著者
青木 洋
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.3, pp.331-353, 2006-09-25 (Released:2017-08-09)
参考文献数
55
被引用文献数
1 or 0

This article focuses on the activities of the Research Groups (Kenkyu han) promoted by the National Research Council of Japan (NRCJ) during World War II. Research collaboration has recently attracted the attention of many scholars as a factor in the development of Japanese technology. In fact, there were a large number of research collaboration activities during the period, and the Research Groups were one of the largest of such groups. NRCJ, established in 1920 under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, had been mainly involved in the promotion of international academic collaboration until World War II. But when the Board of Technology (Gijutsuin) was established for the mobilization of science and technology and the tide of the Pacific War turned against Japan, the Ministry of Education enforced a reform so that NCRJ could launch widespread research collaboration throughout the country. The Research Groups were organized in 1944, and at its peak had 193 groups and a total of over 1,900 scientists. Typical research issues included electronics, scarce and rare materials, and public health. These were similar to those of the Research Neighborhood Groups (Kenkyu tonarigumi), which were promoted by the Board of Technology, resulting in some duplication of activities between the two groups and leading to inefficiency in the mobilization of science and technology research.
著者
青木 洋
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.3, pp.331-353, 2006
参考文献数
55
被引用文献数
4 or 0

This article focuses on the activities of the Research Groups (Kenkyu han) promoted by the National Research Council of Japan (NRCJ) during World War II. Research collaboration has recently attracted the attention of many scholars as a factor in the development of Japanese technology. In fact, there were a large number of research collaboration activities during the period, and the Research Groups were one of the largest of such groups. NRCJ, established in 1920 under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, had been mainly involved in the promotion of international academic collaboration until World War II. But when the Board of Technology (Gijutsuin) was established for the mobilization of science and technology and the tide of the Pacific War turned against Japan, the Ministry of Education enforced a reform so that NCRJ could launch widespread research collaboration throughout the country. The Research Groups were organized in 1944, and at its peak had 193 groups and a total of over 1,900 scientists. Typical research issues included electronics, scarce and rare materials, and public health. These were similar to those of the Research Neighborhood Groups (Kenkyu tonarigumi), which were promoted by the Board of Technology, resulting in some duplication of activities between the two groups and leading to inefficiency in the mobilization of science and technology research.
著者
田谷 博吉
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.261-279, 1973-10-25 (Released:2017-07-22)

During the Edo period, the leading currencies were gold, silver, and copper coins issued by the Tokugawa Shogunate. Though various kinds of paper money were issued by territorial lords (Daimyo) especially in the latter half of the Edo period, it was necessary to obtain the permit of the Shogunate to issue money. In commercial transactions, the most important currencies were gold and silver coins of the Shogunate, which were produced in more than 40 different kinds. In order to study the monetary transactions of the period, it is therefore necessary to classify these various sorts of coins by the time of issue (Keicho, Genroku-Hoei, Shotoku-Kyohou, Genbun, Bunsei, Tenpo, Ansei-Manyen) and show the date of issue, the years of circulation, the weight and fineness, the amount of issue, etc. There are two kinds of currency table showing the above items : one made by Chuzaburo Sato, an official of the mint of gold coins of the Shogunate, in 1873; and the other by the Osaka Mint of the Meiji government in 1921.Though the one made by Chuzaburo Sato is more useful to the study of Tokugawa currency, his table is based on the materials in the last part of the Edo period. The present writer constructs a new table using earlie source materials in this paper.
著者
松沢 裕作
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.4, pp.565-584, 2013-02-25 (Released:2017-06-10)

本稿の課題は,1872年から73年にかけて発行されたいわゆる「壬申地券」のうち,農村部における地券(郡村地券)の発行の意義を,貢租徴収との関連で考察することにある。地租改正本体(「改正地券」交付)に先立って実施された壬申地券交付事業については,近代的所有権の導入がなされたという評価が通説的地位を占めているが,村請制の存続という事実を考慮に入れるならば再検討の余地があると考える。本稿では,まず政策過程の分析から,廃藩置県以前の大蔵省が検地の回避と検見の実施を基本方針としていたこと,それが民部省の批判と廃藩置県後の状況によって破綻し,すでに1869年に神田孝平が提起していた沽券税法が一挙に採用される経緯を明らかにした。次いで,実際に壬申地券の発行がなされた武蔵国比企郡宮前村の事例を分析し,村請制と旧貢租の存続という条件のもとでは,測量の結果がそのまま地券に直結することは不可能であり,地券記載の土地面積は,村内土地所有者相互の相対的な比率を表示するものにとどまることを示した。
著者
高田 倫子
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.4, pp.401-417, 2007-11-25 (Released:2017-06-09)

