著者
高橋 信子 山崎 信寿
出版者
日本看護技術学会
雑誌
日本看護技術学会誌 (ISSN:13495429)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.1, pp.50-57, 2005-04-30 (Released:2016-10-25)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
1

立ち座り動作の困難な女性が, 安楽に立位で排尿できるようにするための女性用便器を開発した. 便器の寸法やデザインは, 身体関節に何らかの苦痛が生じている女性被験者 (20~76歳) 10名の立位排尿実験から外形中央幅22cm, 高さ30cmのピーナツ殻形状とした. 膝関節や股関節に障害のある女性10名について試作便器の検証を行った結果, 一般的な立位姿勢であれば, 下肢および衣服を汚すことや尿が便器の外に飛散することなく, 安楽に排尿できることが確認できた.
著者
山崎 信寿 高橋 直己
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
no.17, pp.235-244, 2004-08-25
被引用文献数
5

Body care motions apply a large amount of stress on caregivers' muscles and spines, so most of them suffer from low back pain. One of the major factors of low back pain is the low back muscular load to keep the deep flexion posture. This study concerned development of a suit-type back muscle supporter named "the care suit," which reduces low back load. Elastic fiber belts (support lines) are arranged on the back and leg parts of the suit. The support lines are relaxed so as not to interfere with daily trunk motion, arm motion, walking, and sitting motion, but to exert tensile force and extension moment in the deep flexion posture. The care suit is a two-piece design to improve comfort and convenience. To optimize the layout of the support lines we developed a small reel-type device to measure body surface deformation. As the result of measurement by this device and a system for posture measurement during several motions, the back support lines are arranged in an x-shape from the side neck point to the point internally dividing the Jacoby-line at a ratio of 1 to 2. The leg support lines branch at the rear face of the thigh and are attached to the apex of the patella. The maximum tension of support lines is limited by the user's shoulder pain to 140 N for males and 85 N for females. The effect of the care suit was evaluated by electromyograms of back muscles. The action potential in the deep flexion posture was 25% decreased. In comparison with the conventional corset, the effect of the care suit for back muscle was equal, but the care suit is superior in that it does not interfere with flexion motion. The lumbar joint muscular moment during a diaper change operation was calculated from body posture through a rigid body link model. The results of this calculation showed that the stored load during the operation was decreased by 30% by the care suit. Furthermore the summation of intervertebral disk compressive force was reduced by 15% during the operation. Therefore the care suit is effective for reduction of not only continuous muscular load but also spinal load. Practical use by caregivers also resulted in good evaluations as it reduced continuous muscle load for a diaper change operation, bed making operation, etc. Conclusively, the low back load during body care motions can be reduced by the care suit developed in this research. This care suit is under patent application.
著者
山崎 信寿
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.85-95, 1990-09-10 (Released:2016-12-05)

Bipedal dinosaurs are huge and curious animals that have short forelimbs, powerful hindlimbs, and a long and heavy tail. The restoration of their posture and locomotion is difficult because of the lack of resemblant living animals. In this study, we paid attention to the harmony between animal motion and body shape, and conversely estimated the posture and locomotion of the bipedal dinosaurs from the characteristics of the body proportions using a computer simulation method. The mathematical model was constructed by the three-dimensional rigid link system with the following fourteen segments: head, neck, thorax, pelvis, upper arms, forearms, thighs, shanks, bottom tail, and top tail. An axis of the central body segments rotates about the vertical axis with a constant pitch angle defined by the initial posture. Each limb moves in the sagittal plane of the thorax or pelvis segment. Body weight is supported by the lumbar joint. Both torque spring and damper element are attached in each joint to prevent large relative rotation. Nonlinear elasticity is given in the knee and elbow joints to avoid hyper-extension of the joint. Using these assumptions, we can deduce seventeen simultaneous second-order differential equations. The numerical calculation of the oscillation mode was performed by using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. By means of this method, we analyzed Allosaurus, which was a typical bipedal dinosaur in the Jurassic period. The length of each segment was estimated from measured data of fossil skeletons. Other physical parameters, such as weight, moment of inertia and center of mass of each segment, were calculated geometrically from the restored shape. The torque spring and damper elements of each joint were referred from living animals. The numerical calculations were performed by assuming several body proportions and postures. The following results were obtained: Stability and walking speed with erect posture are inferior to the horizontal posture. The long and heavy tail is useful to obtain harmonic motion and greater speed. But the weight of the short forelimbs has almost no effects on the locomotion. The narrow distance between the hip joints increases the walking speed and decreases the swing of the body. The walking speed calculated by the stride of fossil pit and the oscillation frequency of the hindlimbs is 5.6km/h, which is within the speed range of mammals. Consequently, we can reconstruct the walking of Allosaurus, which held its trunk and tail horizontal and moved stably at almost mammalian speed.
著者
山崎 信寿
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.85-95, 1990
被引用文献数
6

