)の測定に引き続き、毎日の演技訓練(給餌を伴う)の直後にフープを30分間水槽に投入する介入期(B)を行った。介入によって吐き戻し行動の回数が減少することがA期とB期の繰り返し手続きにより明らかとなったが、効果の持続性と場面間の般化に関して個体差が認められた。
著者
中島 定彦 Sadahiko Nakajima
雑誌
人文論究 (ISSN:02866773)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.2, pp.31-47, 2015-09-20
著者
中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.36-47, 2014-09-30 (Released:2014-11-26)
参考文献数
85

This paper reviews the last 50 years of experimental and theoretical research on Pavlovian conditioning in animals. It is the history of the movement from simple “spit-and-twitch” psychology to information processing views of associative learning. In 1962, Egger and Miller reported a pivotal study suggesting that information value is important in establishing an effective conditioned stimulus. In the late 1960s, Wagner, Rescorla, and Kamin published historic research papers demonstrating the importance of information value (i.e., predictability of the forthcoming significant event) by showing new phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning: relative cue validity, contingency effect, and associative blocking. The Rescorla–Wagner model came on stage in 1972 to explain these phenomena and successfully predicted new phenomena, although this model had some shortcomings. Subsequent theories of Pavlovian conditioning have challenged to deal with these shortcomings, and the recent theoretical development is linked to computational modeling in a variety of ways.
著者
中島 定彦
出版者
日本行動分析学会
雑誌
行動分析学研究 (ISSN:09138013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.160-176, 1995-06-15
被引用文献数
1

多くの動物(ヒトを含む)研究が見本合わせ手続きまたはその変法を、記憶(想起行動)、注意、概念、刺激等価性の研究法として用いてきた。この論文の前半ではそれらの手続きを、実験者が動物に要求する行動という観点から、選択型見本合わせ、Go/No-Go型見本合わせ、Yes/No型見本合わせの3つに分類した。見本合わせ手続きはまた、第1標準見本刺激と第2テスト比較刺激との対応関係から、同一見本合わせ、象徴見本合わせ、非見本合わせに分類できる。さらに、見本刺激と比較刺激との時間的関係から、同時見本合わせと遅延見本合わせに分類される。論文の後半では、見本合わせ手続きの多くの変法を、この手続き内で生じる出来事の系列に沿って分類した。
著者
中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.27-30, 1992

The "intelligence" of sixty kinds of animals was rated by university students (N=117) using a 100-point scale. Although the results generally corresponded with the so-called "phylogenetic scale" from "amoeba" to "chimpanzee," several interesting points were observed. First, "Japanese monkey" was rated higher than "orangutan" and "gorilla." Second, "dog" and "dolphin" were rated as high as the Primates. Third, mimic birds and social insects were rated higher than other birds and insects, respectively. Finally, a kind of fish ("shark") was rated higher than a mammal ("mole").
著者
中島 定彦
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.1, pp.137-142, 2019-09-30 (Released:2019-12-10)
参考文献数
77

Kaolin clay intake is generated in rats by a variety of nausea-inducing treatments, including rotation (motion sickness), irradiation, and administration of emetic chemicals such as lithium chloride, copper sulfate, ritonavir, recreational drugs (e.g., morphine, apomorphine, nicotine, and ethanol), and various anti-cancer drugs (e.g., cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and 5-fluorouracil). Recent studies conducted in my laboratory have shown that kaolin clay intake is also generated in rats by running in an activity wheel or swimming in a water bucket, suggesting that these activities induce visceral discomfort similar to nausea. This finding is consonant with the fact that, similar to emetic treatments conventionally employed in conditioned taste-aversion studies in rats, running and swimming act as unconditioned stimuli to establish avoidance of a paired taste.
著者
堀 麻佑子 沼田 恵太郎 中島 定彦
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.6, pp.625-631, 2014

This study investigated the effects of positive and negative reinforcement on superstitious behaviors. Participants were instructed to produce the word "GOOD" on a computer display (positive reinforcement condition) or to remove the word "BAD" (negative reinforcement condition) by pressing any of six keys. The words GOOD or BAD were presented at fixed-time intervals regardless of the participant's responses. In Experiment 1, only participants exposed to the negative reinforcement condition acquired superstitious behaviors. However, the observed asymmetry may not have been due to the polarity of consequences (positive vs. negative) but instead to the amount of time of goal states, because the period of the absence of BAD was longer than the period of the presence of GOOD. Experiment 2 varied the duration of word presentations to match the period of goal state between the positive and negative reinforcement conditions, and found that participants acquired superstitious behaviors equally under the two conditions. These results indicate that the duration of a consequence rather than its polarity is a critical factor controlling superstitious behaviors. The theoretical relationship between superstitious behavior and the illusion of control is discussed.
著者
中島 定彦 Sadahiko Nakajima
雑誌
人文論究 (ISSN:02866773)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.2, pp.55-74, 2013-09-20
著者
島宗 理 中島 定彦 井上 雅彦 遠藤 清香 井澤 信三 奥田 健次 北川 公路 佐藤 隆弘 清水 裕文 霜田 浩信 高畑 庄蔵 田島 裕之 土屋 立 野呂 文行 服巻 繁 武藤 崇 山岸 直基 米山 直樹
出版者
日本行動分析学会
雑誌
行動分析学研究 (ISSN:09138013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.174-208, 2003-09-05

行動分析士認定協会(Behavior Analyst Certification Board : BACB)は、国際行動分析学会(Association for Behavior Analysis : International)が公認し、支援している、行動分析学に基づいた臨床活動に携わる実践家を認定する非営利団体である。本資料ではBACBの資格認定システムを紹介し、実践家の職能を分析、定義したタスクリストの全訳を掲載する。タスクリストを検討することで行動分析家の専門性を明確にして、我が国における今後の人材育成やサービスの提供システムについて、検討を始めるきっかけをつくることが本資料の目的である。
著者
中島 定彦
出版者
日本行動分析学会
雑誌
行動分析学研究 (ISSN:09138013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.13-27, 2011-07-25