著者
橋本 千絵
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.3, pp.261-267, 1994 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
17

Immature bonobos genital contact behavior with individuals of most age classes. Genital contact between immature individuals was most frequently performed in the ventro-ventral posture. It was usually observed during play sessions, and males participated more frequently than females. Both males and females perform genital contact with adult males though not so frequently. On the other hand, only males frequently perform genital contact with adult females and its frequency increased with age. As they grew older, genital contact behavior of immature males with adult females became more like copulation between adults. By contrast, immature females did not have any genital contact behavior that resembled copulation. Females became very active in copulation with adult males and genital contact behavior with adult females after they had moved to non-natal groups.
著者
正高 信男
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.1-15, 1999 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
1

A principal component analysis of the correlation matrix array 25 items concerning the status of adult male and female as well as of offspring in 108 societies revealed that the more polygynous the society is, the more aggressive adult males in society are toward adult females. The more the subsistence of a society is dependent on the labor of males, the more aggressive adults are towards offspring. Swaddling and infanticide are considered to work as that buffering the aggression and to simultaneously act as a r-strategy or a K-strategy, respectively, in terms of reproductive success in human societies. Overall high level of aggression in greate apes and humans is discussed in terms of possible dietary changes that have occurred to produce high sociability in primates.

3 0 0 0 OA 分子時計

著者
宮田 隆 林田 秀宜 菊野 玲子
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.1, pp.9-16, 1986 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
21
著者
落合 知美 綿貫 宏史朗 鵜殿 俊史 森村 成樹 平田 聡 友永 雅己 伊谷 原一 松沢 哲郎
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
2015
被引用文献数
1

The Great Ape Information Network has collated and archived information on captive chimpanzees within Japan since 2002. As of July 1<sup>st</sup>, 2014, a total of 323 chimpanzees were housed within 52 facilities across Japan, all registered in the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA) studbook. JAZA has recorded information on captive chimpanzees within Japan since the 1980s. However, for individuals unregistered and/or deceased prior to this period, JAZA holds scant information. There are very few surviving reports on living conditions and husbandry of such individuals, particularly for the years preceding the Second World War (WWII) (up to 1945). Here we present the first detailed history of captive chimpanzees in Japan before WWII, following a systematic investigation of disparate records. The first record of any live chimpanzee within Japan was a chimpanzee accompanying an Italian travelling circus in 1921. The history of resident captive chimpanzees in Japan began in 1927 when a chimpanzee, imported into Japan by a visitor, was exhibited in Osaka zoo. In the 1930s, many chimpanzee infants were imported to Japanese zoos until in 1941 imports were halted because of WWII. By the end of WWII, there was only one single chimpanzee still alive within Japan, "Bamboo", housed in Nagoya. In 1951, importation of wild chimpanzees into Japan resumed. In total, we identified 28 individuals housed within Japan before 1945, none listed previously in the JAZA studbook. Of these 28 individuals: 6 entered Japan as pets and/or circus animals, 21 were imported to zoos, and one was stillborn in zoo. Of the 21 zoo-housed individuals, 7 died within one year and 9 of the remaining 14 were dead within 5 years of arriving in Japan. Four individuals are recorded to have lived 7-8 years. Only one male individual, the aforementioned "Bamboo", lived notably longer, to about 14 years.
著者
花村 俊吉
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 = Primate research (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.159-176, 2010-12-20