Bipedal dinosaurs are huge and curious animals that have short forelimbs, powerful hindlimbs, and a long and heavy tail. The restoration of their posture and locomotion is difficult because of the lack of resemblant living animals. In this study, we paid attention to the harmony between animal motion and body shape, and conversely estimated the posture and locomotion of the bipedal dinosaurs from the characteristics of the body proportions using a computer simulation method. The mathematical model was constructed by the three-dimensional rigid link system with the following fourteen segments: head, neck, thorax, pelvis, upper arms, forearms, thighs, shanks, bottom tail, and top tail. An axis of the central body segments rotates about the vertical axis with a constant pitch angle defined by the initial posture. Each limb moves in the sagittal plane of the thorax or pelvis segment. Body weight is supported by the lumbar joint. Both torque spring and damper element are attached in each joint to prevent large relative rotation. Nonlinear elasticity is given in the knee and elbow joints to avoid hyper-extension of the joint. Using these assumptions, we can deduce seventeen simultaneous second-order differential equations. The numerical calculation of the oscillation mode was performed by using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. By means of this method, we analyzed Allosaurus, which was a typical bipedal dinosaur in the Jurassic period. The length of each segment was estimated from measured data of fossil skeletons. Other physical parameters, such as weight, moment of inertia and center of mass of each segment, were calculated geometrically from the restored shape. The torque spring and damper elements of each joint were referred from living animals. The numerical calculations were performed by assuming several body proportions and postures. The following results were obtained: Stability and walking speed with erect posture are inferior to the horizontal posture. The long and heavy tail is useful to obtain harmonic motion and greater speed. But the weight of the short forelimbs has almost no effects on the locomotion. The narrow distance between the hip joints increases the walking speed and decreases the swing of the body. The walking speed calculated by the stride of fossil pit and the oscillation frequency of the hindlimbs is 5.6km/h, which is within the speed range of mammals. Consequently, we can reconstruct the walking of Allosaurus, which held its trunk and tail horizontal and moved stably at almost mammalian speed.
著者
長谷 和徳 西口 純也 山崎 信寿
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.187-198, 2000
被引用文献数
20 2