本稿では,日本の出土状況に個別発見貨論を適用するための具体化を行った上で,中世から近世初期における中国地方におけるデータを収集・分析し,すでに検討を加えている九州地方における個別発見貨データと合わせて考察する。結論として,個別発見貨概念適用の主たる成果は,備蓄銭慣習開始以前の中国地方における銭貨流通の実質性を検出したことにある。これは,すでに九州地方における個別発見貨データから示された結果や,小畑による廃棄・遺棄銭の研究成果とも共通している。さらに,九州地方における銭貨流通の展開が,中国地方におけるそれと比較して,より早期から見られることが分かった。また,銭種構成に関して,個別発見貨,備蓄銭,廃棄・遺棄銭のデータの間に,同様の傾向が見られる中で,無文銭や洪武通宝といった特定の銭種について,小倉や石見銀山など一部の地域に突出して出土する現象が見られた。今後も,残された諸課題を追究しながら,現在日本貨幣史の主要な諸問題の解明に,個別発見貨資料の分析を通じて寄与していきたい。
著者
桜井 信哉
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.4, pp.486-511,568, 1996-11-25 (Released:2017-09-28)

In the early modern period, debasement of the coinage was a significant way of re-establishing national finances, and one important way of doing so was to give the units used to weigh coins a face value. Both the ryo and the pound, for example, started out as weight units but turned into units of currency. This article shows how Daikoku Saku'uemon, a Bakufu-authorized coin maker, proposed to make the monme, a weight unit for silver, into a monetary unit in the Bunsei period (1818-30). The silver coins which Daikoku proposeed during the Bunsei period were the 43monme silver coin, for use in gift-giving, and the 50-me silver coin, for commercial use. Despite their nominal values, both were to weigh only 16 monme. This scheme is thought to have originated in the Bunka period (1804-18), but has also been detected in the Tempo period (1830-44). It would therefore seem that Daikoku had been making prorosals to the kanjosho (Ministry of Finance) for more than twenty years. The scheme proposed in the Tempo period was to involve not only a silver coin of high denomination, like the 43 monme or the 50-me, but also one of low denomination, such as a 2.5-monme or a 5-monme unit. In other words, Daikoku planned further debasement of the coinage even after the Bunsei debasement, through a radical nominalisation of the monme. Daikoku's proposals were made in an attempt to win back the recoinage responsibilities which he had lost after taking a negative attitude towards the recoinage plans of the Meiwa period (1764-72). However, the proposals were rejected by the kanjosho, probably because it was feared that usage of silver coins would grow even more complex.
著者
松井 真喜子
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.1, pp.3-24, 2005-05-25 (Released:2017-06-09)
参考文献数
149

The purpose of this paper is to examine mail-coach services during the British Industrial Revolution and to consider their role in the integration of regional economies. The first section of the paper investigates postal services before the introduction of mail coaches in 1784. Since the end of the 17th century, when a wider market began to emerge, the post had been playing an important role in transmitting business correspondence and bills to distant places, thus enabling companies to expand the sphere of their activities nationwide. The quality of postal services was, however, quite poor because their operations were monopolized by the government. The second section of the paper examines the development of the mail-coach network and changes in postal services. Examination of manuscripts of the General Post Office and commercial directories indicate that a close-knit and extensive network was established by the 1820s and that speed, reliability, and safety of the postal services were substantially improved. In conclusion, the significance of mail-coach services was that by transmitting intelligence and money, difficulties posed by time and distance were overcome and the basis for the integration of regional economies was formed. It is noteworthy that the growth of the banking system paralleled the development of mail-coach services. Mail coaches also helped the social and cultural integration of regions as a medium for communication.
著者
青木 美智子
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.4, pp.455-489,584-58, 1986

