著者
西谷 進
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.113-134,216, 1971-08-20 (Released:2017-08-03)

In the latter half of the nineteenth century, Egypt became a British colony as a result of the financial dificulties. It is the purpose of this paper to clarify the internal condition of Egypt which led to such a situation. At that time, there were three plans of grand scale: the Delta Barrages; the Alexandria, Cairo, and Suez Railroad; and the Suez Canal. It was financially impossible for the Egyptian government to materialize these plans in a short time, but the government ventured on these projects in a short period of fifteen years. it has been explained that such a venture was med possible by the changes of the ruling class (Khedive), the balance of power among European nations, and the international rivalry. We would, however, like to explain it by analyzing the judgement on the economic effects of these projects on the part of the Egyptian government. The Delta Barrages were constructed in the first place, because the economic effects of the plan would be superior to those of others, especially the railroad construction. This judgement was made on the assumption that the government would be able to maintain the monopoly of farm products. As a result of the collapse of the monopoly, the economic advantages of the Delta Barrages were bound to declin. In order to supplement the revenue, it became necessary to build the railroad and obtain income from the transit of foreign goods and passengers. It was, however, necessary to obtain foreign loans to construct the railroad at that time, and the dependance on foreign capital became inevitable. The construction of the Suez Canal would, it was anticipated, bring a considerable amount of income with a relatively small amount of investment. Actually, the Egyptian government had to spend more money than it had been estimated, and this again augmented the dependance on the foreign capital.
著者
西谷 進
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.3, pp.283-311,330-33, 1971-09-20 (Released:2017-08-03)

The Egyptian government went into bankruptcy by April, 1876, and it underwent a reorganization in order to redeem the loan. This long, difficult period can be divided into two periods: 1876 to 1881, and 1882 and afterwards. The first period is characterized by the decree of 1876, and the dual control prescribed by the decree, which insured the repayment of £89,271,000 to British and French creditors. It was, however, difficult to carry over the plan. It was reinforced by new debts (Domains Loan) and revised by the Law of Liquidation of 1880, but finally nullified by the nationalist movements led. by Colonel Arabi. The second period is characterized by the British occupation, which subpress the force under Colonel Arabi, and British control over the refunding as a result of the end of the dual control. The refundment plan was established by the London Convention of 1885, and reinforced by the guaranteed loan of 1885. It should be noticed that the British government tried to improve the irrigation system in order to develop agriculture and strengthen the financial ability of Egypt. The British government improved the Delta Barrages, which had been completed by the Egyptian government but abandoned afterwards as a result of poor construction. Delta Barrages were improved not for the benefit of Egypt but for the interests of her creditors, and put to use in 1891.
著者
青木 美智子
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.4, pp.455-489,584-58, 1986

A. The aim of the thesis and the analyzed objects The aim of the thesis is to make clear the changing process of the employed labor-the indentured servants and the day laborers-in a dry field farming village of the Kanto district, depending on the existing resuts of researches. And to make examinations of substantial changes of those employee's conditions by analyzing their legal positions, wages and clothes, the way of receiving them, days off, the relations between the employer and the employees, their work to do, and so forth. The primary materials are "Hokonin Ukejo" or servant surety certificates, and "Hokonin Shoji Hikaecho" or memorandums of various matters about servants. Those who are analyzed are the men and women employed by the Saito family at Hirayamamura, Irumagun, Musashinokuni (now, Saitama Prefecture). B. The formation of the thesis 1. Preface 2. The village structure of Hirayamamura and the Saito family (1) Hirayamamura and the Saito family (2) The Saito's farm management quality and employed labor 3. The changes of existence form of the indentured servants (1) The changes of apprenticeship form seen in "Hokonin Ukejo" (2) The changes of apprenticeship form seen from the wages, the provided clothes and the days off 4. The changes of existence form of day laborers 5. Conclusion C. The results and the remaining problems In Kanto dry field farming districts, where Hirayamamura was located, the time from "Tenmei" to "Kansei" was an epock-making period in social economy, when the existence form of employed labor changed greatly. In the case of the indentured servants, a lot of vestiget of their subodination under debts until "Horeki" are found. However, after "Kansei" they gained the physical and economic freedom as paid servants, based on the contract of employment and gradually raised tbeir positions as wage earners. Those changes appeared first in the case of the men servants and then of the women, though quite slowly. But the substantial differences between the men and the women became larger and larger. In the case of the day laborers, we can see from the start the employment from in which they had a higher position as wage earners and the trend did not change in "Kasei", when women day laborers increased. But their debt-owing relations to the employer before the contract of employment are confirmed, which after "Kansei" played parts in building up and fixing the landlord-tenant farmer relationship. The changes of employed labor in Kanto dry field farming villages were not simply and directly from indentured servants to day laborers and further to the modern employment relation. After this it will be necessary to see the changes in employed labor from "Kinsei" to the modern era, including examinations of employed labor and the landlord-tenant farmer system of that period.
著者
桑原 三郎
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.11, pp.1292-1300, 1938-02-15 (Released:2017-09-25)
著者
加藤 伸行
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.1, pp.85-99, 2013-05-25 (Released:2017-05-17)

