- 無形文化遺産研究報告 = Research and Reports on Intangible Cultural Heritage
- no.1, pp.206-197, 2007-03-31
Large tsuzumi bodies coated with black urushi appear in paintings of the Insei era to the Kamakura period. In fact, tsuzumi bodies simply coated with black urushi have been transmitted at Isonokami Shrine in Nara prefecture, Kandani Shrine in Kagawa prefecture and Araki Shrine in Gifu prefecture. The design of these tsuzumi bodies is similar as are their size. The author considers these tsuzumi bodies as those that appear in a period of transition from the colorful gagaku tsuzumi that come in different sizes to the nohgaku tsuzumi coated with black urushi and decorated with makie. This theory has been presented previously, but several more similar tsuzumi bodies have been found. The more examples there are, the more certain that such tsuzumi bodies of the period of transition were used widely. One example is found at Henmyo-in Temple in Okayama prefecture. There is a carved inscription on the surface of the tsuzumi body that shows that the tsuzumi was donated in 1296. It has already been reported that since Araki Shrine was in the domain of Ono, a gagaku musician, in the Kamakura period, it is quite possible that the tsuzumi body found there was used during that period. Thus, the appearance of the tsuzumi body at Henmyo-in Temple further confirms the theory that this type of tsuzumi body was used during the Kamakura period. Tsuzumi bodies of similar shape also exist at Ibiraki Shrine in Shiga prefecture and in a private collection in Tokyo. Lines are incised on the bowl-shaped parts of the tsuzumi body of the period of transition. A nohgaku player in Kyoto and Nunakuma Shrine in Hiroshima prefecture respectively own tsuzumi bodies decorated with incised lines and makie. Since a report has already been made about the tsuzumi body at Nunakuma Shrine, a comment will be made here about the one in the private collection. Although tsuzumi body of the period of transition is slightly larger than that of today's larger nohgaku tsuzumi, this one is a bit smaller. Unlike tsuzumi body of the period of transition that was hand carved, the inner side of its bowl-shaped part was formed on a turning wheel. Moreover, although the mouth of the bowl-shaped part of the tsuzumi body of the period of transition is widely open, that of this tsuzumi body is a little closed. In addition, not only the shape of the bowl-shaped part but also that of the node in the middle of the waist is quite similar to that of today's larger nohgaku tsuzumi. The author heard the sound of this tsuzumi on stage, and it was also very similar to that of today's tsuzumi. According to TAGUCHI Yoshiaki, an urushi artist, the decoration on this tsuzumi body is in hiramakie and is thought to have been applied in the Momoyama period. However, since makie powder has been found in the incised lines, it is certain that this tsuzumi body was made before the Momoyama period. "Rai-un Makie Kodo" (tsuzumi body with a design of lightning and clouds) in the collection of Miho Museum is an example from the early Muromachi period. There are no inscribed lines, but the bowl-shaped part is open. In other words, the shape of the bowl-shaped part is that of the tsuzumi body of the period of transition. This means that in the Muromachi period there were two kinds of tsuzumi: bodies those with inscribed lines, even though other features are the same as those found on today's tsuzumi body, and those with no incised lines but with open bowlshaped part. The path from tsuzumi body of the period of transition to that of the larger nohgaku tsuzumi appears to be more complex than one would imagine.