著者
岩佐 和典 田中 恒彦 山田 祐樹
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89.16230, (Released:2018-01-15)
参考文献数
45
被引用文献数
1 3

The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R-J). The participants were 1063 Japanese people (mean age = 21.64, SD = 7.33, range = 18–77; 581 males and 482 females) and were separated into three different groups. Participants in samples 1 (n = 481) and 2 (n = 492) provided data for examining the factor structure and validity of the DS-R-J. They completed the DS-R-J as well as questionnaires assessing disgust propensity and sensitivity, anxiety sensitivity, state and trait anxiety, affective state, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Participants in sample 3 (n = 90) provided data for estimating the test–retest reliability of the DS-R-J. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure involving core disgust, animal-reminder disgust, and physical and mental contamination disgust. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were sufficient, and conceptual validity of the DS-R-J was also supported. The results show that the Japanese version of the DS-R-J is a reliable and valid measurement of disgust sensitivity.
著者
岩佐 和典 田中 恒彦 山田 祐樹
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.89, no.1, pp.82-92, 2018 (Released:2018-04-25)
参考文献数
45
被引用文献数
1 3

The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R-J). The participants were 1063 Japanese people (mean age = 21.64, SD = 7.33, range = 18–77; 581 males and 482 females) and were separated into three different groups. Participants in samples 1 (n = 481) and 2 (n = 492) provided data for examining the factor structure and validity of the DS-R-J. They completed the DS-R-J as well as questionnaires assessing disgust propensity and sensitivity, anxiety sensitivity, state and trait anxiety, affective state, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Participants in sample 3 (n = 90) provided data for estimating the test–retest reliability of the DS-R-J. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure involving core disgust, animal-reminder disgust, and physical and mental contamination disgust. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were sufficient, and conceptual validity of the DS-R-J was also supported. The results show that the Japanese version of the DS-R-J is a reliable and valid measurement of disgust sensitivity.
著者
佐々木 恭志郎 山田 祐樹
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.50-62, 2018-03-01 (Released:2018-09-01)
参考文献数
47

Clusters of holes, such as those in a lotus seedpod, induce strong discomfort. This is called ‘Trypophobia’. Recently, some researchers addressed what trypophobia is and try to form theories on it. We overviewed the previous studies of trypophobia that have published and presented up to now, and discussed the mental mechanism. Moreover, this article is aimed to ignite future studies of trypophobia by pointing out some unsolved issues and proposing potential solutions.
著者
山田 祐樹
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.15-29, 2016 (Released:2018-04-13)
参考文献数
108
被引用文献数
3

Several studies on scientific replication and meta-analytic approaches have illustrated the issue of low reproducibility or low effect size in psychology and related fields. Herein, the author described not only the problems generally underlying fields (e.g., questionable research practices and misconduct) but also problems specific to cognitive psychology. Reproducibility or effect size of experimental studies has gathered little attention from researchers in cognitive psychology. In addition, the lack of cognitive studies on researchers in cognitive psychology is related to the disregard for motivational factors on the reproduction/replication problems. Based on the understanding of these issues, the author discusses how future cognitive psychology can overcome them.
著者
山田 祐樹
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.3, pp.296-303, 2019 (Released:2021-02-28)
参考文献数
29

In this paper, I discussed new forms of researcher evaluation in psychological research with the view of solving the reproducibility problem. I demonstrate that the current researcher evaluation system is severely biased, rather encouraging publication of less reproducible findings with fraud or bad practices. To alleviate this bias, the proposed remedies include the limitation of duplicate awards, reputation-based individual research indicators, and clarification of contributions. In addition, the evaluation by researchers from society is also biased; therefore, spins, conflicts of interest, and public involvement in research have been raised as important issues. I hope that these discussions will be noticed by interested parties who are not interested in them.
著者
中響 子 米満 文哉 山田 祐樹
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.36.5, (Released:2017-09-20)
参考文献数
16

Facial attractiveness is influenced by various personal and environmental factors. The present study investigated whether the gender environment surrounding observers affected facial attractiveness judgments. Students at single-gender (58 females) and mixed-gender (59 males and 46 females) universities participated in the experiment. Each of 15 male or female faces was morphed, respectively, with a female or male averaged face derived from the other 14 female and male faces, resulting in feminized and masculinized faces. Observers were simultaneously presented with one masculinized and one feminized morphed face and asked to judge which was more attractive. The results showed that students at a women's university judged feminized male faces as significantly more attractive than did students in a coeducational university. The present findings suggest that adaptation to female faces in a single-gender environment increases the processing fluency of female faces, therefore inducing higher preference.
著者
薛 玉婷 郷原 皓彦 佐々木 恭志郎 山田 祐樹
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.360-375, 2017-11-01 (Released:2018-03-01)
参考文献数
69
被引用文献数
1

