著者
Masami Ikeda Minoru Sugihara Makiko Suwa
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.104-110, 2018 (Released:2018-04-27)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
3

We report the development of the SEVENS database, which contains information on G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) genes that are identified with high confidence levels (A, B, C, and D) from various eukaryotic genomes, by using a pipeline comprising bioinformatics softwares, including a gene finder, a sequence alignment tool, a motif and domain assignment tool, and a transmembrane helix predictor.SEVENS compiles detailed information on GPCR genes, such as chromosomal mapping position, phylogenetic tree, sequence similarity to known genes, and protein function described by motif/domain and transmembrane helices. They are presented in a user-friendly interface. Because of the comprehensive gene findings from genomes, SEVENS contains a larger data set than that of previous databases and enables the performance of a genome-scale overview of all the GPCR genes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 68 eukaryotes, and found that there were between 6 and 3,470 GPCR genes for each genome (Level A data). Within these genes, the number of receptors for various molecules, including biological amines, peptides, and lipids, were conserved in mammals, birds, and fishes, whereas the numbers of odorant receptors and pheromone receptors were highly diverse in mammals. SEVENS is freely available at http://sevens.cbrc.jp or http://sevens.chem.aoyama.ac.jp.
著者
Nobuhiro Go
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.256-263, 2019 (Released:2019-11-29)
参考文献数
11

The snake cube puzzle made of a linear array of 27 cubes and its modified and extended versions are used as theoretical models to study the mechanism of folding of proteins into their sequence-specific native three-dimensional structures. Each of the three versions is characterized by the respective set of characteristics attributed to each of its constituent cubes and an array is characterized by its specific sequence of the cube characteristics. The aim of the puzzles is to fold the cube array into a compact 3×3×3 cubic structure. In all three versions, out of all possible sequences, only a limited fraction of sequences are found foldable into the compact cube. Even among foldable sequences, the structures folded into the compact 3×3×3 cube are found often not uniquely determined from the sequence. By comparing the results obtained for the three versions of models, we conclude that the power of the hydrophobic interactions to make the folded structure unique to the sequence is much weaker than the geometrical varieties of constituent cubes as modelled in the original snake cube puzzle. However, when this weak cube attribute is compounded to that of the original snake cube puzzle, the power is enhanced very effectively. This is a strong manifestation of the consistency principle: The sequence-specific native structure of protein is realized as a result of consistency of various types of interactions working in protein.
著者
Akihiko Nakamura Kei-ichi Okazaki Tadaomi Furuta Minoru Sakurai Jun Ando Ryota Iino
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.51-58, 2020 (Released:2020-07-10)
参考文献数
26

Motor proteins are essential units of life and are well-designed nanomachines working under thermal fluctuations. These proteins control moving direction by consuming chemical energy or by dissipating electrochemical potentials. Chitinase A from bacterium Serratia marcescens (SmChiA) processively moves along crystalline chitin by hydrolysis of a single polymer chain to soluble chitobiose. Recently, we directly observed the stepping motions of SmChiA labeled with a gold nanoparticle by dark-field scattering imaging to investigate the moving mechanism. Time constants analysis revealed that SmChiA moves back and forth along the chain freely, because forward and backward states have a similar free energy level. The similar probabilities of forward-step events (83.5%=69.3%+14.2%) from distributions of step sizes and chain-hydrolysis (86.3%=(1/2.9)/(1/2.9+1/18.3)×100) calculated from the ratios of time constants of hydrolysis and the backward step indicated that SmChiA moves forward as a result of shortening of the chain by a chitobiose unit, which stabilizes the backward state. Furthermore, X-ray crystal structures of sliding intermediate and molecular dynamics simulations showed that SmChiA slides forward and backward under thermal fluctuation without large conformational changes of the protein. Our results demonstrate that SmChiA is a burnt-bridge Brownian ratchet motor.
著者
Fumio Oosawa
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.151-158, 2018 (Released:2018-07-18)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
1

An enormous amount of research has been performed to characterize actin dynamics. Structural biology investigations have determined the localization of main chains and their changes coupled with G (Globular)-F (Filamentous) transformation of actin, whereas local thermal fluctuations that may be caused by free rotations of the tips of side chains are not yet fully investigated. This paper argues if the entropy change of actin accompanied by the G-F transformation is simply attributable to the changes in hydration. It took almost 10 years to understand that the actin filament is semi-flexible. This flexibility was visually confirmed as the development of optical microscope techniques, and the direct observation of actin severing events in the presence of actin binding proteins became possible. Finally, I expect the deep understanding of actin dynamics will lead to the elucidation of self-assembly mechanisms of the living creature.
著者
Shumpei Matsuno Masahito Ohue Yutaka Akiyama
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.2-13, 2020 (Released:2020-02-07)
参考文献数
30