Many computer simulation studies of human bipedal walking have been conducted in the field of biomechanics. The musculo-skeletal systems in previous models, however, have been simplified two-dimensionally, and theoretical methods in robotics have been applied for the motor control mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to develop a more precise simulation model of human walking in order to improve the practicability of the simulation method. As a result, a model was created in which the musculo-skeletal system of the entire body is modeled three-dimensionally, and a mechanism for motor control was constructed by a neuronal system model having a hierarchical structure. The inertial properties of the entire human body were represented by a three-dimensional , 14-rigid-link system. These links include the feet, calves, thighs, pelvis, lower lumbar region, upper lumbar region, thorax, upper arms, and forearms. The body's dynamic model is driven by 42 muscles for the entire body. The arrangement of each muscle was represented as a series of line segments, the direction of which changes according to joint angle. Energy consumption, including heat production, in the muscle was calculated from the generating tension. The hierarchical neuronal system includes three levels. First, at the highest level, there is a neuronal system corresponding to the higher center level. The function of adjusting changes in walking pattern is assumed to exist at this system level. The model was expressed by a computational multi-layered neural network. Second, at the middle level , there is a neuronal system corresponding to the spinal cord level. This neuronal system, representing a rhythm-generation mechanism, was modeled as a network system consisting of neural oscillators. They generate the neuronal stimulus combined for each degree of freedom by receiving nonspecific stimulus from the higher center and feedback signals from the somatic senses. Each neural oscillator is mathematically expressed by two differential equations. Third, at the lowest level, there is a neuronal system corresponding to the peripheral level. The neuronal system divides the combined neuronal stimulus from the neural oscillator into the neuronal stimulus to each muscle. The model is mathematically represented as an optimization problem. The simulated walking pattern was continuous and stable. The walking pattern closely agrees with actual human walking in terms not only of joint movement but also of muscle activities and energy consumption. In order to investigate the effects of higher center system functioning in adjusting walking patterns, we compared a walking pattern generated by a model incorporating a higher center system with the patterns obtained from a model without the higher center system, in terms of robustness of mechanical perturbation. Although the model without the higher center system could not stabilize its walking pattern and finally fell down, the model with the higher center system could perform continuous walking without falling down.
著者
河内 まき子 山崎 信寿
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.100, no.1, pp.101-118, 1992 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1 3

足の大きさに伴うプロポーションの変化を明らかにし,靴型のサイズ展開における靴型各部の変化量が適正であるか否かを評価するために,日本人成人男子528名,女子500名の右足の測定データのアロメトリー分析および市販靴24種の靴型形状との比較を行なった。足長の変化に伴い,幅径,高径,周長項目は一般に劣成長を,長径項目は等成長を示すため,足長が大きいほど足は相対的に細身となる。また,足長が一定の場合,足囲の変化に伴って外果端高以外の高径項目および女子の足幅が等成長を示し,幅径と周長項目は劣成長を示す。踵部の幅はボール部の幅ほど急速に増加しないため,足囲が大きいほど足が相対的に前広がりになる。サイズ展開における靴型の変化は,大きさの変化に伴うこのような足の形状変化と一致しない部分が多い。さらに,足と靴との適合性を向上させるうえでの問題点を,足の寸法•形状の時代変化およびサイズ展開技術の観点から検討した。
著者
青木 慶 山崎 信寿 井上 剛伸 山崎 伸也 三田 友記
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.217-226, 2004 (Released:2005-04-15)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
2 1

This paper describes the optimization of hip joint characteristics of a hip disarticulation prosthesis. We attempted to optimize the characteristics for improved ability to walk using our passive walking model, which can walk by utilizing mechanical properties of rigid body segments and joint resistance.In order to understand how the hip disarticulation prosthesis gait is performed, we interviewed two hip disarticulation prosthesis users. The interviews showed that practical gait in daily life is different from the gait at a training stage. These two types of gaits were named “practical gait” and “training gait.” Users indicated that the training gait velocity was slower than that of the practical gait. Moreover, in the practical gait the heel contact on the prosthesis side was more natural in comparison with the training gait.Gait measurements showed that the lumbar angle pattern has rapid extension and lateral bending involving the swing prosthesis in training gait. Step length on the sound side is in agreement despite the different types of gait. In practical gait, step length on the sound side agrees with that on the prosthesis side. Gait velocity in practical gait compared with training gait was 28% faster with subject 1 and 7% faster with subject 2. Therefore, practical gait has an improved gait velocity by swinging the prosthesis, as step length on each side is the same. Motion of prosthesis is achieved not by sound lower extremities but by lumbar flexion, extension, and lateral bending. Furthermore, practical gait reduces lumbar motion as much as possible, and reduces muscle force around the lumbar area.We developed a passive swing model by applying the above characteristics. This model is composed of eight rigid segments: upper torso, pelvis, upper extremities, thigh, shank-foot. Each joint has passive resistance by ligament. The sound hip and lumbar joint have active moments by muscle, which were obtained from measurement. The objective function for practical gait is defined by the following parameters: (1) difference of each step length, (2) amplitude of active moments, (3) difference of cycles between gait patterns and active moments. As these parameters are minimized, postures of segments, translational velocity, angular velocities and cycle, and amplitude of active moment are recorded. In comparison of subjects, calculated motion patterns on the prosthesis side were well in agreement, so this model is available to estimate hip joint characteristics.When this model simulates a condition of the current hip elastic characteristic weakened by half, the gait velocity is 6% faster and amplitude of lumbar lateral bending moment is reduced 26%. For this reason, weakening current elastic characteristics around the hip joint can easily control the swing of the prosthesis. As a result, adjustment of the hip elastic characteristic can improve the walk capability.
著者
石倉 啓行 山崎 信寿
出版者
一般社団法人 日本人間工学会
雑誌
人間工学 (ISSN:05494974)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.54-61, 2013-04-15 (Released:2013-06-19)
参考文献数
10

