著者
正高 信男
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
挑戦的萌芽研究
巻号頁・発行日
2011

ヘビの写真をもちいた筆者自身がおこなった最近の視覚探索課題の研究成果を総括した。ヘビの写真をもちいた視覚探索実験はパラダイムとして、安定して再現性がたかい状態で、簡便に被験者の恐怖および不安の水準を計測できるものであることが明らかになった。発達障害のある子どもでは、定型発達の子どもと比べて恐怖の水準がはるかに高いことが明らかになった。
著者
正高 信男
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.4, pp.285-291, 1996-10-28 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
2

Placing the infant in a device which restrained his/her movement was a traditional custom of infant caretaking in a number of parts of the world, and is still observed in some of them. An example of such practices, swaddling, was investigated with Native Americans, the Aymara, in Bolivia, and caretaking behaviors in 24 swaddling and 18 non-swaddling families were compared. Results did not support the notion that swaddling was a form of infant neglect on the part of caretakers. Swaddling caretakers actually exhibited as strong interest in the infant as non-swaddling caretakers, and spent more money on his/her clothes. The mother spent less time for infant care in the swaddling family. However, other members of the family took more time to take care of the infant than those in the non-swaddling family. It is argued that swaddling effectively encourages non-mother family members to participate in infant caretaking, in addition to serving a potentially beneficial function to protect infants from unsafe and insanitary home environments.
著者
正高 信男
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.1-15, 1999 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
1

A principal component analysis of the correlation matrix array 25 items concerning the status of adult male and female as well as of offspring in 108 societies revealed that the more polygynous the society is, the more aggressive adult males in society are toward adult females. The more the subsistence of a society is dependent on the labor of males, the more aggressive adults are towards offspring. Swaddling and infanticide are considered to work as that buffering the aggression and to simultaneously act as a r-strategy or a K-strategy, respectively, in terms of reproductive success in human societies. Overall high level of aggression in greate apes and humans is discussed in terms of possible dietary changes that have occurred to produce high sociability in primates.
著者
正高 信男
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
心理學研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.4, pp.285-291, 1996
被引用文献数
1 2

Placing the infant in a device which restrained his/her movement was a traditional custom of infant caretaking in a number of parts of the world, and is still observed in some of them. An example of such practices, swaddling, was investigated with Native Americans, the Aymara, in Bolivia, and caretaking behaviors in 24 swaddling and 18 non-swaddling families were compared. Results did not support the notion that swaddling was a form of infant neglect on the part of caretakers. Swaddling caretakers actually exhibited as strong interest in the infant as non-swaddling caretakers, and spent more money on his/her clothes. The mother spent less time for infant care in the swaddling family. However, other members of the family took more time to take care of the infant than those in the non-swaddling family. It is argued that swaddling effectively encourages non-mother family members to participate in infant caretaking, in addition to serving a potentially beneficial function to protect infants from unsafe and insanitary home environments.
著者
正高 信男
出版者
Primate Society of Japan
雑誌
霊長類研究 (ISSN:09124047)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.121-128, 1989 (Released:2009-09-07)
参考文献数
36

The present study shows that chemical signals are used as sociosexual communication among prosimians, New World as well as Old World monkeys. The abundance of scent glands and of behaviors concerned with their use exhibits that olfactory communication is of great importance in prosimians and callitrichids. Although cebids share a reduction in the complexity of the gland structure with Old World monkeys, the relative scarcity of specialized scent-marking behaviors is complemented by variable types of urine-concerned behaviors. It suggests that olfactory communication might play a more powerful role in social interaction in general throughout the order primates than is commonly supposed.
著者
伊藤 祐康 久保(川合) 南海子 正高 信男
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.280-288, 2008 (Released:2009-11-20)
参考文献数
19

In this experiment, one digit arithmetical problems followed by a masking sound were given auditorily from a computer. Three types of calculation tasks; addition tasks, multiplication tasks, and kuku tasks, were tested under two conditions that varied depending on the position of the masked sound in a given formula. For example, when a left side of a calculating formula consisted of number 6 and 7, the addition task was conducted as “6 + X (masking sound) = 13 (roku, tasu, X, wa, juusan)”, or as “X + 7 = 13”, and the multiplication task was presented as “6 × X = 42 (roku, kakeru, X, wa, yonjuuni)”, or “X × 7 = 42”, while the kuku task was presented as “roku, X, shijuuni”, or as “X, shichi, shijuuni”. When each stimulus was presented, each of the participants of 10 men and 10 women was required to respond by answering with what was missing. The results revealed that they answered faster in the kuku tasks than in addition tasks. The results indicate the possibility that calculation by kuku was mostly executed through a process similar to a playback of verbal memory stored as linguistic representation, and when we could ascertain the kuku tasks, the quantitative representation of numbers almost do not come to the surface. Thus, Japanese adults answered faster in the kuku tasks than in the addition tasks.