著者
青木 洋
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.3, pp.331-353, 2006-09-25 (Released:2017-08-09)
参考文献数
55
被引用文献数
1

This article focuses on the activities of the Research Groups (Kenkyu han) promoted by the National Research Council of Japan (NRCJ) during World War II. Research collaboration has recently attracted the attention of many scholars as a factor in the development of Japanese technology. In fact, there were a large number of research collaboration activities during the period, and the Research Groups were one of the largest of such groups. NRCJ, established in 1920 under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, had been mainly involved in the promotion of international academic collaboration until World War II. But when the Board of Technology (Gijutsuin) was established for the mobilization of science and technology and the tide of the Pacific War turned against Japan, the Ministry of Education enforced a reform so that NCRJ could launch widespread research collaboration throughout the country. The Research Groups were organized in 1944, and at its peak had 193 groups and a total of over 1,900 scientists. Typical research issues included electronics, scarce and rare materials, and public health. These were similar to those of the Research Neighborhood Groups (Kenkyu tonarigumi), which were promoted by the Board of Technology, resulting in some duplication of activities between the two groups and leading to inefficiency in the mobilization of science and technology research.
著者
青木 洋
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.3, pp.331-353, 2006
参考文献数
55
被引用文献数
4

This article focuses on the activities of the Research Groups (Kenkyu han) promoted by the National Research Council of Japan (NRCJ) during World War II. Research collaboration has recently attracted the attention of many scholars as a factor in the development of Japanese technology. In fact, there were a large number of research collaboration activities during the period, and the Research Groups were one of the largest of such groups. NRCJ, established in 1920 under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, had been mainly involved in the promotion of international academic collaboration until World War II. But when the Board of Technology (Gijutsuin) was established for the mobilization of science and technology and the tide of the Pacific War turned against Japan, the Ministry of Education enforced a reform so that NCRJ could launch widespread research collaboration throughout the country. The Research Groups were organized in 1944, and at its peak had 193 groups and a total of over 1,900 scientists. Typical research issues included electronics, scarce and rare materials, and public health. These were similar to those of the Research Neighborhood Groups (Kenkyu tonarigumi), which were promoted by the Board of Technology, resulting in some duplication of activities between the two groups and leading to inefficiency in the mobilization of science and technology research.
著者
田谷 博吉
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.261-279, 1973-10-25 (Released:2017-07-22)

During the Edo period, the leading currencies were gold, silver, and copper coins issued by the Tokugawa Shogunate. Though various kinds of paper money were issued by territorial lords (Daimyo) especially in the latter half of the Edo period, it was necessary to obtain the permit of the Shogunate to issue money. In commercial transactions, the most important currencies were gold and silver coins of the Shogunate, which were produced in more than 40 different kinds. In order to study the monetary transactions of the period, it is therefore necessary to classify these various sorts of coins by the time of issue (Keicho, Genroku-Hoei, Shotoku-Kyohou, Genbun, Bunsei, Tenpo, Ansei-Manyen) and show the date of issue, the years of circulation, the weight and fineness, the amount of issue, etc. There are two kinds of currency table showing the above items : one made by Chuzaburo Sato, an official of the mint of gold coins of the Shogunate, in 1873; and the other by the Osaka Mint of the Meiji government in 1921.Though the one made by Chuzaburo Sato is more useful to the study of Tokugawa currency, his table is based on the materials in the last part of the Edo period. The present writer constructs a new table using earlie source materials in this paper.
著者
松沢 裕作
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.4, pp.565-584, 2013-02-25 (Released:2017-06-10)

本稿の課題は,1872年から73年にかけて発行されたいわゆる「壬申地券」のうち,農村部における地券(郡村地券)の発行の意義を,貢租徴収との関連で考察することにある。地租改正本体(「改正地券」交付)に先立って実施された壬申地券交付事業については,近代的所有権の導入がなされたという評価が通説的地位を占めているが,村請制の存続という事実を考慮に入れるならば再検討の余地があると考える。本稿では,まず政策過程の分析から,廃藩置県以前の大蔵省が検地の回避と検見の実施を基本方針としていたこと,それが民部省の批判と廃藩置県後の状況によって破綻し,すでに1869年に神田孝平が提起していた沽券税法が一挙に採用される経緯を明らかにした。次いで,実際に壬申地券の発行がなされた武蔵国比企郡宮前村の事例を分析し,村請制と旧貢租の存続という条件のもとでは,測量の結果がそのまま地券に直結することは不可能であり,地券記載の土地面積は,村内土地所有者相互の相対的な比率を表示するものにとどまることを示した。
著者
幸田 亮一
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.6, pp.629-648, 2010-03-25 (Released:2017-05-24)

第二次大戦中に軍需生産を支え活況を呈したドイツの工作機械工業は,敗戦後,一転して危機の時代を迎えた。本稿の課題は,ドイツ工作機械工業が経験した困難の実態はいかなるもので,復興はいかにして可能だったのかを,旧西ドイツ地域を中心に,連合国の政策転換を踏まえつつ,個別企業の具体的動向を含めて解明することである。本稿の結論は以下のとおりである。第1に,戦災ならびに戦後のデモンタージュ(設備撤去)は,短期的には大きな損害を個別企業に及ぼしたものの,長期的に見ると過剰設備の除去と新市場の創出をもたらした。第2に,通貨改革と租税改革は直接的に,マーシャルプランは見返り資金という形で間接的に工作機械企業の復興を促した。第3に,立地の変化を見ると,ソ連占領地区から逃避・移転した企業により,西部ドイツ,西南部ドイツの比重が増大した。総じて,このような困難期を乗り越えることができたのは,東側から西側へ移転した複数のメーカーの事例が端的に示すように,長年にわたり築かれてきた知的・人的蓄積であったといえる。
著者
鎮目 雅人
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.1, pp.25-47, 2011-05-25 (Released:2017-05-24)

