著者
森 宜人
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.1, pp.71-91, 2011

ドイツでは,国家的失業保険が未整備の中,19世紀末より都市レベルでの失業保険が実施された。その主流となったのは,失業した組合員に失業手当を給付する労働組合に対して,その給付額に応じて都市自治体が補助金を支出するガン・システムであった。ガン・システムには,労働者層の大部分を占める非組織労働者の排除や,自由労働組合への支援を通じた社会民主勢力の拡大の可能性などの問題が内包されていたが,多くの都市でその導入が検討された。大ベルリン連合内のシェーネベルクとシャルロッテンブルクもその一例である。シェーネベルクでは,ガン・システムを中核としつつ,非組織労働者をも包摂し得る制度が策定され,比較的早期に失業保険の導入が果たされた。他方,シャルロッテンブルクでも同様に非組織労働者の加入を重視した制度が策定されたが,市議会においてその導入は否決された。本稿では,この対照的な帰結がみられた両都市の比較分析を中心に,当時の都市行政の政策理念となっていた「都市の社会的課題」に即してガン・システムが受容された歴史的コンテクストを明らかにする。
著者
見市 雅俊
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.4, pp.538-572, 1987
被引用文献数
2
著者
加藤 繁
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.6, pp.694-696, 1934-09-15 (Released:2017-12-28)
著者
高木 久史
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.5, pp.469-485, 2009-01-25 (Released:2017-07-22)

日本中世における債権・債務・信用一般に関する実証分析は少ない。本稿では信用の中でも商業上の信用の問題,具体的には掛取引について論じる。方法としては,非経済的側面との関係(例えば政治史)に触れながら,中世後期とくに15世紀から17世紀初頭にかけての掛取引の事例検出,とくに16世紀前半を中心とした事例検出を行い,時代的特徴を示す。とくに中世後期については徳政に関する事例とそれ以外とに分けて論じる。結果,徳政にかかる売掛金の扱いに関する商人慣習法の存在と幕府徳政令によるその追認,一方での各徳政令における売掛債権破棄志向(戦争等を契機とする債務者救済の特別措置によるもの)等を示す。実態面では,高額・長距離掛取引の実施,支払期日観念ならびに期日超過に伴う利子支払特約の存在,売掛債権の文書化,年市的性格をもつ京都馬市での掛取引の実施,当事者相互の売掛金の持ち合い,国質・所質名目での売掛金取立の実施(とそれを拒否する動向),等について示す。全体としては,概して遅くとも15世紀後半以後における掛取引の広範な実施,ならびに近世初頭までの継続的な実施を示す。
著者
ポメランツ ケネス 杉原 薫 西村 雄志
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.6, pp.647-661, 2003

Much literature normalizes a North Atlantic pattern of development, and sees a regionally specific 'East Asian' path emerging in the twentieth century. However, development patterns and economic performances in core regions of Europe and East Asia were surprisingly similar until almost 1800; Europe's divergences thereafter was shaped bu exceptional resource bonanzas. East Asian growth has been less resource-intensive, more focused on light industry and a diversified rural economy, and based on different social ideas. However, one cannot always distinguish 'Eastern' and 'Western' paths cleanly: some European economies have followed what looks like an 'East Asian' path, and vice versa. Moreover, various East Asian states have had shorter periods in which their economic strategies focused on the capital-intensive, resource-intensice heavy industry that has otherwise been more prominent in the West: this has happened during periods when those states placed a high priority on increasing their military strength. Recentry, 'East Asian' growth has spread to coastal China, but China's interior poses greater challenges; current interest in more resouce-intensive, state-centered developement strategies for those regions (which are often related to fears about dependence on the outside world for resouces) is thus unsurprising, but environmentally and socially risky.
著者
林 良育
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.4, pp.527-546, 2015

『斉民要術』に見える北土高原以外での水稲作については,「歳易」という用語の解釈から,一年休閑農法と田畑輪換の両説が提出されているが,漢〜魏晋南北朝期の技術水準論・生産力論という観点に引きつけた解釈がなされてきた感があり,水田の立地,「歳易」を要する理由などを含めて,なお多分に議論の余地を残しているように思われる。そこで本稿では,水稲作に関する農学系の研究なども参照しつつ,あらためて史料の精密な解釈を行い,「歳易」という用語を中心とする水稲作の実像に迫ることを試みた。そして考察の結果として,(1)『斉民要術』に見える「歳易」をともなう水稲作の主たる対象地域は,山東省の泗水水系流域周辺であり,(2)水源を含めた河川上流域周辺の高燥地乃至高田で行われており,(3)「歳易」には田畑輪換の可能性があり,(4)「歳易」が行われた理由としては,農業用水の使用量調整(節水)・旱害対策,周辺農地への湿害の防止及び農地の利用効率の向上などが考えられ,(5)この水稲作が山東省の気候条件に対応して行われた局地的な性格のものであったことなどが明らかになった。
著者
水野 絅子
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.107-128,202-20, 1974