Protein functions can be predicted based on their three-dimensional structures. However, many multidomain proteins have unstable structures, making it difficult to determine the whole structure in biological experiments. Additionally, multidomain proteins are often decomposed and identified based on their domains, with the structure of each domain often found in public databases. Recent studies have advanced structure prediction methods of multidomain proteins through computational analysis. In existing methods, proteins that serve as templates are used for three-dimensional structure prediction. However, when no protein template is available, the accuracy of the prediction is decreased. This study was conducted to predict the structures of multidomain proteins without the need for whole structure templates.We improved structure prediction methods by performing rigid-body docking from the structure of each domain and reranking a structure closer to the correct structure to have a higher value. In the proposed method, the score for the domain-domain interaction obtained without a structural template of the multidomain protein and score for the three-dimensional structure obtained during docking calculation were newly incorporated into the score function. We successfully predicted the structures of 50 of 55 multidomain proteins examined in the test dataset.Interaction residue pair information of the protein-protein complex interface contributes to domain reorganizations even when a structural template for a multidomain protein cannot be obtained. This approach may be useful for predicting the structures of multidomain proteins with important biochemical functions.
著者
Jean-François Gibrat
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.444-451, 2019 (Released:2019-11-29)
参考文献数
13

This paper presents a preliminary work consisting of two contributions. The first one is the design of a very efficient algorithm based on an “Overlap-Layout-Consensus” (OLC) graph to assemble the long reads provided by 3rd generation technologies. The second concerns the analysis of this graph using algebraic topology concepts to determine, in advance, whether the assembly of the genome will be straightforward, i.e., whether it will lead to a pseudo-Hamiltonian path or cycle, or whether the results will need to be scrutinized. In the latter case, it will be necessary to look for “loops” in the OLC assembly graph caused by unresolved repeated genomic regions, and then try to untie the “knots” created by these regions.
著者
Keiichi Kojima Hiroshi C. Watanabe Satoko Doi Natsuki Miyoshi Misaki Kato Hiroshi Ishikita Yuki Sudo
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.179-188, 2018 (Released:2018-09-07)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
2

Anion channelrhodopsin-2 (ACR2), a light-gated channel recently identified from the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta, exhibits anion channel activity with exclusive selectivity. In addition to its novel function, ACR2 has become a focus of interest as a powerful tool for optogenetics. Here we combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate the roles of conserved carboxylates on the anion transport activity of ACR2 in Escherichia coli membrane. First, we replaced six conserved carboxylates with a neutral residue (i.e. E9Q, E56Q, E64Q, E159Q, E219Q and D230N), and measured anion transport activity using E. coli expression system. E159Q and D230N exhibited significantly lower anion transport activity compared with wild-type ACR2 (1/12~1/3.4), which suggests that E159 and D230 play important roles in the anion transport. Second, to explain its molecular aspects, we constructed a homology model of ACR2 based on the crystal structure of a cation channelrhodopsin (ChR). The model structure showed a cavity formed by four transmembrane helices (TM1, TM2, TM3 and TM7) similar to ChRs, as a putative anion conducting pathway. Although E159 is not located in the putative pathway, the model structure showed hydrogen bonds between E159 and R129 with a water molecule. D230 is located in the pathway near the protonated Schiff base (PSB) of the chromophore retinal, which suggests that there is an interaction between D230 and the PSB. Thus, we demonstrated the functional importance and the hypothetical roles of two conserved carboxylates, E159 and D230, in the anion transport activity of ACR2 in E. coli membrane.
著者
Akira R. Kinjo
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.117-119, 2015 (Released:2015-12-11)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1 1

The direct-coupling analysis is a powerful method for protein contact prediction, and enables us to extract “direct” correlations between distant sites that are latent in “indirect” correlations observed in a protein multiple-sequence alignment. I show that the direct correlation can be obtained by using a formulation analogous to the Ornstein-Zernike integral equation in liquid theory. This formulation intuitively illustrates how the indirect or apparent correlation arises from an infinite series of direct correlations, and provides interesting insights into protein structure prediction.
著者
Daniel Dai Muneyoshi Ichikawa Katya Peri Reid Rebinsky Khanh Huy Bui
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.71-85, 2020 (Released:2020-07-22)
参考文献数
48