オフィスのフリーアドレス制による事務机の共有化が,ノートPCの普及と共に進みつつある.しかし,ノートPCでは,ディスプレイの見やすさとキーの打ちやすさを両立させることが困難であった.このため,形状可変実験椅子を用い,女性5パーセンタイルから男性95パーセンタイルについてノートPC作業を行いやすい椅子条件を求めた.その結果,ノートPCのキーボード面を10°起こし,背もたれ腰部を68°として胸郭支持部は79°にし,座面を水平から10°後傾させれば良いことがわかった.また,低身長者には座面中央部の幅260 mmの範囲の座面長を354 mmとし,左右の座面長は378 mmとして高身長者の大腿側面を支持する最大35°の傾斜をつけた.座面高は350~410 mmで,目の高さを下げるため,従来オフィスチェアよりも低くする必要があることもわかった.試作椅子による40分のノートPC作業では,従来椅子と同等の作業効率で頭頸部の前傾は平均9°小さく,肩の挙上もなくなり,三角筋,僧帽筋,脊柱起立筋の負担が減少し,下肢のむくみも低下した.
著者
石田 英實 伊丹 君和 荻原 直道 中務 真人 栗田 祐 久留島 美紀子 山崎 信寿 堤 定美 国松 豊
巻号頁・発行日
2002 (Released:2002-04-01)

損傷、変形を受けた形態の復元は、人類学や考古学などで非常に重要である。しかし、その作業の主体はマニュアルであり、精度の高い修復には多くの時間と長い作業経験が不可欠であった。そのため本研究では計算機内に3次元構築した変形化石を,形態情報に基づいて客観的に修復.復元するシステムを開発した。特に本研究では、頭蓋骨など左右対称の骨について変形形態の復元手法を開発した。左右対称な骨では,正中矢状面内の特徴点は空間の同一平面上に、その他の左右で対になる特徴点は2点を結ぶ線分が正中矢状面と中点で垂直に交わる位置に、必ず存在する。しかし、土圧などにより化石が変形するとそのような幾何学的関係が失われる。このことに着目して客観的な変形復元を行う方法を考案した。具体的には、化石の3次元表面形状データと解剖学的特徴点の座標を取り込み、特徴点の位置を上述の幾何学的制約を満たすように移動させた。そして元座標から修正座標への非線形写像を薄板スプライン関数によって記述し、それを用いて化石の表面形状全体を変換することにより変形の除去を行った。本手法を応用して、中新世化石類人猿プロコンスルの変形頭蓋骨化石の復元を試み,光造形装置により立体モデルとして実空間に取り出した。化石化の過程で形態が受ける変形は,直方体が平行六面体になるような一種な変換ではなく、部位により歪みの大きさや方向が異なる非線形変換である。しかし、本手法によれば、そのような変形を受けている化石でも、その歪みを除去することができ、本手法の有効性を確認した。このように、CT等から得られるデジタル形状情報から仮想空間内で化石や骨の3次元構築を行い、それを計算機により数理的に復元して立体形状を作成するシステムは、生物の形態分析に必要不可欠な技術であり、当該分野の今後の発展に貢献するものとなる。
著者
青木 慶 山崎 信寿
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.59-68, 1998
被引用文献数
4 6