<p>Cet article fait suite a une etude precedente sur les rapports des communes francaises et dos couches gouvernantes dans la societe feodale; nous essayons maintenant de mettre davantage en lumiere la ville medievale dauas la societe feodale, selon les documents rouennais allant du XI^e au premier quart du Xlll^e siele. Nous savons que les Etablissements de Rouen (Stabilimentum communie Rothomagi), concedes entre 1174 et 1183 par Henri II, roi d'Angleterre, representent l'etape la plus monumentale dans l'evolution du droit urbain a Rouen. Si nous examinons les differents articles, nous constatons que cette loi est loin d'etre liberale en ce qui concerne la concession des privileges a la commune: d'une part, l'autonomie judiciaire communale se limite a la juridiction civile d'autre part, des differents organes de la magistrature communale, da'finis minutieusement dans les Etablissements de Rouen, sont consideres comme les dernieres instances de l'admimaistration royale. Cette loi est un octroi qui favorise principalement le patriciat, compose de riches marchands specialises dans le commerce a longue distanace et dont l'existence a Rouen est par ailleurs attestee par quelques sources narratives anterieures; ces marchands ont en effet besoin d'une juridiction civile autonome pour proteger leurs transactions comunerciales et immobilieres. Il faut noter aussi que les Etablissements de Rouen, en precisant les obligations dues par la commune et reparties d'ailleurs sur tous les bourgeois, garantissent au roi anglais certains profits. Les Etablissements de Rouen presentent donc le meme caractere que les chartes octroyees jusqu'a la premiere moitie du XII siele et qui ont gratifie le patriciat rouennais de larges privileges commerciaux, en particulier la charte de 1144 concedee par Geoffroi d'Anjou; ces Etablissements de Rouen et ces clnartes demeurent cependant reservees a la concession de l'autonomie communale. On pourrait dire qu'il s'agit la d'une expressiona des interets communs des classes gouvernantes feodales et du patriciat urbain qui reste nettement separe du Commun. La prise de Rouero par Philippe Auguste en 1204 semble changer profondement la situation. Dans une conventio de cette annee-la en effect, dans laquelle le roi capetien definit les conditions de la capitulation, ce ne sont pas la noblesse, ni le clerge qui sont acceptee en tant que vrais representants de la ville, mais la commune de bourgeois. Philippe Auguste, ayant reconnu les Etablissements de Rouen peu apres la capitulation de la ville, elargit en 1207 l'autonomie judiciaire communale, par la concession d'une juridiction criminelle etendue et affranchit les bourgeois de la mainmorte: ce sont la les privileges dont peuvent beneficier tous les habitants urbain. Il est facile de deceler sous cet acte de Philippe Auguste, applique aussi a plusieures villes arrachees alors a la domination anglaise, un but precis, celui de lever un service militaire important. L'originalite de la politique communale de ce roi consiste, comme nous l'avons souligne dans notre article precite, a creer une relation "synallagmatique" entre la royaute et les communes: la royaute accorde en effet une large liberte et une grande autonomie a ces dernieres, qui, de leur cote, consentent au service militaire au meme titre que les vassaux directs du roi. Rouen, par sa nature meme de centre tres important de commerce et de strategie, attire beaucoup l'attention des classes dominantes et, partant, doit montrer une disposition a s'associer aux interets royaux plus marquee que les autres villes ordinaires. Cependant, c'est bien cette particularite rouennaise, qui nous permet de voir combien la ville medievale, qualifiee d' "anti-feodale" ou de "a-feodale" par certains auteurs est integree</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>
著者
西谷 進
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.113-134,216, 1971-08-20 (Released:2017-08-03)