Cilia or flagella of eukaryotes are small micro-hair like structures that are indispensable to single-cell motility and play an important role in mammalian biological processes. Cilia or flagella are composed of nine doublet microtubules surrounding a pair of singlet microtubules called the central pair (CP). Together, this arrangement forms a canonical and highly conserved 9+2 axonemal structure. The CP, which is a unique structure exclusive to motile cilia, is a pair of structurally dimorphic singlet microtubules decorated with numerous associated proteins. Mutations of CP-associated proteins cause several different physical symptoms termed as ciliopathies. Thus, it is crucial to understand the architecture of the CP. However, the protein composition of the CP was poorly understood. This was because the traditional method of identification of CP proteins was mostly limited by available Chlamydomonas mutants of CP proteins. Recently, more CP protein candidates were presented based on mass spectrometry results, but most of these proteins were not validated. In this study, we re-evaluated the CP proteins by conducting a similar comprehensive CP proteome analysis comparing the mass spectrometry results of the axoneme sample prepared from Chlamydomonas strains with and without CP complex. We identified a similar set of CP protein candidates and additional new 11 CP protein candidates. Furthermore, by using Chlamydomonas strains lacking specific CP sub-structures, we present a more complete model of localization for these CP proteins. This work has established a new foundation for understanding the function of the CP complex in future studies.
著者
Rie Koga Nobuyasu Koga
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.304-309, 2019 (Released:2019-11-29)
参考文献数
38

Protein design holds promise for applications such as the control of cells, therapeutics, new enzymes and protein-based materials. Recently, there has been progress in rational design of protein molecules, and a lot of attempts have been made to create proteins with functions of our interests. The key to the progress is the development of methods for controlling desired protein tertiary structures with atomic-level accuracy. A theory for protein folding, the consistency principle, proposed by Nobuhiro Go in 1983, was a compass for the development. Anfinsen hypothesized that proteins fold into the free energy minimum structures, but Go further considered that local and non-local interactions in the free energy minimum structures are consistent with each other. Guided by the principle, we proposed a set of rules for designing ideal protein structures stabilized by consistent local and non-local interactions. The rules made possible designs of amino acid sequences with funnel-shaped energy landscapes toward our desired target structures. So far, various protein structures have been created using the rules, which demonstrates significance of our rules as intended. In this review, we briefly describe how the consistency principle impacts on our efforts for developing the design technology.
著者
Yasumasa Joti Akio Kitao
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.240-247, 2019 (Released:2019-11-29)
参考文献数
28

Terahertz time-domain spectra (THz-TDS) were investigated using the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Staphylococcal nuclease at two hydration states in the temperature range between 100 and 300 K. The temperature dependence of THz-TDS was found to differ significantly from that of the incoherent neutron scattering spectra (INSS) calculated from the same MD simulation results. We further examined contributions of the mutual and auto-correlations of the atomic fluctuations to THz-TDS and found that the negative value of the former contribution nearly canceled out the positive value of the latter, resulting in a monotonic increase of the reduced absorption cross section. Because of this cancellation, no distinct broad peak was observed in the absorption lineshape function of THz-TDS, whereas the protein boson peak was observed in INSS. The contribution of water molecules to THz-TDS was extremely large for the hydrated protein at temperatures above 200 K, in which large-amplitude motions of water were excited. The combination of THz-TDS, INSS and MD simulations has the potential to extract function-relevant protein dynamics occurring on the picosecond to nanosecond timescale.
著者
Kazuhiro Takemura Akio Kitao
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.295-303, 2019 (Released:2019-11-29)
参考文献数
36

Rigid-body protein-protein docking is very efficient in generating tens of thousands of docked complex models (decoys) in a very short time without considering structure change upon binding, but typical docking scoring functions are not necessarily sufficiently accurate to narrow these decoys down to a small number of plausible candidates. Flexible refinements and sophisticated evaluation of the decoys are thus required to achieve more accurate prediction. Since this process is time-consuming, an efficient screening method to reduce the number of decoys is necessary immediately following rigid-body dockings. We attempted to develop an efficient screening method by clustering decoys generated by the rigid-body docking ZDOCK. We introduced the three metrics ligand-root-mean-square deviation (L-RMSD), interface-ligand-RMSD (iL-RMSD), and the fraction of common contacts (FCC), and examined various ranges of cut-offs for clusters to determine the best set of clustering parameters. Although the employed clustering algorithm is simple, it successfully reduced the number of decoys. Using iL-RMSD with a cut-off radius of 8 Å, the number of decoys that contain at least one near-native model with 90% probability decreased from 4,808 to 320, a 93% reduction in the original number of decoys. Using FCC for the clustering step, the top 1,000 success rates, defined as the probability that the top 1,000 models contain at least one near-native structure, reached 97%. We conclude that the proposed method is very efficient in selecting a small number of decoys that include near-native decoys.
著者
Hiroyuki Terashima Akihiro Kawamoto Yusuke V. Morimoto Katsumi Imada Tohru Minamino
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.191-198, 2017 (Released:2017-12-19)
参考文献数
57
被引用文献数
1 23

