著者
前田 奎 大山卞 圭悟 関 慶太郎 水島 淳 広瀬 健一 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18002, (Released:2019-01-21)
参考文献数
38

The purpose of this study was to investigate, using path analysis, causal relationships among motion factors for achieving a high release velocity in the male discus throw. The throwing motions of 61 male discus throwers were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis. Variables such as release velocity, velocities gained by each body segment, body segment velocity, body angle and angular velocity were obtained. The path model indicating the causal relationships among these factors was constructed by path analysis. The main results were as follows: Influences of velocities gained by each body segment on release velocity were largest for the arm, followed in order by the trunk and legs. Motion factors such as weight shift, acquisition of the velocity of the center of gravity, sweeping the legs, rotations of the hip and shoulder, twisting and untwisting of the trunk, acquisition of the velocity of the right knee and extension of the left knee had direct or indirect influences on the velocities gained by each body segment. Motion factors in the path model revealed causal relationships along the time sequence of the throwing motion. In addition, the path model in this study indicated the cause and effect structure of the throwing motion by which Japanese male discus throwers were able to achieve a high release velocity. The results of this study can be utilized for technical coaching of the discus throw based on causal relationships.
著者
木越 清信 尾縣 貢 田内 健二 大山 卞 圭悟 高松 薫
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.167-178, 2003-04-01 (Released:2010-12-10)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2 3

本研究の目的は, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動中における座位姿勢の変化が下肢筋群の筋活動および最大パワーに及ぼす影響を明らかにすることであった.被験者には, 大学陸上競技部に所属する男性10名 (21.5±1.9yrs, 178.8±4.7cm, 71.0±5.6kg) を用い, シートの高さを変化させた3種類 (High, MiddleおよびLow) の試技条件下で, それぞれ5秒間のペダリング運動を体重×0.1kpの負荷で行わせた.主な結果は以下の通りである.1.3回転の最大パワーは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.2.骨盤傾斜角度は, HighおよびMiddleがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.3.膝関節最大伸展角度および屈曲角度は, High, MiddleおよびLowの川頁に有意に高値を示した.4.脊柱起立筋および大腿二頭筋におけるmEMGは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.5.Highにおいては, 3回転の最大パワーと大殿筋におけるmEMGとの間に有意な正の相関関係が認められた.また, 3回転の最大パワーと大腿二頭筋および外側広筋におけるmEMGとの間に正の相関傾向が認められた.以上の結果から, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動において, シート高の変化による座位姿勢変化は下肢筋群, 特に股関節伸展筋群の筋張力および最大パワーに影響を及ぼす可能性があることが示唆された.
著者
水島 淳 前田 奎 広瀬 健一 大山卞 圭悟 尾縣 貢
出版者
The Japan Journal of Coaching Studies
雑誌
コーチング学研究 (ISSN:21851646)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.71-78, 2018-10-20 (Released:2019-09-02)
参考文献数
21

The aim of this study was to investigate the coaching beliefs of foreign high-performance track and field coaches in South East Asian countries. Five foreign coaches from Germany, Portugal, and New Zealand who represented Malaysia and Singapore in track and field events at the South East Asian Games in 2017 were asked to participate and were interviewed in this study. For the purposes of this research, the factors believed most important for coaching from the coach’s perspective were asked. The results showed that the coaching beliefs of foreign high-performance track and field coaches in South East Asian countries were divided into 3 categories. These were (a) goal oriented: developing athletes’ competence and developing athletes’ character; (b) coaches’ knowledge oriented: professional knowledge, and interpersonal and intrapersonal knowledge; and (c) coaching context oriented: coaching context.
著者
後藤 一成 崔 鳥淵 大山 卞 圭悟 高松 薫
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.4, pp.383-393, 2003-07-10 (Released:2017-09-27)
被引用文献数
1

