著者
原田 佑規 原田 悦子 須藤 智 HARADA Yuki HARADA Etsuko T. SUTO Satoru
出版者
Division of Physhology, Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba
雑誌
筑波大学心理学研究 = Tsukuba Psychological Research (ISSN:09158952)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, pp.27-34, 2018-08-31

The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT: Frederick, 2005) is a test designed to measure individual differences in intuitive-reflective thinking styles, and consists of three questions in a fixed order. Although Toplak, West, & Stanovich (2014) have proposed four additional questions, their validity as substitutes was not fully examined. This study investigated (1) the equivalences of the original and new questions, (2) order effects for the three original questions, and (3) the dependency of the CRT across instruction conditions (i.e., standard, under time pressures or stressing accuracy). More specifically, we administered a paper-and-pencil version of the CRT to 128 undergraduate students and analyzed both task performances and confirmation ratings. The results indicated (a) that three of the new questions are not suitable substitutes for the original CRT questions, (b) that order effects in terms of independent item-specific characteristics were observed only for the confirmation ratings, and (c) that the instructions had no effect on either performance or confirmation ratings. Finally, we discussed the importance of investigating both the CRT’s methodology and the cognitive processes underlying the CRT.
著者
高橋 知世 北神 慎司 宮代 こずゑ 原田 悦子 須藤 智
雑誌
研究報告グループウェアとネットワークサービス(GN)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2012, no.1, pp.1-8, 2012-05-10

画像認証は,新しい電子的本人認証システムの1つである.このシステムの利用者は,思い出の写真やイラスト等を予め登録しておき,認証時に登録画像をディストラクタ画像の中から正しく選び出すことによって本人認証を行う.画像認証は従来のパスワード等と比べて,容易かつ強固な本人認証を実現できるものとして期待されている.画像認証のシステムの強度は登録画像の特性に大きく依存する.しかし,実際にどのような画像が登録されうるか,また,画像選択にどのような心理的要因が影響を及ぼすかについては未だ明らかにされていない.そこで本研究では,大学生47名に擬似的に認証画像の登録を求め,その後,個別の画像について登録の意思や登録への抵抗感を尋ね,画像への思い入れや認証画像としての適切性を自己評価させる質問紙調査を行った.その結果,画像を登録する意思には,登録画像の認証画像としての主観的な適切性,登録への抵抗感,画像への愛着,自分の登録画像であることの認識容易性といった要因が影響することが示された.したがって,画像認証システムの強度を向上させるためには,登録への抵抗感の低減させる必要があると考えられる.また,どのような画像が認証に適しているかについて,利用者への周知を行うべきであろう.The picture-authentication system is a new system that users can identify themselves in cyberspace by correctly picking out pictures registered by themselves. The picture-authentication is safer and easier to use than systems using a password because memorable photos and illustrations can be used instead of a letter string that are likely to be forgotten. However, no studies have revealed features of the pictures and psychological variables that may influence users' decision to choose the pictures. Thus, we asked participants (47 undergraduate students) to register their own pictures to a trial picture-authentication system, and examined their willingness to actually resister the pictures on the system after a two-months-interval. Results indicated that their willingness was positively related to the feelings of appropriateness, attachment, and identifiability of the pictures, and was negatively related to the feeling of resistance for the system. We suggest that it is important to reduce the resistance for registration and to popularize what kind of pictures are appropriate for the authentication.
著者
南部 美砂子 原田 悦子 須藤 智 重森 雅嘉 内田 香織
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.62-79, 2006

This study reports the characteristics of communication between a nurse and surrounding persons, especially patients and other nurses, in medical wards. The 21 nurses were equipped with IC recorders during time studies of nursing workloads, and all of their conversations were recorded and transcribed. Discourse analyses focused on dialogue for sharing risk information in medical treatments. Several cases showed that ambiguous or inadequate utterances frequently emerged in dialogue among nurses, which showed some potentiality of serious errors in medical care or communication. In other hands, some cases showed effective risk sharing, with open questions which facilitated mutual risk cognition and constructed a new context of dialogue for risk management. These results suggests that risk sharing communication, as problem solving based on collaborative cognition, could be one key concept for medical safety.
著者
安達 悠子 原田 悦子 須藤 智 熊田 孝恒 藤原 健志
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.83-99, 2014

The Center for Usability and Aging Research (CUAR) assemble data for over 170<br> community-dwelling older adults, who volunteered as an informant for usability testing<br> and research. In the course of database enrollment, they participated in a usability<br> test for an automatic coffeemaker, as a demonstration of activities in CUAR. In this<br> article, we analyzed data of 170 people aged 60 and over, for examining relationships<br> between results of usability testing of a coffeemaker and database items which includes<br> demographics information, test results of cognitive aging (e.g. MMSE, AIST-CAT),<br>and subjective evaluation on difficulty of artifacts usage. The results showed the in-<br>dependence between two errors, which were observed in over 25% participants, and<br> also errors and the task accomplishment, indicated by statistical independent and also<br> by comparing the lists of effective items in database. Some research questions which<br> should be pursued for cognitive aging and usability research.