Chimpanzees form a multi-male/multi-female unit-group and the members of the group usually split into temporary parties. They sometimes exchange long-distance calls, pant-hoots (PH) between parties and utter PH in chorus within a party. Although most studies on PH have focused on the sociobiological functions for vocalizers or the referential functions, such studies based on individualistic or anthropocentric viewpoint do not tell us how chimpanzees interact with others by using PH. This study aims to analyze how the chimpanzees of Mahale connect their actions through PH and how they organize their social fields beyond visual contact with involvement of others in sight, by applying ethnomethodology and focusing on hearers' actions. Case analyses based on the result of their usual interval for exchanging PH (10 sec.) revealed that both vocalizers and hearers practiced the same "call-answer" form. Utilizing this form, not only vocalizers could construct an auditory social field between parties but also non-answering hearers could observe the field. Even if PH hearers headed to the place from which they heard the PH, they sometimes restrained themselves from answering to hear whether or not the answer was uttered by other parties, and anew uttered PH to elicit the voluntary answer from the party with whom they tried to interact. Meanwhile, PH hearers sometimes answered immediately regardless of the contexts in which the PH was uttered. Employing these two hands, they would organize their auditory social fields. Once two parties constructed their auditory social field by exchanging PH, one could wait for next call from another or they could get to meet visually with repeating PH exchanges. On the other hand, PH hearers sometimes terminated or deferred those interactions, which hearers' attitudes were supposed to generate the society in which the members could stay apart from each other even beyond PH distance. In conclusion, these hearers' various actions show the sociality related to their dynamic fission-fusion society and engaging in non-referential interactions. When we say that chimpanzees' society is complex, we may be often thinking of the process of interactions resulted from such their unique sociality.
著者
室山 泰之
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.165-178, 1998 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
55

This paper reviews recent studies of reciprocal altruistic behaviours in non-human primates. Although altruistic behaviours such as alliances in agonistic interactions and social grooming are explained by the theories of kin selection or reciprocal altruism, evidence of reciprocity is scarce. Recent development of methods, however, may allow us to investigate reciprocity in quantitative and systematic ways. Model-based comparison of matrices of social interactions in a group are a powerful tool to investigate reciprocity at group level. Sequential analyses of social interactions reveal how monkeys do decision-making during the interactions with different partners in terms of reciprocity. Some computer simulations may give us an insight into false reciprocity in the case that human observers may assume the existence of reciprocity. It is also discussed whether reciprocal altruism could develop into true altruism which is reported exclusively in humans.
著者
川本 芳 白井 啓 荒木 伸一 前野 恭子
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.53-60, 1999 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
11 10

An adult male captured at Nakatsu village, Wakayama Prefecture, was identified as an interspecific hybrid between the Japanese and Taiwan macaques. Electrophoretic analysis of diagnostic blood proteins (adenosine deaminase, ADA; NADH-dependent diaphorase, DIA; transferrin TF) strongly supported the occurrence of hybridization between native Japanese macaques and artificially introduced Taiwan macaques in the prefecture. The male had a Taiwanese-like mitochondrial DNA. This suggested that the hybrid resulted from a mating between an immigrant male of Japanese macaque and a group-member, female Taiwanese macaque in the northern area of the Arida River.
著者
茂原 信生
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.165-178, 1996 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1 2

The direction of the orbits in mammals, especially in primates, was examined to explain orbital convergence in primates. The orbital axes of old world monkeys are between 40°∼50°, while those of new world monkeys exceed 50°. The orbital axes tend. to be even larger in callithricids. In Prosimians, the axis angle ranges from 60°∼100°, and is clearly larger than those of the anthropoids. The orbital axis angle of carnivores is between those of prosimians and anthropoids. However, their orbital planes have not turned to the front, because the olfactory sense is also important for them. Ungulates have large orbital axis angles over 100°. It is clear that arboreality is possible even if the orbit has not turned to the front as it is in anthropoids, because tree shrews or squirrels do not have orbits rotated to the front as in anthropoids. Carnivores, although they are terrestrial mammals, have orbital axis angle as small as in primates. As a result, the frontal rotation of the orbit was not caused simply by the adaptation to arboreal life, supporting the visual predation hypothesis advocated by Cartmill (1972).
著者
岡 秀郎 岡田 守彦 木村 賛 葉山 杉夫
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.207-220, 1996 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
16