The bacterial flagellum is a supramolecular motility machine consisting of the basal body as a rotary motor, the hook as a universal joint, and the filament as a helical propeller. Intact structures of the bacterial flagella have been observed for different bacterial species by electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging. The core structures of the basal body consisting of the C ring, the MS ring, the rod and the protein export apparatus, and their organization are well conserved, but novel and divergent structures have also been visualized to surround the conserved structure of the basal body. This suggests that the flagellar motors have adapted to function in various environments where bacteria live and survive. In this review, we will summarize our current findings on the divergent structures of the bacterial flagellar motor.
著者
Kazuho Yoshida Takahiro Yamashita Kengo Sasaki Keiichi Inoue Yoshinori Shichida Hideki Kandori
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.183-190, 2017 (Released:2017-12-19)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
2

We previously showed that the chimeric proteins of microbial rhodopsins, such as light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR) that contain cytoplasmic loops of bovine rhodopsin, are able to activate Gt protein upon light absorption. These facts suggest similar protein structural changes in both the light-driven proton pump and animal rhodopsin. Here we report two trials to engineer chimeric rhodopsins, one for the inserted loop, and another for the microbial rhodopsin template. For the former, we successfully activated Gs protein by light through the incorporation of the cytoplasmic loop of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). For the latter, we did not observe any G-protein activation for the light-driven sodium pump from Indibacter alkaliphilus (IndiR2) or a light-driven chloride pump halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (NpHR), whereas the light-driven proton pump GR showed light-dependent G-protein activation. This fact suggests that a helix opening motion is common to G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and GR, but not to IndiR2 and NpHR. Light-induced difference FTIR spectroscopy revealed similar structural changes between WT and the third loop chimera for each light-driven pump. A helical structural perturbation, which was largest for GR, was further enhanced in the chimera. We conclude that similar structural dynamics that occur on the cytoplasmic side of GPCR are needed to design chimeric microbial rhodopsins.
著者
Masaki Sasai George Chikenji Tomoki P. Terada
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.281-293, 2016 (Released:2016-11-18)
参考文献数
73
被引用文献数
3 3

A simple statistical mechanical model proposed by Wako and Saitô has explained the aspects of protein folding surprisingly well. This model was systematically applied to multiple proteins by Muñoz and Eaton and has since been referred to as the Wako-Saitô-Muñoz-Eaton (WSME) model. The success of the WSME model in explaining the folding of many proteins has verified the hypothesis that the folding is dominated by native interactions, which makes the energy landscape globally biased toward native conformation. Using the WSME and other related models, Saitô emphasized the importance of the hierarchical pathway in protein folding; folding starts with the creation of contiguous segments having a native-like configuration and proceeds as growth and coalescence of these segments. The Φ-values calculated for barnase with the WSME model suggested that segments contributing to the folding nucleus are similar to the structural modules defined by the pattern of native atomic contacts. The WSME model was extended to explain folding of multi-domain proteins having a complex topology, which opened the way to comprehensively understanding the folding process of multi-domain proteins. The WSME model was also extended to describe allosteric transitions, indicating that the allosteric structural movement does not occur as a deterministic sequential change between two conformations but as a stochastic diffusive motion over the dynamically changing energy landscape. Statistical mechanical viewpoint on folding, as highlighted by the WSME model, has been renovated in the context of modern methods and ideas, and will continue to provide insights on equilibrium and dynamical features of proteins.
著者
Etsuro Ito Rei Shima Tohru Yoshioka
出版者
The Biophysical Society of Japan
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.132-139, 2019 (Released:2019-08-24)
参考文献数
79

We review the involvement of a small molecule, oxytocin, in various effects of physical stimulation of somatosensory organs, mindfulness meditation, emotion and fragrance on humans, and then propose a hypothesis that complex human states and behaviors, such as well-being, social bonding, and emotional behavior, are explained by oxytocin. We previously reported that oxytocin can induce pain relief and described the possibility how oxytocin in the dorsal horn and/or the dorsal root ganglion relieves joint and muscle pain. In the present article, we expand our research target from the physical analgesic effects of oxytocin to its psychologic effects to upregulate well-being and downregulate stress and anxiety. For this purpose, we propose a “hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-oxytocin model” to explain why mindfulness meditation, placebo, and fragrance can reduce stress and anxiety, resulting in contentment. This new proposed model of HPA axis-oxytocin in the brain also provides a target to address other questions regarding emotional behaviors, learning and memory, and excess food intake leading to obesity, aimed at promoting a healthy life.