著者
金尾 洋治 勝田 茂
出版者
日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科學 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.6, pp.311-319, 1983-12-01
被引用文献数
1 3 3

Specifically designed programs of sprint and endurance running were used to comparison of each training effect on muscle fibers and those of capillary supply. Wistar strain male rats (42 days after birth) were trained by treadmill for 10 weeks. The gastrocnemius muscle were histochemically studied. The results obtained were summarized as follows : 1) The body and muscle weight of the rats in both training groups were significantly smaller than those of the control group. 2) The sprint training caused hypertrophy of muscle fiber, but the endurance training did not. 3) The endurance training group showed the higher value in the number of capillaries per fiber (CF ratio), per mm^2 (CD), around each fiber type (CC) than control group. And the endurance training group showed the lower value in the distance of diffusion than sprint training group and control group. 4) The sprint training group showed the higher value in CF ratio and CC than control group, but not so high as endurance training group. These results suggest that training effects are specific to the type of training program used.
著者
松永 智 佐渡山 亜兵 宮田 浩文 勝田 茂
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.99-105, 1990-04-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1 2

We investigated the effects of strength training a muscle fiber conduction velocity in biceps brachii of 7 male students. The subjects were trained to exhaustion by 60% of maximum isotonic voluntary contraction with 3 sets/day, 3 days/week for 16 weeks. The muscle fiber conduction velocity was measured with a surface electorode array placed along the muscle fibers, and calculated from the time delay between 2 myoelectric signals recorded during a maximal voluntary contraction. Upper arm girth significantly increased (p<0.01), from 29.2±1.4 cm (means±S. D.) to 30.6±1.5 cm. On the other hand, training induced no significant changes in upper arm skinfold. A significant difference between pre- and post-training was found in maximum isotonic strength (p<0.01) . Although maximum isometric strength showed no significant changes with training, there was a tendency for an increase in maximum isometric strength. Muscle fiber conduction velocity increased by 3.5% during training period, but this was not significant. These results suggest no effects of strength training on muscle fiber conduction velocity.
著者
狩野 豊 高橋 英幸 森丘 保典 秋間 広 宮下 憲 久野 譜也 勝田 茂
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育學研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.5, pp.352-359, 1997-01-10
被引用文献数
3

The relationship between the thigh muscle composition and the sprinting performance was investigated in 11 male adult sprinters (age/20.8±0.9 yrs, 100 m sprint time/11.20±0.33 sec). Axial images of the thigh muscle were taken by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at upper (70%) and middle (50%) position in femur. From these images, cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris, the hamstring and the adductor muscles were measured. The results of the regression analysis showed significant correlations between 100 m sprint time and both CSA of adductor and hamstring muscles at 70% position (r=-0.72 and r=-0.67, respectively). There were no significant correlations between 100 m sprint time and CSA of adductor or hamstring muscles at 50% position, and neither quadriceps femoris mudcles at 70 nor 50% positions. These results suggest that greater muscle volume of hamstring and adductor at upper position affect sprinting performance.
著者
岡 真理 林佳 世子 藤元 優子 勝田 茂 石川 清子 山本 薫 浜崎 桂子
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2012-04-01

日本における、中東の三大言語文化圏であるアラブ世界、イラン、トルコの現代文学研究者を結集し、中東現代文学のさまざまな時代、作品・作家における「ワタン(祖国)」表象の分析・考察をおこない、それを通して、歴史的には近代初頭から植民地時代を経て2011年の一連のアラブ革命に至る、西アジアから北アフリカに及ぶ中東諸諸社会における、「祖国」なるものをめぐる文化的ダイナミズムを明らかにするとともに、中東に生きる人々の生と精神性の諸相の一端を探究した。
著者
勝田 茂 高松 薫 田中 守 小泉 順子 久野 譜也 田渕 健一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.141-149, 1989-09-01 (Released:2017-09-27)

