著者
臼倉 美里 Misato Usukura
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.834, pp.15-27, 2010-04-01

This study investigated the necessity of learners' explicit knowledge about the usage of English personal pronouns in anaphora comprehension. English and Japanese anaphora expressions by personal pronouns have some different features in their usages. It is assumed that Japanese learners would have difficulty understanding English anaphora expressions by personal pronouns due to the interlingual differences. It is believed among quite a few Japanese English teachers that these differences may have negative influence on their students' reading comprehension, and quite a lot of time has been spent on explicit explanation about them. The effectiveness of such explicit knowledge, however, has not been investigated enough. The present study examined whether Japanese EFL(English as a foreign language)learners need explicit knowledge about the usages of English personal pronouns to understand anaphora expressions. Also, if learners are able to comprehend English anaphora expressions without any explicit knowledge, what component of English ability complements the absence of knowledge? In the present study, the degree of automaticity in sentence processing is considered to be one of the possible factors and an investigation was carried out. The result indicated that learners were able to comprehend English anaphora expressions without explicit knowledge, but the relevance of sentence processing automaticity was not proven.
著者
関口 靜雄 岡本 夏奈 阿部 美香
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.900, pp.60-69, 2015-10
著者
関口 靜雄 岡本 夏奈 阿部 美香
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.905, pp.82-93, 2016-03
著者
阿曽 かずき 岩田 宏美 清水 史子 小川 睦美 Kazuki ASO Hiromi IWATA Fumiko SHIMIZU Mutsumi OGAWA
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.818, pp.27-30, 2008-12-01

In order to examine and compare the content of resistant starch (RS) under different conditions, the amount of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in boiled rice (A. boiled, B. boiled and frozen and defrosted), purchased bread (A. just after purchase, B. frozen and defrosted), and retort rice (A. microwaved, B. microwaved and frozen and defrosted) were measured using the Englyst method. The results were as follows: There was no difference in the content of NSP in the boiled rice A and B. The amount of NSP content in the purchased bread A was lower than that in the purchased bread B. Therefore, we could not calculate the amount of RS. The NSP content of the retort rice B was higher than that of the retort rice A. The RS content of the retort rice was 1.0±0.8 (g/100 g). The NSP content of the purchased bread was significantly higher than that of the boiled rice and retort rice.
著者
友野 清文
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.907, pp.1-16, 2016-05-01
著者
永岡 都 Nagaoka Miyako
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.848, pp.78-90, 2011-06-01

Abstract The development of contemporary music reached its peak and a turning point at Expo 70 in Osaka. However, not enough attention has been paid to the composers then working, and how their works influenced succeeding generations. In this study I focus on Karlheinz Stockhausen, who produced the Auditorium of the German Pavilion, and examine his theories and practice of space music, or Raummusik. My conclusions are as follows:1 Stockhausen's Raummusik is synonymous with the concept of Lokalisationsraum(the idea that listeners recognize space through sound)presented by Herbert Eimert.2 For Stockhausen, the serialization of distance and direction in space implied the completion of the total-serialism.3 The performances in the Auditorium at Expo 70 were the first perfect realization of Raummusik, but the space-design as a closed system was very different from Japanese composers' attempts at acoustic design.
著者
森本 真一 Shin-ichi Morimoto
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.798, pp.107-123, 2007-04