両大戦間期日本のマクロ経済政策に関する研究は,従来から蓄積が厚く,さらに1990年代以降の日本におけるデフレーションと経済成長停滞を受けて,現代にも通じる政策的含意を持った歴史的経験として改めて脚光を浴びることとなり,近年における理論・計量経済学の分野における知見を採り入れる試みもなされるようになってきている。本稿では,最近の経済理論・計量分析の知見も取り入れつつ,商品先物市場の価格データならびに業界誌に掲載された当時の市場関係者の見方から,両大戦間期日本の市場参加者の物価変動に関する予想形成の定式化を試みる。分析の結果,市場参加者は,将来の価格に関する予想形成において,主として内外価格差の動きに着目していた一方,国内金融・財政政策の影響については,これが先行きの物価に大きな影響を与えるとは認識していなかったことが示される。このことは,市場参加者が,閉鎖経済ないし変動相場制下の開放経済ではなく,固定為替相場制下の開放小国経済を前提に,意思決定を行っていたことを示唆している。
著者
高田 倫子
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.4, pp.401-417, 2007-11-25 (Released:2017-06-09)

本稿では,日本の出土状況に個別発見貨論を適用するための具体化を行った上で,中世から近世初期における中国地方におけるデータを収集・分析し,すでに検討を加えている九州地方における個別発見貨データと合わせて考察する。結論として,個別発見貨概念適用の主たる成果は,備蓄銭慣習開始以前の中国地方における銭貨流通の実質性を検出したことにある。これは,すでに九州地方における個別発見貨データから示された結果や,小畑による廃棄・遺棄銭の研究成果とも共通している。さらに,九州地方における銭貨流通の展開が,中国地方におけるそれと比較して,より早期から見られることが分かった。また,銭種構成に関して,個別発見貨,備蓄銭,廃棄・遺棄銭のデータの間に,同様の傾向が見られる中で,無文銭や洪武通宝といった特定の銭種について,小倉や石見銀山など一部の地域に突出して出土する現象が見られた。今後も,残された諸課題を追究しながら,現在日本貨幣史の主要な諸問題の解明に,個別発見貨資料の分析を通じて寄与していきたい。
著者
桜井 信哉
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.4, pp.486-511,568, 1996-11-25 (Released:2017-09-28)

In the early modern period, debasement of the coinage was a significant way of re-establishing national finances, and one important way of doing so was to give the units used to weigh coins a face value. Both the ryo and the pound, for example, started out as weight units but turned into units of currency. This article shows how Daikoku Saku'uemon, a Bakufu-authorized coin maker, proposed to make the monme, a weight unit for silver, into a monetary unit in the Bunsei period (1818-30). The silver coins which Daikoku proposeed during the Bunsei period were the 43monme silver coin, for use in gift-giving, and the 50-me silver coin, for commercial use. Despite their nominal values, both were to weigh only 16 monme. This scheme is thought to have originated in the Bunka period (1804-18), but has also been detected in the Tempo period (1830-44). It would therefore seem that Daikoku had been making prorosals to the kanjosho (Ministry of Finance) for more than twenty years. The scheme proposed in the Tempo period was to involve not only a silver coin of high denomination, like the 43 monme or the 50-me, but also one of low denomination, such as a 2.5-monme or a 5-monme unit. In other words, Daikoku planned further debasement of the coinage even after the Bunsei debasement, through a radical nominalisation of the monme. Daikoku's proposals were made in an attempt to win back the recoinage responsibilities which he had lost after taking a negative attitude towards the recoinage plans of the Meiwa period (1764-72). However, the proposals were rejected by the kanjosho, probably because it was feared that usage of silver coins would grow even more complex.
著者
松井 真喜子
出版者
社会経済史学会
雑誌
社会経済史学 (ISSN:00380113)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.1, pp.3-24, 2005-05-25 (Released:2017-06-09)
参考文献数
149

The purpose of this paper is to examine mail-coach services during the British Industrial Revolution and to consider their role in the integration of regional economies. The first section of the paper investigates postal services before the introduction of mail coaches in 1784. Since the end of the 17th century, when a wider market began to emerge, the post had been playing an important role in transmitting business correspondence and bills to distant places, thus enabling companies to expand the sphere of their activities nationwide. The quality of postal services was, however, quite poor because their operations were monopolized by the government. The second section of the paper examines the development of the mail-coach network and changes in postal services. Examination of manuscripts of the General Post Office and commercial directories indicate that a close-knit and extensive network was established by the 1820s and that speed, reliability, and safety of the postal services were substantially improved. In conclusion, the significance of mail-coach services was that by transmitting intelligence and money, difficulties posed by time and distance were overcome and the basis for the integration of regional economies was formed. It is noteworthy that the growth of the banking system paralleled the development of mail-coach services. Mail coaches also helped the social and cultural integration of regions as a medium for communication.