サル類の樹上運動への最高の適応としての腕渡り動作を取り上げ,喉頭腔を特殊化しなかったヒトの動作時の喉頭動態について,新たに開発された高解像度内視鏡ビデオシステムを用い,直接,喉頭の動態を観察すると共に,動作ならびに筋の作用機序の面から喉頭括約作用の動作への関与について検討した。腕渡り動作時,被験者の経験している運動形態の差異により,喉頭動態ならびに上肢・上肢帯筋群の活動様式に差異が認められた。喉頭動態に関しては,二次元平面運動(柔道・剣道)経験者では喉頭閉鎖が観察されたが,三次元空間運動(体操)経験者では喉頭は終始開放されていた。筋活動様式に関しては,二次元平面運動経験者の場合,右手懸垂スイング時に上腕骨の内転動作に参画していると考えられる,三角筋前部,大胸筋胸肋部に顕著な放電の出現・増大が観察され,これらの放電の増大時に喉頭括約が認められた。二次元平面運動経験者の場合,内転動作時に運動支援として胸郭の固定が必要となり,胸腔内圧をあげるための喉頭括約作用が要求されるようになったものと考えられる。一方,三次元空間運動経験者の場合,同時期,三角筋前部,大胸筋胸肋部の顕著な放電の出現は観察されず,喉頭括約は認められなかった。また,二次元平面運動経験者でも右手懸垂スイング時,三角筋前部の放電は減少傾向を示し,大胸筋胸肋部に顕著な放電の減少が認められた場合,喉頭括約は認められなかった。これらのことから,肩関節への負荷状態により,運動支援としての胸郭の固定が必要となり,胸腔内圧をあげるための喉頭括約作用が要求されるようになったものと考えられ,ヒトの動作と喉頭括約作用との関係について,肩関節への負荷量の状態に起因する運動支援としての前庭ヒダ・声帯ヒダの関与の存在を強く示唆するものであった。
著者
加納 隆至
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.3, pp.223-242, 2001 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
75
被引用文献数
1 2

Numerous comparative studies have shown that Pan paniscus exhibits many socio-sexual characteristics which are distinct from those of Pan troglodytes. These characteristics can be considered as successful counter-strategies against potential infanticide by males.1) Female P. paniscus show longer maximal tumescence period per cycle, larger number of cycles during pregnancy, earlier resumption of a cycle after giving birth, than those of P. troglodytes. All of these increase a female's sexual receptivity which help to mitigate male-male sexual competition, the principal motivation for infanticide.2) Female P. paniscus appear to form a sort of alliance against males: they are more closely associate with each other than males do, both in the formation of parties and spatial distribution, and are cooperative in agonistic interactions with males. They prevent males from establishing a coalition by assisting young males to gain higher ranking positions, and also by maintaining a close association with their sons even after they mature. Thus, females, in spite of their physical inferiority to males, attain equal or even higher social positions than males. This makes it difficult for males to behave violently towards infants.3) Female P. paniscus take the initiative in peaceful contact with different groups. They mate more frequently with males from different groups than with males of their own group during intergroup encounters. Intergroup copulations, together with obscured ovulation through prolonged estrus, make it difficult for males to determine paternity. This extreme confusion of paternity is considered to be a powerful deterrence to infant-killing by males of both the same group and between different groups.
著者
本庄 重男
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.2, pp.109-110, 1986 (Released:2009-09-07)
被引用文献数
4 5

“The Guiding Principles for Animal Experiments Using Nonhuman Primates” has been adopted by unanimous consent at the 2nd General Assembly of PSJ held on June 14, 1986, in Nagoya. Three main points of view, i. e., (1) conservation of feral nonhuman primate resources, (2) animal welfare, and (3) good use of nonhuman primates as laboratory animals, have been comprehended in “the Guiding Principles” which consists of a preamble and twelve sections. The preamble explains PSJ's fundamental intent to draw up “the Guiding Principles”. Twelve sections are concerned with 1) judgement on appropriateness of experiment using nonhuman primates, 2) procurement of wild nonhuman primates, 3) quarantine, 4) health management for monkeys as well as for personnels working with monkeys, 5) feeding conditions, 6) experimental techniques and procedures, 7) euthanasia and clearance work for carcasses, 8) effective and multiple use of animals, 9) captive breeding and rearing, 10) publication of experimental results, 11) observance of rules and regulations related to protection and welfare of animals, and 12) establishment of an intramural system of inspection and review for animal experiments.PSJ believes it is quite right to state that scientists who use nonhuman primates for their research should strictly observe “the Guiding Principles”.
著者
毛利 俊雄 吾妻 健 石上 盛敏 川本 芳
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.87-94, 2000 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
7 8