Attempts were made to clarify whether or not fiber composition of the m. vastus lateralis could be predicted with running performance. Biopsy samples from 32 well-trained and 17 untrained adult males were examined for the percentage area of fast-twitch (FT) and slow-twitch (ST) fibers which might be related to the physical performance better than the fiber type distribution. In addition, each subject completed 50-m sprint and 12-min run tests. A multiple regression analysis revealed that in the trained males predictive accuracy (R^2) for the percentage area of FT fibers (% areaFT) from the ratio of a 50-m sprint speed to a 12-min run speed (50 m・S/12 min・S) was higher than that from most of other variables,e.g. 50 m・S, 12 min・S, or the combination of 50 m・S and 12 min・S; R^2 of 50 m・S/12 min・S was 80.3%(p&lt0.05). A positive correlation between 50 m・S/12 min・S and %areaFT also existed for the untrained subjects (R^2=63.7%, p&lt0.05). The linear regression equations of %areaFT (Y) on 50 m・S/12 min・S (X)were Y=-68.6 + 76.2X (r=0.896, p&lt0.05) and Y=-47.5 + 61.1X (r=0.798, p&lt0.05) for the trained and untrained males, respectively. There was no significant difference in the regression equations between the trained and untrained males. For all subjects, the equation was Y=-59.8 + 69.8X (r=0.876, p&lt0.05) and the standard error of estimate of %areaFT on 50 m・S/12 min . S was 8.86%. These results suggest that the performances of a 50-m sprint and a 12-min run are valuable indicators in, accurately, easily and noninvasively, predicting the percentage area of FT and ST fibers of the m. vastus lateralis from adult male.
著者
渡邉 信晃 榎本 好孝 大山〓 圭悟 狩野 豊 安井 年文 宮下 憲 久野 譜也 勝田 茂
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.4, pp.520-529, 2000-07-10 (Released:2017-09-27)
被引用文献数
5 3

The purposes of this study were 1)to investigate the relationship between sprint running performance and isokinetic hip strength, and 2)to clarify the muscles that are important in sprinting from the standpoint of isokinetic strength and muscle cross-sectional area(CSA).Sixteen male(100m sprinting time 10.99±0.46s)and 12 female(12.50±0.44s)subjects ran 60m and their sprinting speed was measured from 30 to 60m.Isokinetic strength of hip and knee flexion and extension(Nm)were mesured at 60, 180 and 300 deg/s.Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)was used to determine the muscle cross-sectional area of the thigh(upper, middle and lower femur)and trunk.In females, there were no significant correlations between sprinting speed and isokinetic strength.In males, there were significant correlations between sprinting speed and hip strength(absolute value)at all angular velocities(r=0.51-0.75, p<0.05-0.01), except for hip extension at 300 deg/s.Extension at 60 deg/s was significant(r=0.64, p<0.01)only in the male knee.In males, there were significant correlations between the peak torque of hip extension and muscle CSAs of the hamstring and adductor(r=0.50-0.63, p<0.05-0.01), as well as between the peak torque of hip flexion and muscle CSAs of the psoas major and adductor(r=0.59-0.83, p<0.05-0.001).These results suggest that sprint running performance in males is influenced by the strength of hip flexion and extension.In addition, the muscle volume of the hamstring, adductor and psoas major muscles appears to play an important roles during sprint running in males.
著者
大森 肇 渡邉 彰人 大山 卞圭悟 佃 文子 高橋 英幸 久米 俊郎 白木 仁 岡田 守彦 板井 悠二 勝田 茂
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.3, pp.385-392, 2000-06-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
15

本研究では1週間に1日という低頻度で5週間のみの筋力トレーニングを行った結果, 筋力の増加がみられた.また筋力トレーニングによって獲得された筋力は17週間の脱トレーニング後でも維持されていることが示唆された.さらに再トレーニング脚と対照トレーニング脚を比較した結果から, 再トレーニングによる筋力増加応答の増強 (Nerve-Muscle Memory) が観察された.これらの現象がiEMGの変化様相と一致していたことから, これらの背景にあるメカニズムが神経系の要因 (運動単位動員の変化ならびにインパルス発射頻度の変化) によるものであると考えられた.
著者
木内 敦詞 七五三木 聡 天貝 均 大野 敦也 勝田 茂
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.1, pp.77-85, 1997-02-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
1 1

