- 社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
- vol.51, no.4, pp.455-489,584-58, 1986
A. The aim of the thesis and the analyzed objects The aim of the thesis is to make clear the changing process of the employed labor-the indentured servants and the day laborers-in a dry field farming village of the Kanto district, depending on the existing resuts of researches. And to make examinations of substantial changes of those employee's conditions by analyzing their legal positions, wages and clothes, the way of receiving them, days off, the relations between the employer and the employees, their work to do, and so forth. The primary materials are "Hokonin Ukejo" or servant surety certificates, and "Hokonin Shoji Hikaecho" or memorandums of various matters about servants. Those who are analyzed are the men and women employed by the Saito family at Hirayamamura, Irumagun, Musashinokuni (now, Saitama Prefecture). B. The formation of the thesis 1. Preface 2. The village structure of Hirayamamura and the Saito family (1) Hirayamamura and the Saito family (2) The Saito's farm management quality and employed labor 3. The changes of existence form of the indentured servants (1) The changes of apprenticeship form seen in "Hokonin Ukejo" (2) The changes of apprenticeship form seen from the wages, the provided clothes and the days off 4. The changes of existence form of day laborers 5. Conclusion C. The results and the remaining problems In Kanto dry field farming districts, where Hirayamamura was located, the time from "Tenmei" to "Kansei" was an epock-making period in social economy, when the existence form of employed labor changed greatly. In the case of the indentured servants, a lot of vestiget of their subodination under debts until "Horeki" are found. However, after "Kansei" they gained the physical and economic freedom as paid servants, based on the contract of employment and gradually raised tbeir positions as wage earners. Those changes appeared first in the case of the men servants and then of the women, though quite slowly. But the substantial differences between the men and the women became larger and larger. In the case of the day laborers, we can see from the start the employment from in which they had a higher position as wage earners and the trend did not change in "Kasei", when women day laborers increased. But their debt-owing relations to the employer before the contract of employment are confirmed, which after "Kansei" played parts in building up and fixing the landlord-tenant farmer relationship. The changes of employed labor in Kanto dry field farming villages were not simply and directly from indentured servants to day laborers and further to the modern employment relation. After this it will be necessary to see the changes in employed labor from "Kinsei" to the modern era, including examinations of employed labor and the landlord-tenant farmer system of that period.