Oscar Wilde observes in "The Decay of Lying" that life imitates art rather than art imitates life. Akutagawa Ryunosuke was interested in Wilde. He made the protagonist of an autobiographical work wish to catch an aerial spark even at the risk of his life. Wilde and Akutagawa tended to attach more importance to fictitious worlds than the reality. William Faulkner was influenced by Wilde. A character in his novel named Faulkner declares that he is a liar by profession. Joe Christmas in Faulkner's Light in August finishes his life feeling unsure of his relationship to white and black people as he thinks he may be part Negro. He is lynched after many years of violent disobedience. According to Akutagawa, Christ is likely to be bound by the Holy Spirit as an eternal seeker of transcendence. Joe seems to be a powerless Christ vainly striving to get over something. Akutagawa compared artists to climbers and confessed his yearning for the foot of the mountain he was ascending. He called Christ an ultra idiot who kept fighting for poetic justice. This is presumably Akutagawa's reflection on his own fantastic mentality. Wilde was also conscious of a connection between Christ and artists. It may be that artists' passion leads them to ordeals just as Christ's life led him to be crucified. The Picture of Dorian Gray by Wilde is a story of a man who kills himself by means of stabbing his portrait. Likewise Akutagawa was distressed by his shadow and feared that his death might come to his second self. After he committed suicide, a writer lamented that he made a short romance of his life. Sherwood Anderson, who found an excess of talent in Faulkner, warned that he might not write anything because he could write in too many ways. He advised Faulkner to have somewhere to start from and Faulkner wrote a magnificent series of novels with his birthplace as its model. Wilde spent two years in jail on the charge of his homosexual love. Wilde and Akutagawa were tremendously talented. Readers must grieve that Akutagawa did not try to live and write further. As for Wilde, they may ask if he could show his uniqueness only through his fiction. Wilde and Akutagawa, in a sense, never attained their proper starting points from which they could set to work and fully demonstrate their abilities.
著者
大倉 比呂志
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.900, pp.2-9, 2015-10

1 0 0 0 IR 文学の役割

著者
中村 豪
出版者
光葉会
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.888, pp.24-31, 2014-10
著者
友野 清文
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.895, pp.1-14, 2015-05-01
著者
早川 陽 Yo Hayakawa
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.896, pp.2-18, 2015-06-01

In the field of Japanese art education, the pigments employed in traditional Japanese paintings are rarely used, though using them in an educational context could be very valuable in imparting an understanding of Bijutsu Bunka(art culture)currently required in curriculum guidelines. In an attempt to explore how they can be adopted in today's art education, this paper explores two Japanese traditional painting technique books from the Taisho Period and highlights the common characteristics of the pigments described in the books and compares them with pigments that have survived from those times, or have been more recently developed for use in traditional-style paintings. The origins of various Japanese pigments are organized in such a way that they can be used as educational material. In order to provide background for this research, the first chapter considers how Japanese traditional paintings are created, displayed and enjoyed today. Also the significance of Bijutsu Bunka, which was newly specified in curriculum guidelines, is discussed. The second chapter, focusing on the refinement and elutriation of pigments used in Japanese traditional paintings, categorizes and organizes the features of the pigments used. The third chapter refers to the above two books and considers the changes made since then in the types of the pigment. The final chapter summarizes the characteristics of the pigments and gives a general view of how they were traditionally used and concludes that the pigments, many of which have been refined by elutriation, can be utilized effectively in the field of art education today. The author believes that intercourse between the past and present, and understanding and appreciating traditional art, offer new possibilities in the future of art education.
著者
木村 信之 齋藤 優里
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
学苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.921, pp.19-42, 2017-07

The authors attempted to confirm the necessity of free shared spaces at schools and researched the function of such spaces in four junior high and high schools where free shared spaces were intentionally planned and built about 30-35 years ago and are still being used today. We also distributed a questionnaire to 100 Showa Women's University students, some of whom are graduates from the schools with free shared spaces mentioned above, asking about free spaces at their high schools: how they are used and what type of free space they felt they needed during out-of-class time while at high school. Observation of the spaces at the four schools revealed the usefulness of the spaces as venues for communication among small groups of students. In addition, the researchers found that other spaces, like corridors and staircases, were also used as free shared spaces, that large free spaces were effectively used as venues for school events and for preparation for those events, and that free spaces near students' home rooms were frequently used. The results of the questionnaire also support the necessity of such spaces on the grounds that students' satisfaction with their school life is related largely to school events, friendship, and club activities, and that satisfaction with the school buildings in which these activities take place correlates to the availability of these free spaces.