- 學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
- vol.812, pp.70-101, 2008-06-01
Changing values in contemporary society confront educators with complex, multi-faceted demands. These changes in society make necessary a reform of school governance and management. Now, more than ever, we need competent and able teachers. Effective teacher training and professional development is essential. Especially important is self-study by teachers themselves, and it is necessary that school-based, in-service training programs promote teachers' self-study and guide teachers in recognizing the importance of such self-study. School-based, in-service training for teachers must be regarded as a part of teachers' regular work. It is important this training should enable teachers to understand the importance not only of school-based training, but also of self-study. This paper examines actual cases of school-based, in-service training and focuses on how they have influenced teachers' development and educational activity. The study suggests that the effectiveness of in-service training depends on teachers' attitude towards the training. In light of this, a major concern is that in-service training administered by the board of education (for example: teachers' induction courses and 2nd/3rd/6th/10th year follow-up courses) may not be as effective as it should be. In the prefecture here studied, the board of education administers several kinds of in-service training: job-specific training such as student guidance and educational counseling, as well as subject-based training and curriculum, and mandatory in-service training once every 3 years. Such training should be informed by and relevant to the changes in contemporary society. Further, individual teachers need to make use of the contents of the training within the context of the actual conditions and assignments in their own schools, and the training itself must aid them in applying what they have learned to their individual situations. This investigation makes it clear that the training administered by the board of education is not being used effectively. It is important that school-based, in-service training be employed extensively and effectively. To that end, the leadership of vice-principals or chief supervisors is invaluable in creating an environment that ensures relevant and effective training. Such leaders must take responsibility for creating effective training programs.