We report a species identification by mitochondrial DNA of a partial macaque skeleton excavated from Shuri Castle, Okinawa, the estimated age of which is around the 16th or 17th century AD. Species identification by gross morphology was not possible because of the following reasons; sufficient parts are not preserved, no natural distribution of non-human primates including macaque is recorded in the Ryukyu islands, and the genus Macaca is highly speciose. DNA amplification of D-loop variable region (ca 200bp) was first unsuccessful with the use of previously devised sets of primers which encompass the whole region, and is accomplished by using newly devised sets of primers, each of which is designed for anterior or posterior portion of the targeted region. Sequenced DNA of the Shuri macaque completely agrees with a sequence of Yaku macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). For the comparison with or species identification of Shuri macaque, we sequenced the same region of DNA (variable region of D-loop) from four species of macaques (Macaca fuscata, M. cyclopis, M. mulatta and M. fascicularis). Ample variations of substitutions and insertion/deletion mutations are discovered both intra- and inter-specifically. A neighbor-joining tree based on nucleotide substitutions is depicted with bootstrap values (Fig. 4). In this study, a monkey skeletal remain excavated from Okinawa is safely identified as a Yaku macaque by the use of mitochondrial DNA. This suggests a promising future of genetic analyses for archaeological information retrieval. It is also emphasized that, for the proper assessment of the genetic information from archaeological remains, fuller genetic studies of the living animals are critically important.
著者
山極 寿一
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.2, pp.195-206, 1993 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
54

The distribution of gorillas and chimpanzees overlaps extensively in eastern Zaire. A similar density is estimated for the 2 kinds of ape in lowland tropical forests, while the density is higher for gorillas than for chimpanzees in montane forests. These differences are reflected in their food selection and range utilization in both habitats. Like chimpanzees, gorillas tend to eat many kinds of fruit and to consume insects regularly in lowland forests. Gorillas and chimpanzees tend to select different food items and to range in different vegetation types in montane forests. The low availability of fruits in montane forests may be responsible for the low density of chimpanzees. When availability of fruits declines, the 2 kinds of ape adopt different strategies. Gorillas exhibit folivorous characteristics and decrease day journey length. Chimpanzees are always extensive frugivores and may possibly increase their ranging area. These findings of their ecological characteristics must be considered in conservation planning. Kahuzi-Biega National Park (6, 000km2) includes both montane and lowland forests and provides a variety of habitats for gorillas and chimpanzees. The recent census conducted in montane forests indicates a slight increase of gorilla population in this decade. However, gorillas and chimpanzees tend to concentrate their ranging in the small areas which are well protected by the Park. The increasing human population around the Park has gradually destroyed the ape's habitats everywhere. Recent developments in tourism and organization of NGO contribute financial supports for the country and knowledge to the local people to realize the value of their natural resources. More international attention is needed to increase conservation activities and to protect fauna and flora from the hazards of human disturbances in this area.
著者
正高 信男
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.121-128, 1989 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
36

The present study shows that chemical signals are used as sociosexual communication among prosimians, New World as well as Old World monkeys. The abundance of scent glands and of behaviors concerned with their use exhibits that olfactory communication is of great importance in prosimians and callitrichids. Although cebids share a reduction in the complexity of the gland structure with Old World monkeys, the relative scarcity of specialized scent-marking behaviors is complemented by variable types of urine-concerned behaviors. It suggests that olfactory communication might play a more powerful role in social interaction in general throughout the order primates than is commonly supposed.
著者
本間 敏彦 坂井 建雄
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.25-31, 1992 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

