著者
安蔵 裕子 Yuko Anzo
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.887, pp.62-73, 2014-09-01

Abstract The Koyo Museum of Showa Women's university houses a lawyer's robe and cap tagged "Lawyer's robe and cap used around the 10th year of the Showa Period". This paper introduces images of the garments and records details pertaining to them, explains the history of the Japanese modern court dress, and explores the symbolic function of professional uniforms. In 1890 the Empire of Japan prescribed a law that required judges, public prosecutors, and lawyers to wear uniform court dress while at court. Three years later, in 1893, a Ministry of Justice Ordinance specified the lawyers' robes and caps. The materials owned by the museum are identical with this description. These garments continued to be worn until new rules were made in 1947. Preceding studies have shown that, in designing the original garments, then Minister of Justice Akiyoshi Yamada researched the garments worn in the courts of Western countries that honored the classical style, and that taking this knowledge into account, Mayori Kurokawa, who was well versed in Japanese ancient court practices and a historian of costume, designed garments for Japanese courts. The material of the robe is black with fly front, with white embroidery around the neck and in the front which signify that this was for lawyers, and in the bottom, both sides are pleated offering an example of how oriental and western design are mixed. The black cap is inspired by that of Nara period, a style that originated in the Tang Dynasty in China.
著者
中村 徳子 大場 千智
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
学苑 = Gakuen (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.908, pp.2-8, 2016-06-01

The authors examined the effect of interdependent group-oriented contingencies on sitting behaviors of elementary students at the beginning of the regular classes. The study was conducted in a 2nd-grade classroom of a public elementary school. Participants were 25 children(14 boys, 11 girls). The target behavior was described as follows: “I will sit down as soon as the chime rings.” The authors observed and recorded 42 sessions including the first 1-17 baseline phase, the following 18-34 intervention phase, and the final 35-42 follow-up phase. After the 17th session, the target behavior was set for all the children for sessions 18-34, and the class teacher announced that a medal sticker with a popular cartoon character would be attached to the class goal poster each time they all sat down as soon as the chime rang, and promised that when they achieved this 15 times, a fun event would be held as a reward. All through the intervention period the frequency of sitting behavior increased and the completion time was shortened. Application of interdependent group-oriented contingencies was effective in improving the sitting behavior of the children.
著者
吉田 昌志
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.819, pp.57-68, 2009-01-01
著者
吉田 昌志
出版者
昭和女子大学
雑誌
學苑 (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.683, pp.48-58, 1997-01-01
著者
吉田 昌志
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
学苑 = Gakuen (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.927, pp.114-140, 2018-01-01
著者
佐野 武仁 内田 敦子 Takehito SANO Atsuko UCHIDA 昭和女子大学生活環境学科 昭和女子大学生活環境学科 Department of Human Environmental Science and Design Showa Women's University Department of Human Environmental Science and Design Showa Women's University
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
學苑 = GAKUEN (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.813, pp.49-57, 2008-07-01

There are various theories about the origin of glass. One is that glass beads were made during the time of the Old Kingdom in Egypt (27th-22nd century BC). Another suggests that glass was first manufactured around 18th-17th century BC. The truth is uncertain. Without a doubt, however, glass has been a notable feature of a great deal of architecture, most notably the Crystal Palace which was built on the grounds of the first World Exposition, held in Hyde Park, London, in 1851. It was an enormous building made from an iron frame work and glass. The theme of this paper is the continuing evolution of glass architecture. It discusses design, and plans which make full use of state-of-the-art technology to achieve energy conservation. Here, the term "glass architecture" refers to buildings whose outer walls and roofs are mainly or entirely made of glass. The distinguishing features of glass architecture can be described as follows: (1) In glass architecture, the aim is to bring more light into the building, and thereby create building with a healthy environment and outstanding occupant comfort, which prevents people from getting sick. This can be achieved by skillfully using natural conditions such as light and heat. (2) Transparent architecture allows people to see the sunny sky on clear days, and the cloudy sky when it is overcast. Sunshades are indispensable fixtures which enable adjustment of light and heat. (3) Glass architecture is the starting point for greenhouses, and the standard practice is to investigate greenhouses first when looking at design and functions such as ventilation or the heat/light environment. (4) If intelligent design and function are built in, then it is possible to construct glass architecture with outstanding occupant comfort, and low overhead thanks to energy conservation. (5) Since there are too many types of glass, and this makes things difficult to understand, a classification is used which combines the glass manufacturing process and sunshades.
著者
安蔵 裕子
出版者
昭和女子大学近代文化研究所
雑誌
学苑 = Gakuen (ISSN:13480103)
巻号頁・発行日
no.923, pp.26-35, 2017-09-01

Abstract In 2014, the Imperial Guard Headquarters of Japan gave seven helmets worn by the guards in the Imperial Police during the Meiji and Taisho periods to the Koyo Museum at Showa Women’s University. This paper introduces one of them, comments on its shape, materials, and characteristics, gives the history of the Imperial Police from their inception in 1886, and discusses that organization’s dress code. The helmet was found in 2012 in the warehouse of the Kyoto Imperial Palace along with 52 similar helmets. It was kept in a wooden box on which a paper with the guard’s name, Naoharu Tamai, was affixed. Tamai’s name appears in the 1915 record of the Imperial Police. The shape of the helmet is apparently based on the spiked pickelhaube worn by Prussian sodiers, fire-fighters and police. The shell seems to be made of papers pasted onto a wooden mold. The outer surface is japanned with black lacquer(黒漆). This type of helmet is called a peach-shaped helmet(桃子様兜). There is a hole drilled in the top and a round metal ornament similar to hachimanza(八幡座)is at the top of the helmet. There is a large metal ornament of a chrysanthemum with leaves at the front. Leather is used for the inner sweat band. There is also a metal chinstrap combined with several wavy-shaped thin pieces of metal decorating it. Thus, the helmet is an example of a Japanese effort to adopt western clothing styles during the Meiji Period, but one which continued to use traditional Japanese ornamentation and materials.