本研究では,レジスタンス運動における代表的な負荷方法であるStrength-up type(S-type)の運動とBulk-up type(B-type)の運動と負荷特性の相違を,動作中の筋放電量(実験A)と運動後の成長ホルモンの分泌量(実験B)の両面から検討することを目的とした。実験A,Bともに,被験者には健常な一般成人男性8名を用い,S-typeの運動とB-typeの運動をそれぞれ異なる日に行わせた。運動には,実験Aでは片脚による膝伸展運動を,実験Bでは両脚による膝伸展運動を用いた。実験A,Bともに,S-typeの運動においては1RMの90%の負荷を,セット間に3分間の休息をはさんで5セット行わせた。これに対して,B-typeの運動においては,1-3セットは1RMの80,60,40%,4-6セットは70,50,40%,7-9セットの間には30秒間,3-4,6-7セットの間には3分間の休息をはさんで,合計9セット行わせた。両運動ともに,いずれのセットにおいても動作は可能な限り反復させた。主な結果は以下の通りである。(1)各セットにおける反復回数は,S-typeの運動では3-8回の範囲にあったが,B-typeの運動では8-24回の範囲にあった(実験A,実験B)。(2)各セットにおける大腿直筋,外側広筋,内側広筋の%mEMGを平均化した値は,S-typeの運動では等尺性最大筋力発揮時の値とほぼ同様の水準が維持されていたのに対して,B-typeの運動では,3セットごとにみるとセット数が進むにつれてて低下したが,9セット全体でみると徐々に増加する傾向が認められた(実験A)。(3)各セットにおけるFmeam/%mEMGは,s-typeの運動ではいずれのセットにおいても一定の水準が維持されていたのに対して,B-typeの運動ではセット数が進むにつれて大きく低下する傾向が認められた。(4)運動後の血清成長ホルモン濃度は,B-typeの運動がS-typeの運動に比較して著しく上昇し,両運動間には運動後のいずれの時間においても有意差が認められた(実験B)。また,血中乳酸濃度も,B-typeの運動がS-typeの運動に比較して高値を示した(実験A,実験B)。(5)運動後における大腿囲の増加率は,B-typeの運動がS-typeの運動に比較して有意に高値を示した(実験A,実験B)。(6)運動後におけるMVCおよびMRFDの減少率は,いずれもB-typeの運動がS-typeの運動に比較して有意に高値を示した(実験B)。上述の結果は,S-typeの運動とB-typeの運動における負荷特性には,神経系の改善と筋肥大に関連した要因から見てきわめて大きな相違があること,およびこれらの相違が両運動のトレーニング効果の差に影響を及ぼす可能性があることを示唆するものである。
著者
山元 康平 宮代 賢治 内藤 景 木越 清信 谷川 聡 大山卞 圭悟 宮下 憲 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.159-173, 2014 (Released:2014-06-13)
参考文献数
39

This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between race pattern and performance in the men's 400-m race. Using several video cameras, 154 male 400-m sprinters (45-46 s: 26, 47 s: 35, 48 s: 58, 49 s: 35) in official competitions were videotaped at a sampling rate of 59.94 Hz from the start to the finish. The split time at every 50 m from the start was calculated using the Overlay method, which analyzes the split time by superimposing an image of the 400-m race onto an image of the hurdles in a 400-m hurdle race. Each segment was defined as follows: First segment, from the start to the 100-m mark; 2nd segment, from the 100-m mark to the 200-m mark; 3rd segment, from the 200-m mark to the 300-m mark; 4th segment, from the 300-m mark to the finish. The results of regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the 400-m race time and the all of the segment times (r=0.589-0.887, p<0.001), the ratio of the time for the 3rd segment (r=0.290, p<0.001) to that of the 4th segment (r=0.218, p<0.01), the rate of change in running speed from the 1st to the 2nd segments (r=−0.317, p<0.001), and that from the 2nd to the 3rd segments (r=−0.271, p<0.01). However, the relationship between the 400-m race time and the deceleration index (the slope of the linear relationship between running speed and the number of segments from the peak running speed to the finish) was not significant (r=0.154, p=0.056). These results suggest that it is important to maintain running speed in the 2nd and 3rd 100-m segments to achieve high performance in the 400-m sprint.
著者
広瀬 健一 大山卞 圭悟 尾縣 貢
出版者
The Japan Journal of Coaching Studies
雑誌
コーチング学研究 (ISSN:21851646)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.65-72, 2016-10-20 (Released:2019-09-04)
参考文献数
24

This study reports a coaching case of a men's hammer throw athlete (abbreviated to “T athlete” after this) who had a problem with the acceleration of the hammer during the turn phase. T athlete’s personal record was 45.75m at the start of coaching. The theme of the training program was “hammer throw without using preliminary swings”. And T athlete practiced to accelerate the hammer during the turn phase. The training was carried out for about three and a half months. The procedure of the approach was divided into two stages. The approach ① was the 1st training process until T athlete learned “the hammer throw without using preliminary swings”. The approach ② was a training process after learning “the hammer throw without using preliminary swings”. During the approach ①, T athlete was able to learn the timing to accelerate the hammer from the right back during “the hammer throw without using preliminary swings”. In addition, the approach ② conducted the inclined plane of the hammer orbit of the actual throw to get closer to the one of “the hammer throw without using preliminary swings”. Finally, T athlete improved the personal record approximately 7m (45.75 to 52.67m). “The hammer throw without preliminary swings” is considered to be effective as one of the convincing training method to improve the turn technique of hammer throw.
著者
松尾 信之介 藤井 宏明 苅山 靖 大山 卞 圭悟
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1106020186, (Released:2011-06-07)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
4