本研究は, 閉経後骨粗鬆症の実験モデルとしてOVXラットを用い, OVX後の骨の変化を皮質骨と海綿骨の量的変化および組織学的特徴から検討し, これらが運動負荷によりいかなる影響を受けるかを調べたものである.実験にはWistar系雌性ラットを用い, 偽手術・コントロール群 (Sham-C群) , 偽手術・トレーニング群 (Sham-T群) , 卵巣摘出・コントロール群 (OVX-C群) , 卵巣摘出・トレーニング群 (OVX-T群) の計4群を設けた.卵巣摘出および偽手術は14週齢時に行い, トレーニングは17週齢より10週間のトレッドミル走とした.トレーニング期間終了時に, 脛骨を摘出後, 脱脂乾燥骨重量, 骨塩量を測定し, さらに海綿骨の組織形態計測を行った.得られた結果は以下のとおりである.1.脱脂乾燥骨重量および骨幹部骨塩量において, OVX-C群とSham-C群の有意な差異は認められなかった.しかし体重あたりの骨塩量ではOVX-C群がSham-C群に対し有意な低値を示した.また, 海綿骨の単位骨量ではOVX-C群がSham-C群よりも有意な低値を, LS/BSをはじめとする骨形成パラメータでは逆に有意な高値を示した.2.海綿骨単位骨量および体重あたりの骨塩量は, OVX-T群がOVX-C群に対し有意な高値を示した.骨形成パラメータでは両群に有意な差は認められなかった.3.上記のすべての測定パラメータで, Sham-C群とSham-T群の間に有意な差異は観察されなかった.以上の結果から, 運動は卵巣摘出による骨量の減少に対し抑制的に作用することが示された.また, これは骨形成の促進よりはむしろ骨吸収の抑制に起因する可能性が示唆された.
著者
勝田 茂 高松 薫 田中 守 小泉 順子 久野 譜也 田渕 健一
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.p141-149, 1989-09

Attempts were made to clarify whether or not fiber composition of the m. vastus lateralis could be predicted with running performance. Biopsy samples from 32 well-trained and 17 untrained adult males were examined for the percentage area of fast-twitch (FT) and slow-twitch (ST) fibers which might be related to the physical performance better than the fiber type distribution. In addition, each subject completed 50-m sprint and 12-min run tests. A multiple regression analysis revealed that in the trained males predictive accuracy (R^2) for the percentage area of FT fibers (% areaFT) from the ratio of a 50-m sprint speed to a 12-min run speed (50 m・S/12 min・S) was higher than that from most of other variables,e.g. 50 m・S, 12 min・S, or the combination of 50 m・S and 12 min・S; R^2 of 50 m・S/12 min・S was 80.3%(p&lt0.05). A positive correlation between 50 m・S/12 min・S and %areaFT also existed for the untrained subjects (R^2=63.7%, p&lt0.05). The linear regression equations of %areaFT (Y) on 50 m・S/12 min・S (X)were Y=-68.6 + 76.2X (r=0.896, p&lt0.05) and Y=-47.5 + 61.1X (r=0.798, p&lt0.05) for the trained and untrained males, respectively. There was no significant difference in the regression equations between the trained and untrained males. For all subjects, the equation was Y=-59.8 + 69.8X (r=0.876, p&lt0.05) and the standard error of estimate of %areaFT on 50 m・S/12 min . S was 8.86%. These results suggest that the performances of a 50-m sprint and a 12-min run are valuable indicators in, accurately, easily and noninvasively, predicting the percentage area of FT and ST fibers of the m. vastus lateralis from adult male.
著者
勝田 茂 奥本 正 鰺坂 隆一 久野 譜也 向井 直樹
出版者
東亜大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2011

本研究は世界のトップとして活躍しているシニアアスリートの体力とライフスタイルについて検討を行った。測定参加者の10年後の平均年齢は90.3歳。男性2名、女性7名、計9名が測定に参加した。結果;瞬発的な筋力発揮を求められる種目、すなわち垂直跳び・反復横跳び・立ち幅跳びなどで著しい低下を示した。年齢別でみると、体力の年間低下率は、70歳台から80歳台では-2%、80歳台から90歳台では-3%を示した。ライフスタイルについて、高齢者にとってスポーツも生きがいに足るものであることが示された。結論:高齢者こそ筋トレーニングが必要であることが判明した。