Onomatopoeiae alter perception of a visual stimulus. Given that language affects emotional processing of visual stimuli and visual textures with high viscocity are perceived disgusting, the present study investigated whether onomatopoeiae that represent viscocity modulate disgust for visual textures. We presented a mimetic word a kind of onomatopoeiae simultaneously with a visual texture, and asked observers to rate disgustingness of the texture visually (Experiments 1, 3, and 4) or auditorily (Experiment 5). Three Japanese mimetic words (betobeto, sarasara, and reherehe) were used for representing high, low, and no viscocities, respectively. The results in Experiments 1,3, and 5 commonly showed that in Japanese observers the rated disgustingness was significantly modulated by the mimetic words. However, the effect was not observed in Chinese observers (Experiment 4). Moreover, Experiment 2 showed that the mimetic words also modulated apparent moistness of the textures. Lastly, Experiment 6 revealed that the mimetic words modulated the disgustingness of the texture within a temporal window of around 1800 ms. The present findings suggest that sound symbolism of onomatopoeiae is integrated with stimulus information that induces disgust regardless of modality.
著者
米満 文哉 井隼 経子 山田 祐樹
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
感情心理学研究 (ISSN:18828817)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.58-61, 2018-06-30 (Released:2018-09-29)
参考文献数
18

Resilience is the capacity to cope with stress, characterized as an activation process that protects one from psychological damage in adapting to personal and situational changes. Resilience is related to emotional processes including the attentional system and has been studied with spatial attention tasks. However, the relationship between resilience traits and temporal attention to emotional stimuli has not been studied. We investigated this relationship using an attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Observers searched two target upright faces (T1 and T2) inserted in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream of inverted pictorial faces. The T1 and T2 tasks involved gender judgment and facial expressions (neutral, anger, and happy) judgment, respectively. A multivariate regression analysis showed that resilience scale score significantly predicted AB magnitude in response to negative stimuli, suggesting that resilience is related to temporary attentional bias toward negative information within a second.
著者
山田 祐樹 河邉 隆寛 井隼 経子
出版者
日本認知心理学会
雑誌
日本認知心理学会発表論文集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2010, pp.55-55, 2010

非人間的対象の人間らしさが増大すると,ある時点でその対象への評価が急激に低下するといわれる (不気味の谷現象).本研究は,この評価の低下が,対象を2つのカテゴリに分類する困難さと関係しているかを検討した.実験1では,実際の人物と漫画の人物の画像を0%から100%までの10%ずつのモーフィング率で合成した11枚の画像を用いた.観察者は各画像に対しカテゴリ判断 (実際-漫画) を求められ,その潜時をカテゴリ化困難度の指標とした.また,各画像の好意度について-3 (嫌い) から3 (好き) の7段階で評定させた.結果として,モーフィング率とともに潜時と好意度評定値が変化し,最も潜時の長かった画像と最も評価の低かった画像が一致した.実験2では,犬の画像 (実際,ぬいぐるみ,及び漫画) を用いても同様の結果を得た.これらの結果は,カテゴリ化困難な画像における処理流暢性の低さが評価の低下を引き起こすことを示唆する.
著者
山田 祐樹 佐々木 恭志郎 三浦 佳世
出版者
日本認知心理学会
雑誌
日本認知心理学会発表論文集 日本認知心理学会第12回大会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.128, 2014 (Released:2014-10-05)

わが国の刑事法廷の座席配置は,法壇から見て右側が検察官,左側が弁護人であることが一般的だが,配置が逆転する事例もある。認知心理学研究では,人間が利き手側に位置する対象には肯定的な,非利き手側の対象には否定的な評価を下すことが知られている。本研究では,この空間認知的性質が刑事裁判の量刑判断に影響を与えている可能性について検討を行った。403名の参加者は裁判風景を模した写真を観察後,2種類の裁判シナリオを読み,被告人の量刑を判断した。写真は,通常配置(右:検察官,左:弁護人),逆配置(右:弁護人,左:検察官),統制配置(位置関係は通常と同様だが検察官と弁護人が外向している)の3種類であった。結果として,右利きの参加者は正配置よりも逆配置の量刑を有意に短く(約1年)見積もることが明らかになった。このバイアスは,参加者が利き手側の弁護人あるいは検察官を肯定的に評価したことに起因すると考えられる。
著者
山田 祐樹 Marmolejo-Ramos Fernando Roland Pfister Barrera-Causil Carlos
出版者
日本認知心理学会
雑誌
日本認知心理学会発表論文集 日本認知心理学会第17回大会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.107, 2019 (Released:2019-10-28)