Changes in the activity of hip adductor muscles with increased running speed were investigated in 4 male sprinters (personal best for 100 m: 10.58±0.26 s). The subjects were instructed to run at three different speeds (3 4 m/s, 6 8 m/s and 9 m/s). The surface electromyograms (EMGs) of 10 muscles around the hip joint were recorded, and whole-body motions were also filmed with a high-speed video camera (150 fps). Regardless of running velocity, the adductor longus (AL) showed activity concomitant with the rectus femoris when the hip joint was in extension. This suggested that the AL functioned as a hip flexor. On the other hand, the adductor magnus (AM) showed activity when the hip joint was flexed, suggesting that the AM assisted hip extensors such as the gluteus maximus. During high-speed sprinting, the AL was also activated when the hip joint was flexed. Similarly, the AM also showed activity when the hip joint was extended, corresponding to the latter half of the support phase. During the support phase, the AM may serve to stabilize the frontal plane by co-contracting with hip abductors such as the gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae. Furthermore, the AL and AM showed increased activity while the hip was fully flexed and extended. This remarkable muscle activity around the flexion-extension reversal point during high-speed sprinting may stabilize the hip joint so that it resists dislocative force through the unique anatomical features of the hip adductor muscles, i.e. “shunt-” rather than “spurt-type” architectural characteristics.
著者
小野 真弘 徐 広孝 大山 卞 圭悟 西嶋 尚彦
出版者
日本体育測定評価学会
雑誌
体育測定評価研究 (ISSN:13471309)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.1-10, 2015-03-31 (Released:2016-04-14)
参考文献数
23

The purpose of this study was to create an achievement evaluation standard for men’s discus throwing. Subjects were 96 male discus thrower. The six trials of the discus throwing movement were recorded by camera, and the best record was used for analysis. Delphi method with 8 experts was implemented for characteristic causal analysis. Item characteristic and test characteristic were analyzed by IRT of 2PLM. Binary data (success=1, failure=0) was collected following the achievement decision criterion. The discus throwing was classified in the main of 4 motor phase (preparation, first turn, second turn, release).The discus throwing movement was configured 11 sub-movements and 34 items. A difficulty gap between the first turn and the release turn was large, there was a lot of items than other phases. Therefore, it is guessed that the first turn phase and the release phase are main phase and important for discus throwing. Unidimensionality, fitness to 2PLM and invariance of parameters were confirmed. The test reliability coefficient displayed a maximum value of 0.97 at an ability of -0.1. Ability range with the reliability coefficient of over 0.8 was between -0.2 to 2.0. It is means that the achievement evaluation standard of the discus throwing movement skill was high test precision. The correlation of the ability and the throwing record was 0.93 (p <0.05). The validity of this achievement evaluation standard was confirmed.
著者
渡邉 信晃 榎本 靖士 大山 卞 圭悟 宮下 憲 尾懸 貢 勝田 茂
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育學研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.4, pp.405-419, 2003-07-10
被引用文献数
4

本研究は,スプリント走時の下肢の動作および関節トルク発揮と等速性最大筋力との関係を明らかにし,スプリント走のトレーニングを考える上での基礎資料を得ることを目的とした。本研究から得られた知見は以下の通りである。(1)疾走速度と疾走時の下肢の動作および関節トルクとの間で有意な相関関係が認められたのは,支持期の膝関節最大伸展速度(負の相関),回復期の股関節屈曲トルクおよび伸展トルク(正の相関),支持期の膝関節伸展トルクおよび足関節底屈トルク(正の相関)であった。(2)疾走時の下肢関節トルクと下肢の等速性最大筋力との間でいくつかの有意な相関関係が認められたが,,中でもパフォーマンスに影響すると考えられる関係は,回復期の股関節進展トルクと短縮性股関節屈曲筋力(30,180および300deg/s),回復期の膝関節屈曲トルクと膝関節屈曲筋力(短縮性:180deg/s,伸張性:30,180および300deg/s),支持期の足関節底屈トルクと短縮性底屈筋力(180および300deg/s)であった。特に,支持期の膝関節および足関節では,等速性最大筋力が大きいことで支持期の関節トルクを介して関節の角度変位を小さくし,効率的なキック動作を引き出している可能性が示唆された。(3)疾走速度と下肢の等速性最大筋力との間で有意な正の相関関係が認められたのは,股関節屈曲筋力(短縮性:30,180および300deg/s,伸張性:30deg/s),短縮性股関節伸展筋力(180deg/s),短縮性および伸張性膝関節屈曲筋力(180deg/s),短縮性膝関節伸展筋力(180deg/s)であった。以上の結果から,回復期の股関節や,支持期の膝関節および足関節における関節トルクの発揮と,それに引き続き生じる動作には,等速性最大筋力が大きく関わっていることが明らかとなった。従って,スプリント走のパフォーマンス向上において,回復期の股関節や,支持期の膝関節および足関節動作は,それぞれの間接での等速性最大筋力のトレーニングによって改善される可能性が示唆された。