A. The aim of the thesis and the analyzed objects The aim of the thesis is to make clear the changing process of the employed labor-the indentured servants and the day laborers-in a dry field farming village of the Kanto district, depending on the existing resuts of researches. And to make examinations of substantial changes of those employee's conditions by analyzing their legal positions, wages and clothes, the way of receiving them, days off, the relations between the employer and the employees, their work to do, and so forth. The primary materials are "Hokonin Ukejo" or servant surety certificates, and "Hokonin Shoji Hikaecho" or memorandums of various matters about servants. Those who are analyzed are the men and women employed by the Saito family at Hirayamamura, Irumagun, Musashinokuni (now, Saitama Prefecture). B. The formation of the thesis 1. Preface 2. The village structure of Hirayamamura and the Saito family (1) Hirayamamura and the Saito family (2) The Saito's farm management quality and employed labor 3. The changes of existence form of the indentured servants (1) The changes of apprenticeship form seen in "Hokonin Ukejo" (2) The changes of apprenticeship form seen from the wages, the provided clothes and the days off 4. The changes of existence form of day laborers 5. Conclusion C. The results and the remaining problems In Kanto dry field farming districts, where Hirayamamura was located, the time from "Tenmei" to "Kansei" was an epock-making period in social economy, when the existence form of employed labor changed greatly. In the case of the indentured servants, a lot of vestiget of their subodination under debts until "Horeki" are found. However, after "Kansei" they gained the physical and economic freedom as paid servants, based on the contract of employment and gradually raised tbeir positions as wage earners. Those changes appeared first in the case of the men servants and then of the women, though quite slowly. But the substantial differences between the men and the women became larger and larger. In the case of the day laborers, we can see from the start the employment from in which they had a higher position as wage earners and the trend did not change in "Kasei", when women day laborers increased. But their debt-owing relations to the employer before the contract of employment are confirmed, which after "Kansei" played parts in building up and fixing the landlord-tenant farmer relationship. The changes of employed labor in Kanto dry field farming villages were not simply and directly from indentured servants to day laborers and further to the modern employment relation. After this it will be necessary to see the changes in employed labor from "Kinsei" to the modern era, including examinations of employed labor and the landlord-tenant farmer system of that period.
著者
桑原 三郎
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.11, pp.1292-1300, 1938-02-15 (Released:2017-09-25)
著者
加藤 伸行
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.1, pp.85-99, 2013-05-25 (Released:2017-05-17)

関西蚕糸業が優等糸生産によって1900年代以降に発展することは,石井寛治の指摘によって広く認識されてきた。石井はその発展を自主的な努力によると評価したが,本稿では発展の契機として蚕糸業規制の導入に注目した。まず,明治中期の蚕糸業規制をめぐっては,従来指摘されてきた生糸直輸出奨励とは別に,関西地方を中心とした後進地域の蚕糸業者が,蚕種検査や組合組織の強化など蚕糸業改良に関する規制を求める運動を展開し,結果的に前田正名の全国実業団体運動と合流してその導入を達成したことを示した。なお,関西地方の蚕糸業者は,従来指摘されていた生糸直輸出よりも神戸からの生糸輸出体制確立への指向をもっていた。また,運動の結果導入された蚕糸業規制を契機にして,関西地方で優等糸生産を可能とする質的な発展が達成されたことを明らかにした。具体的には,関西地方での蚕種の質的向上や蚕種統一が進んだこと,組合規制により繭取引が合理化され,製糸家が地元の優良繭を安定的に確保することが可能になったことなどを示した。
著者
鴨野 洋一郎
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.1, pp.49-74, 2012-05-25 (Released:2017-06-10)

中世後期イタリアの都市国家フィレンツェは,15世紀半ばからオスマン帝国との間で外交的友好関係に基づく貿易活動を開始した。フィレンツェの中規模な毛織物会社はこの貿易によって活動の場を与えられ,フィレンツェ繊維製品をオスマン帝国まで輸送して販売し,その代金で東方物産を購入してフィレンツェへ輸送する,というオスマン貿易のパターンを確立する。これらの会社が貿易で成功するためには,オスマン帝国で販売した製品の代金を確実に徴収することが重要な条件となっていた。そこで本稿では,1480年代にオスマン帝国で毛織物を販売したグワンティ毛織物会社に着目し,ブルサに駐在したバルトロメーオ・グワンティの駐在員帳簿を基に,彼が行った代金徴収の過程を検討する。検討の結果,バルトロメーオは代金の大半を,バーター取引ないし現金徴収によって遅延なく徴収していたことが判明した。このことは,中規模会社でも確実な代金徴収に基づく国際商業を展開できたことを意味し,大規模会社中心に理解されてきた従来のフィレンツェ商業史像に対し再考を促す事例となるであろう。