Anatomy of the intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles concerning the thumb movement were studied in 6 primate species including tree shrews, slow lorises, a squirrel monkey, crab-eating monkeys, an orangutan and man. Four thenar muscles which represent the intrinsic muscles are found in all the species examined except for the tree shrews which lack M. opponens pollicis. This muscle effects an opposable movement of the thumb against the other fingers in the prosimians and the higher primates. The opposable movement which enables grasping of tools is most effective in the man. Among the four extrinsic muscles, M. extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) and M. flexor pollicis longus (FPL) are unique in the man. In the other species examined, the former is totally absent and the latter may be represented by a tendon coming from M. flexor digitorum profundus. EPB and FPL work together to flex specifically the phalangeal joint of the thumb without bending the other joints. Thereby FPL flexes the distal phalanx and the EPB stabilizes the proximal phalanx. In the other primates, flexion of the joint is inevitably accompanied by bending of the distal phalangeal joints of the other fingers, as seen in the human toes.
著者
杉山 幸丸
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.3, pp.215-223, 1995 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
41

Tool-using behaviors of animals have been compared with those of early-man and examined the factors which differentiated the human culture from that of animals. Many tool-using behaviors of animals which are mainly found among birds and primates, particularly in chimpanzees, are flexible to environmental change and have local differences. The reason why they are remarkable only among some separated animal taxa are to be examined through their environment, life form, feeding repertoire and technique. Chimpanzees use and make many different kinds of tools, occasionally do more than one kind of tool for a single purpose and are expected to use a tool for making another tool which needs high intelligence and capability. Examination of local differences of tool-using repertoire of chimpanzees and their environment made clear that they maintain techniques through social tradition, which can be called “culture”. However, its elaboration to man-like culture needs further development of the motor function coordinating both hands and communication method by language.
著者
山越 言 竹元 博幸 松沢 哲郎 杉山 幸丸
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.101-114, 1999 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
169
被引用文献数
4 4

This review summarizes the findings from 40 years of research on a chimpanzee group at Bossou, Guinea, conducted mainly by two research teams, one from the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, and the other from Kyoto University, Japan, and reports the current conservation status of the chimpanzee group.Research in the 1960's by the Dutch team consisted of short-term, ‘testing-a-hypothesis’ type projects, which focused on the chimpanzees' agonistic behavior towards predators. They used a unique field-experiment method, with an artificial leopard, to see how the chimpanzees responded to the stimulus. The experiments revealed a variety of agonistic reactions by chimpanzees, including tool-using behavior such as throwing a branch and using a stick as a club.In 1976, the Japanese team launched a long-term project, based on recognizing each chimpanzee individually. Although diverse topics have been covered to date, a focus has been tool use. Starting with the first substantial direct observation of nut cracking by wild chimpanzees, many other types of tool use have since been described, including ant dipping, pestle pounding, and algae scooping. A series of field experiments followed that revealed many details about nut cracking by chimpanzees: hand preference, metatool, developmental process, etc. Feeding ecology is a more recent topic, and the utilization of oil palm as a ‘keystone resource' when fruit is scarce, using two types of tool, proved to have significant ecological importance. Unique social characteristics like male immigration, close between-female relationships, and females’ high reproductive performances have been brought to light and require more ecological and genetic study to understand their uniqueness comprehensively.As for the conservation status of Bossou chimpanzees, the population size has fluctuated, but has been essentially stable during the study period. The reproductive parameters appear good, but juveniles of both sexes tend to disappear for unknown reasons. The people of Bossou have a strong religious motivation for conserving small patches of forest and the chimpanzees living there, and there is good collaboration among the Bossou people, government institutions and researchers when dealing with conservation problems. Current concerns seem to be the genetic isolation from a neighboring chimpanzee population on Mt. Nimba, and crop damage caused by the chimpanzees.