In the latter half of the nineteenth century, Egypt became a British colony as a result of the financial dificulties. It is the purpose of this paper to clarify the internal condition of Egypt which led to such a situation. At that time, there were three plans of grand scale: the Delta Barrages; the Alexandria, Cairo, and Suez Railroad; and the Suez Canal. It was financially impossible for the Egyptian government to materialize these plans in a short time, but the government ventured on these projects in a short period of fifteen years. it has been explained that such a venture was med possible by the changes of the ruling class (Khedive), the balance of power among European nations, and the international rivalry. We would, however, like to explain it by analyzing the judgement on the economic effects of these projects on the part of the Egyptian government. The Delta Barrages were constructed in the first place, because the economic effects of the plan would be superior to those of others, especially the railroad construction. This judgement was made on the assumption that the government would be able to maintain the monopoly of farm products. As a result of the collapse of the monopoly, the economic advantages of the Delta Barrages were bound to declin. In order to supplement the revenue, it became necessary to build the railroad and obtain income from the transit of foreign goods and passengers. It was, however, necessary to obtain foreign loans to construct the railroad at that time, and the dependance on foreign capital became inevitable. The construction of the Suez Canal would, it was anticipated, bring a considerable amount of income with a relatively small amount of investment. Actually, the Egyptian government had to spend more money than it had been estimated, and this again augmented the dependance on the foreign capital.
著者
西谷 進
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.3, pp.283-311,330-33, 1971-09-20 (Released:2017-08-03)

The Egyptian government went into bankruptcy by April, 1876, and it underwent a reorganization in order to redeem the loan. This long, difficult period can be divided into two periods: 1876 to 1881, and 1882 and afterwards. The first period is characterized by the decree of 1876, and the dual control prescribed by the decree, which insured the repayment of £89,271,000 to British and French creditors. It was, however, difficult to carry over the plan. It was reinforced by new debts (Domains Loan) and revised by the Law of Liquidation of 1880, but finally nullified by the nationalist movements led. by Colonel Arabi. The second period is characterized by the British occupation, which subpress the force under Colonel Arabi, and British control over the refunding as a result of the end of the dual control. The refundment plan was established by the London Convention of 1885, and reinforced by the guaranteed loan of 1885. It should be noticed that the British government tried to improve the irrigation system in order to develop agriculture and strengthen the financial ability of Egypt. The British government improved the Delta Barrages, which had been completed by the Egyptian government but abandoned afterwards as a result of poor construction. Delta Barrages were improved not for the benefit of Egypt but for the interests of her creditors, and put to use in 1891.
著者
青木 美智子
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.4, pp.455-489,584-58, 1986

A. The aim of the thesis and the analyzed objects The aim of the thesis is to make clear the changing process of the employed labor-the indentured servants and the day laborers-in a dry field farming village of the Kanto district, depending on the existing resuts of researches. And to make examinations of substantial changes of those employee's conditions by analyzing their legal positions, wages and clothes, the way of receiving them, days off, the relations between the employer and the employees, their work to do, and so forth. The primary materials are "Hokonin Ukejo" or servant surety certificates, and "Hokonin Shoji Hikaecho" or memorandums of various matters about servants. Those who are analyzed are the men and women employed by the Saito family at Hirayamamura, Irumagun, Musashinokuni (now, Saitama Prefecture). B. The formation of the thesis 1. Preface 2. The village structure of Hirayamamura and the Saito family (1) Hirayamamura and the Saito family (2) The Saito's farm management quality and employed labor 3. The changes of existence form of the indentured servants (1) The changes of apprenticeship form seen in "Hokonin Ukejo" (2) The changes of apprenticeship form seen from the wages, the provided clothes and the days off 4. The changes of existence form of day laborers 5. Conclusion C. The results and the remaining problems In Kanto dry field farming districts, where Hirayamamura was located, the time from "Tenmei" to "Kansei" was an epock-making period in social economy, when the existence form of employed labor changed greatly. In the case of the indentured servants, a lot of vestiget of their subodination under debts until "Horeki" are found. However, after "Kansei" they gained the physical and economic freedom as paid servants, based on the contract of employment and gradually raised tbeir positions as wage earners. Those changes appeared first in the case of the men servants and then of the women, though quite slowly. But the substantial differences between the men and the women became larger and larger. In the case of the day laborers, we can see from the start the employment from in which they had a higher position as wage earners and the trend did not change in "Kasei", when women day laborers increased. But their debt-owing relations to the employer before the contract of employment are confirmed, which after "Kansei" played parts in building up and fixing the landlord-tenant farmer relationship. The changes of employed labor in Kanto dry field farming villages were not simply and directly from indentured servants to day laborers and further to the modern employment relation. After this it will be necessary to see the changes in employed labor from "Kinsei" to the modern era, including examinations of employed labor and the landlord-tenant farmer system of that period.
著者
桑原 三郎
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.11, pp.1292-1300, 1938-02-15 (Released:2017-09-25)