関西蚕糸業が優等糸生産によって1900年代以降に発展することは,石井寛治の指摘によって広く認識されてきた。石井はその発展を自主的な努力によると評価したが,本稿では発展の契機として蚕糸業規制の導入に注目した。まず,明治中期の蚕糸業規制をめぐっては,従来指摘されてきた生糸直輸出奨励とは別に,関西地方を中心とした後進地域の蚕糸業者が,蚕種検査や組合組織の強化など蚕糸業改良に関する規制を求める運動を展開し,結果的に前田正名の全国実業団体運動と合流してその導入を達成したことを示した。なお,関西地方の蚕糸業者は,従来指摘されていた生糸直輸出よりも神戸からの生糸輸出体制確立への指向をもっていた。また,運動の結果導入された蚕糸業規制を契機にして,関西地方で優等糸生産を可能とする質的な発展が達成されたことを明らかにした。具体的には,関西地方での蚕種の質的向上や蚕種統一が進んだこと,組合規制により繭取引が合理化され,製糸家が地元の優良繭を安定的に確保することが可能になったことなどを示した。
著者
鴨野 洋一郎
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.1, pp.49-74, 2012-05-25 (Released:2017-06-10)

中世後期イタリアの都市国家フィレンツェは,15世紀半ばからオスマン帝国との間で外交的友好関係に基づく貿易活動を開始した。フィレンツェの中規模な毛織物会社はこの貿易によって活動の場を与えられ,フィレンツェ繊維製品をオスマン帝国まで輸送して販売し,その代金で東方物産を購入してフィレンツェへ輸送する,というオスマン貿易のパターンを確立する。これらの会社が貿易で成功するためには,オスマン帝国で販売した製品の代金を確実に徴収することが重要な条件となっていた。そこで本稿では,1480年代にオスマン帝国で毛織物を販売したグワンティ毛織物会社に着目し,ブルサに駐在したバルトロメーオ・グワンティの駐在員帳簿を基に,彼が行った代金徴収の過程を検討する。検討の結果,バルトロメーオは代金の大半を,バーター取引ないし現金徴収によって遅延なく徴収していたことが判明した。このことは,中規模会社でも確実な代金徴収に基づく国際商業を展開できたことを意味し,大規模会社中心に理解されてきた従来のフィレンツェ商業史像に対し再考を促す事例となるであろう。
著者
浜田 道夫
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社會經濟史學 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.4, pp.461-491, 1998-11-25

In order to understand the characteristics of French absolutism, it is important to examine the seigneurial justice system. The object of this ARTICLE is investigate various aspects of seigneurial justice as it functioned in the Beaujolais region. The judicial documents show that in the majority of cases, criminal proceedings did not reach the final judgment stage, suggesting that most conflicts were resolved outside the official system. There were two methods of unofficial resolution: reconciliation of the two parties through mediation by priests, notaries or notables, and private acts of revenge by the aggrieved party. These practices had deep roots in the traditional norms of the peasant community. Conflicts were seen to belong to a private realm, beyond the reach of outside authority, and therefore to be solved by the local inhabitants themselves. Even seigneurial justice could not exercise a great influence on the local community. In fact, seigneurial justice did not function efficiently in conjunction with royal justice either. It is true that the long dispute over jurisdiction between the seigneurs and the monarch came to an end with the beginning of the eighteenth century, when seigneurial justice was incorporated into the royal justice system as the court of the first instance. This meant that officers of the royal courts also functioned as offices of the seigneurial courts, and that the seigneurial courts could make use of facilities of the royal courts such as prisons and law courts. Back up from the royal justice system was particularly valuable when it came to the prosecution of serious crimes. But problems remained. There is evidence of criminal proceedings being abandoned half-way through in order to save costs. Seigneurs of the eighteenth century were no longer willing to insist on their right to administer justice to the extent of shouldering the costs of expensive lawsuits. In other words, it would be wrong to overestimate the power of the seigneurial justice system, limited as it was both by the traditional norms of peasant communities and by the desire to reduce judicial costs.
著者
浜田 道夫
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社會經濟史學 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.4, pp.381-400, 2002-11-25

In the France the Old Regime, the monarchy gave the nobility the exclusive privilege of hunting and bearing arms; the commoners, especially the peasants, opposed thid monopoly by poaching. The object of this paper is to examine the nature of seigneurial authority through investigating the repression of poaching in several jurisdictions. The poachers who appear in the criminal records tend to be fairly rich peasants (or their sons and young servants) using guns, which circulated among peasants in the countryside through both purchase and loans. This shows that hunting was rather commonplace as a leisure pursuit, although only a few records of proceedings against poaching can be found (only twenty-five in five jurisdictions throughout the eighteenth century). But why are there so few records of proceedings? First, it was because le garde de chasse (the rural police) were recruited from among the peasants and often chose not to pursue poachers; and second, because the seigneurial prosecutor proceeded principally against habitual poachers. There was certainly a threshold of tolerance in the seigneurial justice system. Thus the system served to mediate between the monarch, who needed to maintain order, and the peasants, who had been accustomed to hunting since the middle ages.
著者
藤田 裕邦
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.4, pp.462-488,577, 1991