科学コミュニケーションにおける障害の一つが実験結果の理解の共有である。データを視覚化・抽象化するために様々なグラフが用いられるが,受け手にとっては難解であったり誤解が生じたりするため,適切な理解共有のためには適切なグラフ選択が必要であろう。そこで本研究では,グラフ化の仕方が受け手のデータ分布の理解に与える影響を検討した。日独豪3カ国の非専門家を対象としデータの正規性の判断を求めた。正規性は,公衆が普段接することの無い一方で,認知心理学にて頻繁に使用されるパラメトリック分析の根幹をなす。ここでは,同一のデータセットから作成された箱ひげ図,ヒストグラム,密度プロット,QQプロットの4種類のグラフを用いた。結果として,グラフの種類ならびに参加者の国籍や統計学習熟度によって正答率は大きく異なった。したがって,提示したい情報と受け手の属性に応じた柔軟なグラフ選択が科学コミュニケーションには重要である。
著者
山田 祐樹
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.258-262, 2018-03-31 (Released:2018-06-16)
参考文献数
5

This note is a short report on the activity of the Young Researchers Committee of the Japanese Psychonomic Society (JPS) in 2017. As the highlighted activity of the committee in 2017, we held the oral session of the 36th annual meeting of JPS. Eight young researchers were selected as the finalists from 17 entries and made presentations on their studies that have already been published in peer-reviewed journals. One of the finalists who got the most votes from audience was awarded as the Young Psychonomic Scientist of the Year 2017.
著者
錢 昆 河邉 隆寛 山田 祐樹 三浦 佳世
出版者
日本認知心理学会
雑誌
日本認知心理学会発表論文集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2010, pp.128, 2010

チルトシフト写真の被写体がミニチュアのように見える現象は,一般にミニチュア効果と呼ばれている。チルトシフト写真を観察すると,どのような視覚的印象が生じるのか,また,どのような視覚要因が印象の喚起に関わっているかに関し,両者の関係を網羅的に検討した研究はまだない。本研究はチルトシフト写真の引き起こす視覚的印象を調べた。被験者に本城(2006)のチルトシフト写真10枚の物理的・心理的特性について5段階で評定させ,因子分析を行った結果,「ミニチュア効果」,「評価性」,「密度」,「色彩」,「ぼかし」と「撮影位置」の6つの因子を抽出した。また,ミニチュア効果の高い写真と低い写真の間に,各因子の平均評定値に差があるかを検討した所、チルトシフト写真の被写体の密度,色彩,ぼかしと撮影距離に関する視覚的印象に有意差が見られた。これらの視覚要因が写真のミニチュア効果の生起に関与することを示唆するものと言えるだろう。
著者
郷原 皓彦 佐々木 恭志郎 山田 祐樹
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.197-205, 2018-03-31 (Released:2018-06-16)
参考文献数
42

We investigated whether the characteristics of autobiographical memory recalled by Japanese onomatopoeia are different from those recalled by non-onomatopoetic Japanese words with similar meanings. One hundred twenty participants were instructed to recall an autobiographical memory corresponding to the meaning of word cues, as well as answer a questionnaire containing 11 items associated with the recalled autobiographical memory. The word cues were eight onomatopoetic or non-onomatopoetic words of similar meanings. The results showed that the onomatopoeia-induced autobiographical memories were more recent compared to the non-onomatopoeia-induced memories. This suggests that the image information inherent in onomatopoeia helps people in recalling more recent autobiographical memories.
著者
中 響子 米満 文哉 山田 祐樹
出版者
日本基礎心理学会
雑誌
基礎心理学研究 (ISSN:02877651)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.1, pp.50-55, 2017

<p>Facial attractiveness is influenced by various personal and environmental factors. The present study investigated whether the gender environment surrounding observers affected facial attractiveness judgments. Students at single-gender (58 females) and mixed-gender (59 males and 46 females) universities participated in the experiment. Each of 15 male or female faces was morphed, respectively, with a female or male averaged face derived from the other 14 female and male faces, resulting in feminized and masculinized faces. Observers were simultaneously presented with one masculinized and one feminized morphed face and asked to judge which was more attractive. The results showed that students at a women's university judged feminized male faces as significantly more attractive than did students in a coeducational university. The present findings suggest that adaptation to female faces in a single-gender environment increases the processing fluency of female faces, therefore inducing higher preference.</p>