Joint resistance is the passive torque exerted by viscoelastic tissues such as ligaments, capsules, tendons, and muscles around the joint. The main function of joint resistance is restriction of the range of motion. However its positive role for human bipedal walking has not been clarified. In this study, we developed a three-dimensional passive-walking model that can walk on an inclined plane by utilizing gravitational force and joint resistance. By using the model, we can easily observe the influence of joint resistance on walking. The model consists of eleven rigid segments; head, chest, pelvis, upper arms, forearms, thighs, and shank-foot segments. The foot part is modeled with a semicircular plate and can roll over the slope. The joint resistance is approximated with a nonlinear viscoelastic torque element, which can prevent hyperextension and hypertwist of the joint. In order to prevent the knee joint from flexing at heel contact, minimum active torque exerted by the knee extensor during the first stance phase is measured from real walking and approximated as a nonlinear viscoelastic element. If the passive model is placed on a slope, the supporting leg naturally rotates down on the semicircular foot, and the other leg swings forward until it reaches to the slope surface. This motion is repeated to generate walking. Initial conditions of the segment angles, angular velocity, and walking velocity are determined by an optimization so as to minimize the difference in walking pattern between the first and second steps. For evaluation of the model, we calculated the passive walking with actual and artificially restricted knee properties, and these agreed well with actual walking patterns. We simulated passive walking patterns by measured changes in the knee and hip joint resistances and also the range of joint motion. Body proportions were also changed from those of a baby to those of an adult. These simulated results show the following roles and characteristics of the joint resistance by passive tissues: 1) knee joint resistance is important when active torque is applied and at the end of the stance phase, and hip joint resistance acts during only the last stance phase; 2) the supporting leg behaves like a stick during the first half stance phase; 3) elastic energy is charged up in the hip and knee joint by extension action around the ankle joint; 4) the charged energy is released at the swing phase, and the thigh swings forward and shank swings upward; 5) joint motions are not greatly affected by alternation of joint resistance; 6) the walking cycle lengthens if the resistance is weakened or the joint range becomes wider; 7) the strength of joint resistance relates to the body proportions, namely knee joint resistance relates to shank length, and hip joint resistance relates to the inertial moment of the leg; 8) the active torque around a knee joint has less influence in passive walking; 9) the patterns of joint resistance torque are similar to those of muscular torque in real walking; and 10) joint resistance saves walking energy. Consequently, we can understand that joint resistance is adapted to the body proportions and bipedal walking. This fact is useful in restoring fossil humans and their locomotion.
著者
山崎 信寿
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学會誌 (ISSN:00214728)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.101, no.958, pp.664-665, 1998-09-05
著者
吉安 祐介 山崎 信寿
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
電子情報通信学会論文誌 D (ISSN:18804535)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.J94-D, no.3, pp.582-592, 2011-03-01

本論文では,一般的なディジタルカメラとその内蔵フラッシュで撮影した複数の画像から,身体3次元形状を簡便かつ詳細に復元する方法を提案する.本手法では,身体に貼り付けたマーカの3次元位置,画像のシルエット及び陰影から推定した法線に適合するように,あらかじめ用意したテンプレートメッシュを変形する.本研究の主な貢献は,(1)内蔵フラッシュでフォトメトリックステレオを実現するための光源変化の獲得方法と,(2)陰影から推定した法線に対してメッシュを正確かつ効率的に適合させるアルゴリズムである.計測手法の妥当性を確認するために足長250 mmの足模型を計測し,市販のレンジスキャナと比較した結果,両データ間の距離は平均1.4 mmとなった.また,計測した被験者9名の足型から甲の表面長さを推定し,巻尺の計測値と比較した結果,その差が約2%となり,ISOの定める最大許容誤差程度であることを確認した.最後に,計測した足形状から個人に合う靴型モデルを自動的に作成する方法も示した.