Fur fruhmittelalterliche Markte handelt sich um das Ansammelungen der Marktbesucher und die Funktionen der politische Herrschaft. Uber diese Frage bieten Markte des Klosters Corvey Kenntnisse in Beziehungen zwischen Grundbesitz und den Marktgrundungen. Dieses Kloster bekam Konigsurkunden uber Marktrecht zu Covey(833), Marsberg(900) und Meppen(945,946), und die Verhaltnisse des Grundbesitzes des Klosters bis zum Anfang des 11. Jahrhunderts erkennen wir durch Konigsurkunden, Traditiones Corbeienses(ein Traditionsbuch) und Heberolle(eine Zinsliste). Diese Quellen zeigen Besitzkonzentrationen an Flussen Weser, Diemel, Ems und Hunte. In deren Mittelpunkten, also zu Corvey, Marsberg, Meppen und Visbek, liegten das Kloster bzw. wichtige Kirchen, die den umliegenden Besitz verwalteten, und die obergenannte Markturkunden sind in den Zet Erweiterung des entsprechenden Grundbesitzes ausgestellt worden. So kann man auf eine raumlich-zeitliche Entsprechung zwischen Markt und grundherrlicher Verwaltung hinweisen. Aus erzahlenden Quellen konnen wir vermuten, daB sich lokaler Markthandel in diesen Verwaltungspunkte seit alter Zeit befanden. Mit den Ausstellungen der Markturkunden versuchte man Forderungen solches Handels und dazu noch Einbeziehungen von Fernhandel, was dadurch erklart wird, daB keine Markturkunde fur Visbek wahrscheinlich ausgestellt worden ist, wo es von einem FluB entfernt und also fur Fernhandel nicht geeignet ist. AuBerdem wurde durch Markturkunden versucht,Markte zu Einrichtungen mit einem Bereichherrschaft zu entwickeln, weil wir in Markturkunden eine Entsprechung zwiwchen dem Bereich der Gultigkeit der Handels- und Verkehrsrechte und dem ganzen Siedlungsrum, und einen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Markt und anderen Entrichrungen bzw. Rechte sehen.
著者
小山内 孝夫
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.1, pp.59-72, 2014

本稿は,デンマーク王室がエーアスン海峡を航行する船に課した税の記録を刊行した『エーアスン海峡通行税台帳』(STT)を用いて,イングランドのバルト海貿易におけるハル,ヨークシャの重要性を,16世紀後半と17世紀前半について明らかにする試みである。まず,船舶数の分析により,ハルがイングランド中第3位の船舶数をバルト海に送り込んだ有力港であったことを示す。貿易の分析では,ハル船が毛織物輸出,亜麻・鉄輸入において,イングランド内のみならず,全ヨーロッパ的にみても重要な存在であったことを実証し,これとハルの後背地の経済活動(ヨークシャ毛織物工業など)との関連を提起する。本稿の分析は,地域史的・国民経済史観的枠組みのもとで把握されがちであったヨークシャ経済に対する海外市場の重要性を提起し,同地域を北ヨーロッパ商業圏の一環として見直すよう迫るものである。また,ヨークシャがロンドンを介することなく,ハルを通して北ヨーロッパと結びつき,「ロンドンを頂点とするイングランド国民経済」とは別個に,ある程度自立的な経済圏を形成していた可能性も論じる。
著者
小山内 孝夫
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.1, pp.59-72, 2014-05-25 (Released:2017-06-03)

本稿は,デンマーク王室がエーアスン海峡を航行する船に課した税の記録を刊行した『エーアスン海峡通行税台帳』(STT)を用いて,イングランドのバルト海貿易におけるハル,ヨークシャの重要性を,16世紀後半と17世紀前半について明らかにする試みである。まず,船舶数の分析により,ハルがイングランド中第3位の船舶数をバルト海に送り込んだ有力港であったことを示す。貿易の分析では,ハル船が毛織物輸出,亜麻・鉄輸入において,イングランド内のみならず,全ヨーロッパ的にみても重要な存在であったことを実証し,これとハルの後背地の経済活動(ヨークシャ毛織物工業など)との関連を提起する。本稿の分析は,地域史的・国民経済史観的枠組みのもとで把握されがちであったヨークシャ経済に対する海外市場の重要性を提起し,同地域を北ヨーロッパ商業圏の一環として見直すよう迫るものである。また,ヨークシャがロンドンを介することなく,ハルを通して北ヨーロッパと結びつき,「ロンドンを頂点とするイングランド国民経済」とは別個に,ある程度自立的な経済圏を形成していた可能性も論じる。